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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES

General Agreement on Trade in Services

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> Preamble
> Article I
> Article II
> Article III
> Article III bis
> Article IV
> Article V
> Article V bis
> Article VI
> Article VII
> Article VIII
> Article IX
> Article X
> Article XI
> Article XII
> Article XIII
> Article XIV
> Article XIV bis
> Article XV
> Article XVI
> Article XVII
> Article XVIII
> Article XIX
> Article XX
> Article XXI
> Article XXII
> Article XXIII
> Article XXIV
> Article XXV
> Article XXVI
> Article XXVII
> Article XXVIII
> Article XXIX
> Annex on Article II Exemptions
> Annex on Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services Under the Agreement
> Annex on Air Transport Services
> Annex on Financial Services
> Second Annex on Financial Services
> Annex on Negotiations on Maritime Transport Services
> Annex on Telecommunications
> Annex on Negotiations on Basic Telecommunications
> Understanding on Commitments in Financial Services

 

> Analytical Index main page


Table of contents    back to top

I. Preamble     back to top

A. Text of the Preamble
B. Interpretation and Application of the Preamble

1. “transparency”

2. “progressive liberalization”

 
II. Article I     back to top

A. Text of Article I
B. Interpretation and Application of Article I

1. Scope of GATS

(a) Measures relating to judicial and administrative assistance

(b) Measures relating to the entry and stay of natural persons

(c) Electronic commerce

2. Article I:1

(a) “measures affecting trade in services”

3. Article I:2(a)

(a) Means of delivery covered

(b) Relevance of where the supplier operates, or is present

(c) Relevance of ownership and control of the infrastructure used to supply the service

(d) Relevance of degree of interaction between different operators

(e) Relevance of supply by means of “linking” to another operator

4. Article I:2(c)

(a) Supply by a firm commercially present in one Member into the territory of another Member

5. Article I:3(b)

6. Relationship with the GATT 1994

 
III. Article II     back to top

A. Text of Article II
B. Interpretation and Application of Article II

1. Scope

(a) Measures relating to judicial and administrative assistance

(b) Electronic commerce

2. Application

3. Article II:1

(a) “no less favourable treatment”

(b) “like services and service suppliers”

(c) “aims-and-effects” test

4. Exemptions from Article II

(a) Annex on Article II Exemptions

(b) Exemptions in financial services

(c) Exemptions in maritime transport services

(d) Exemptions in basic telecommunications

 
IV. Article III     back to top

A. Text of Article III
B. Interpretation and Application of Article III

1. General

(a) Electronic commerce

(b) Accountancy services

2. Article III:3

(a) Format for notifications

3. Article III:4

(a) Enquiry points

 
V. Article III bis     back to top

A. Text of Article III bis
B. Interpretation and Application of Article III bis


VI. Article IV     back to top

A. Text of Article IV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article IV

1. General

2. Article IV:3

(a) Contact points

(i) General

(ii) Accountancy services

 
VII. Article V     back to top

A. Text of Article V
B. Interpretation and Application of Article V

1. Article V:1

2. Article V:7

(a) Format for notifications

(b) Reporting on the operation of regional trade agreements

(c) Examination and consideration of specific agreements

 
VIII. Article V bis     back to top

A. Text of Article V bis
B. Interpretation and Application of Article V bis

1. Article V bis:(b)

(a) Format for notifications

 
IX. Article VI     back to top

A. Text of Article VI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article VI

1. General

(a) Electronic commerce

2. Article V:4

(a) Professional services/domestic regulation

(b) Disciplines on domestic regulation in the accountancy sector

(c) Relationship with Articles XVI and XVII

 
X. Article VII     back to top

A. Text of Article VII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article VII

1. General

2. Article VII:4

(a) Format for notifications

3. Article VII:5

(a) Guidelines for Mutual Recognition Agreements or Arrangements in the Accountancy Sector

 
XI. Article VIII     back to top

A. Text of Article VIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article VIII

1. General

(a) Electronic commerce

2. Article VIII:4

(a) Format for notifications

 
XII. Article IX     back to top

A. Text of Article IX
B. Interpretation and Application of Article IX

1. General

(a) Electronic commerce

 
XIII. Article X     back to top

A. Text of Article X
B. Interpretation and Application of Article X

1. Working Party on GATS Rules

 
XIV. Article XI     back to top

A. Text of Article XI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XI

 
XV. Article XII     back to top

A. Text of Article XII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XII

1. Article XII:4

(a) Format for notifications

 
XVI. Article XIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XIII

1. General

2. Working Party on GATS Rules

 
XVII. Article XIV     back to top

A. Text of Article XIV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XIV

1. General

(a) Relevance of jurisprudence under Article XX of the GATT 1994

(b) Two-tier analysis

(c) Electronic commerce

(d) Trade in services and the environment

2. Chapeau to Article XIV

3. Article XIV(a)

(a) General

(b) “Protect public morals” and “maintain public order”

(c) “Necessary”

(d) Burden of proof

 
XVIII. Article XIV bis     back to top

A. Text of Article XIV bis
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XIV bis

1. Article XIV bis:2

(a) Format for notifications

 
XIX. Article XV     back to top

A. Text of Article XV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XV

1. General

2. Working Party on GATS Rules

 
XX. Article XVI     back to top

A. Text of Article XVI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XVI

1. General

(a) Electronic commerce

2. Article XVI:1

3. Article XVI:2

(a) Restrictions on part of a sector

(b) Restrictions on part of a mode of supply

(c) Restrictions directed at consumers

(d) Temporal qualifications

(e) “Routing requirements” in telecommunications

4. Article XVI:2 (Introductory heading or “chapeau”)

5. Article XVI:2(a) (limitations on the number of suppliers)

6. Article XVI:2(b)

7. Article XVI:2(c)

 
XXI. Article XVII     back to top

A. Text of Article XVII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XVII

1. General

(a) Elements of a claim under Article XVII

(b) Electronic commerce

2. “subject to any conditions and qualifications set out therein”

3. “like services and service suppliers”

4. “treatment no less favourable”

5. “aims-and-effects” test

6. Footnote 10

 
XXII. Article XVIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XVIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XVIII

1. “Reference Paper” on Basic Telecommunications

(a) General

(b) Text of model Reference Paper

(c) Section 1.1 — Anti-competitive Practices

(i) Concept of “anti-dumping practices”

(ii) Practices required under a Member’s law

(iii) Types of measures constituting “anti-competitive practices”

(iv) Maintaining “appropriate measures”

(d) Section 2.1 — Interconnection

(i) “on the basis of the specific commitments undertaken”

(ii) Applicability to cross-border supply

(iii) “major supplier”

(iv) “the ability to materially affect the terms of participation (having regard to price and supply)”

(v) “control over essential facilities” or “use of its position in the market”

(e) Section 2.2(b) — Interconnection rates

(i) “cost oriented”

(ii) “reasonable”

(iii) “having regard to economic feasibility”

(iv) Evaluating whether rates are “costs oriented”

 
XXIII. Article XIX     back to top

A. Text of Article XIX
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XIX

1. Article XIX:1

(a) Information exchange

(b) GATS 2000 negotiations

(c) Doha Development Agenda

2. Article XIX:3

(a) GATS 2000 negotiations

(b) Assessment of trade in services

3. Negotiations in specific services sectors

(a) Movement of natural persons

(b) Financial services

(c) Maritime transport services

(d) Basic telecommunications

(e) Professional services

(i) Disciplines on domestic regulation

 
XXIV. Article XX     back to top

A. Text of Article XX
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XX

1. General

(a) Committee on Specific Commitments

2. Interpretation of schedules

(a) General

(b) 1993 Scheduling Guidelines

(c) 2001 Scheduling Guidelines

(d) Document W/120

(e) UN Provisional Central Product Classification (“CPC”)

(f) Other Members’ Schedules

(g) Document published by a government agency

3. Article XX:1

4. Article XX:1(d)

5. Article XX:2

6. Article XX:3

 
XXV. Article XXI     back to top

A. Text of Article XXI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXI

1. Article XXI:1(b)

(a) Format for notifications

2. Article XXI:5

(a) Procedures for the rectification or modification of schedules

 
XXVI. Article XXII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXII

 
XXVII. Article XXIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXIII

1. Article XXIII:1

(a) Relationship with Article 3.8 of the DSU

2. Articles of the GATS invoked in panel and Appellate Body proceedings

3. Decision on Certain Dispute Settlement Procedures for the General Agreement on Trade in Services

 
XXVIII. Article XXIV     back to top

A. Text of Article XXIV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXIV

1. Article XXIV.1

(a) Establishment of subsidiary bodies

(i) Committee on Trade in Financial Services

(ii) Working Party on Professional Services and Working Party on Domestic Regulation

(iii) Working Party on GATS Rules

(iv) Committee on Specific Commitments

(v) Negotiating Groups on Natural Persons, Maritime Transport Services and Basic Telecommunications

2. Rules of procedure of the Council for Trade in Services

(a) Rules of procedure

(b) Observer status

C. Decision on Institutional Arrangements for the General Agreement on Trade in Services

 
XXIX. Article XXV     back to top

A. Text of Article XXV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXV

 
XXX. Article XXVI     back to top

A. Text of Article XXVI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXVI

1. Agreement between the International Telecommunication Union and the World Trade Organization

 
XXXI. Article XXVII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXVII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXVII

 
XXXII. Article XXVIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXVIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXVIII

1. Article XXVIII(a) (“measure”)

2. Article XXVIII(b) (“supply of a service”)

3. Article XXVIII(d) (“commercial presence”)

4. Article XXVIII(e) (“sector”)

5. Article XXVIII(k)(ii)2 (“natural person of another Member”)

 
XXXIII. Article XXIX     back to top

A. Text of Article XXIX
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXIX

 
XXXIV. Annex on Article II Exemptions     back to top

A. Text of the Annex on Article II Exemptions
B. Interpretation and Application of the Annex on Article II Exemptions

1. Paragraph 3

2. Paragraph 4

3. Paragraph 7

4. Terminations, reductions and rectifications of MFN exemptions

 
XXXV. Annex on Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services under the Agreement     back to top

A. Text of the Annex on Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services Under the Agreement
B. Interpretation and Application of the Annex on Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services Under the Agreement

1. Measures relating to the entry and stay of natural persons

 
XXXVI. Annex on Air Transport Services     back to top

A. Text of the Annex on Air Transport Services
B. Interpretation and Application of the Annex on Air Transport Services

1. Paragraph 5

 
XXXVII. Annex on Financial Services     back to top

A. Text of the Annex on Financial Services
B. Interpretation and Application of the Annex on Financial Services

 
XXXVIII. Second Annex on Financial Services     back to top

A. Text of the Second Annex on Financial Services
B. Interpretation and Application of the Second Annex on Financial Services

 
XXXIX. Annex on Negotiations on Maritime Transport Services     back to top

A. Text of the Annex on Negotiations on Maritime Transport Services
B. Interpretation and Application of the Annex on Negotiations on Maritime Transport Services

 
XL. Annex on Telecommunications     back to top

A. Text on the Annex on Telecommunications
B. Interpretation and Application of the Annex on Telecommunications

1. Application to access and use by scheduled suppliers of basic telecommunications services

2. Section 5(a)

(a) Relationship of paragraph (a) to the other parts of Section 5

(b) Access and use “on reasonable … terms and conditions”

(i) Whether rates for access and use constitute “terms”

(ii) Whether rates for access and use are subject to examination as “reasonable” terms

(iii) Rates for access and use that are “reasonable”

3. Section 5(b)

(a) Relationship of paragraph (b) to the other parts of Section 5

(b) Obligation to provide access to and use of private leased circuits

4. Sections 5(e) and (f)

(a) Whether rates for access and use constitute “conditions”

(b) Meaning of “necessary” in paragraph (e)

(c) Measures to prevent supply of an unscheduled service in paragraph (e)

5. Section 5(g)

6. Relationship between Annex obligations and Reference Paper commitments

 
XLI. Annex on Negotiations on Basic Telecommunications     back to top

A. Text of the Annex on Negotiations on Basic Telecommunications
B. Interpretation and Application of the Annex on Negotiations on Basic Telecommunications

 
XLII. Understanding on Commitments in Financial Services     back to top

A. Text of the Understanding on Commitments in Financial Services
B. Interpretation and Application of the Understanding on Commitments in Financial Services

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