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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: INDEX

Index

The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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B

balance of payments difficulties, developing countries’ right to take import measures (GATT XVIII:B)

adequacy to forestall the threat of or stop a serious decline in monetary reserves (GATT XVIII:9(a)) GATT 7645

GATT practice GATT 767

IMF information as evidence of GATT 763

quantitative vs price-based measures GATT 766

burden of proof GATT 7601

prima facie case GATT 761

change in development policy, exclusion of requirement for (GATT XVIII:9)

burden of proof GATT 760

macroeconomic policy instruments and structural measures distinguished GATT 775

competence of panel to examine justification GATT 7559, 776

DSU, applicability to disputes relating to DSU 10

GATT XVIII:2 GATT 754

GATT practice GATT 794

GATT XVIII:C, examples of invocation GATT 778

justification (GATT XVIII:9)

Ad Note GATT XVIII:11 and GATT 7704

critical date for evaluation by panel GATT 763

phase-out, right to in absence of balance of payments difficulties (GATT XVIII:12(c)) GATT 759, 777, 782

price-based measures for balance of payments purposes as exception under GATT II:1(b) (Understanding on GATT BoP provisions) GATT 172, 791

progressive relaxation obligation (GATT XVIII:11), General Council/BOB Committee role (GATT XVIII:12(c)) GATT 7589

progressive relaxation obligation (GATT XVIII:11), Ad Note (removal of restrictions and recurrence of one of GATT XVIII:9 conditions) GATT 7704

burden of proof GATT 7689

causal relationship (“would produce”) GATT 773

“gradual relaxation” GATT 771

temporal sequence (“thereupon produce”) GATT 7734

threat of return, sufficiency GATT 771

right (GATT XVIII:2) GATT 754

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and DSU 10

 

Balance of Payments Restrictions Committee (WTO IV:7) (BOPs Committee)

adoption of notification format (BOP Understanding, para. 9) GATT 785

annual reports WTO 125

consultations, coordination with TPRM reviews (TPRM E) TPRM 26

establishment WTO 99, 123, GATT 783

GATT 1947 activities WTO 126

observer status GATT 786

reporting procedures GATT 790

rules of procedure (1995) WTO 74, 124, GATT 785

terms of reference WTO 123, GATT 784

 

balance of payments restrictions (GATT XII)

developing countries’ right to take measures (GATT XVIII) distinguished GATT 653, 754

as exception to GATT obligations GATT 649

GATT practice GATT 654

government assistance (GATT XVII) distinguished 2754 n. 1029

“restrictions made effective through state-trading organizations” (Ad Articles XI, XI, XIII, XIV and XVIII) GATT 650

State trading enterprises (STEs) (GATT XVII) and GATT 650

 

balance of payments, safeguard restrictions (GATS XII)

competence, Ministerial Conference (GATS XII:5(b) and XII:6) WTO 64

notification format (GATS XII:4) GATS 71

 

Balance of Payments Understanding (BOP)

DSU, applicability (BOB Understanding footnote 1) GATT 7559

invocation/disinvocation of GATT XII and XVIII:B GATT 780

notification format (para. 9) GATT 787

preparatory work, absence of GATT 755

price-based measures for balance of payments purposes as exception under GATT II:1(b) GATT 172, 791

QRs, elimination (GATT XI) and GATT 597

QRs, non-discriminatory administration (GATT XIII:2(b)) and GATT 669

status in relation to GATT XII and XVIII:B GATT 493, 779, DSU 10

time-schedule (paras. 1 and 13) GATT 759, 782, 7889

 

Bananas, Decision on Transitional Regime for the EC Autonomous Tariff Rate Quotas on Imports of (Doha) WTO 56, 67

 

benefit: see subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit)

 

Berne Convention/TRIPS

applicability to WTO members (TRIPS 9) TRIPS 856

broadcasting (Berne 11bis)

compulsory licence, right to substitute (Berne 11bis(2)) TRIPS 98

TRIPS 13 distinguished TRIPS 111

Members’ obligations and rights holders’ exercise/exploitation of rights distinguished TRIPS 97

nature and scope of protection TRIPS 96

as specific application of Berne 11 rule TRIPS 95

control of circulation, presentation or exhibition (Berne 17) TRIPS 1034

special agreements (Berne 20)/TRIPS 2.2, possibility of inconsistency with TRIPS 105

enforcement of intellectual property rights (TRIPS Part III), applicability in absence of Berne protection TRIPS 221

English and French texts compared TRIPS 103 n. 105, 103 n. 106, 103 n. 107

interpretation, role of WIPO International Bureau TRIPS 103 n. 104

minor exceptions doctrine

agreement on as “agreement … made in connection with the conclusion of the treaty” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) TRIPS 101

Berne Convention acquis/context for interpreting (VCLT 31(2)) TRIPS 1001, DSU 15601

incorporation into TRIPS TRIPS 101

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts and TRIPS 88

order of analysis TRIPS 1001

public performance (Berne 11) TRIPS 925

general nature of Berne 11 TRIPS 95

Members’ obligations and rights holders’ exercise/exploitation of rights distinguished TRIPS 94

scope TRIPS 92

types of communication TRIPS 93

relationship (TRIPS 9)

incorporation, effect TRIPS 856, 201

text of incorporated provisions TRIPS 320 (Section LXX following)

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts TRIPS 859

limitations and exceptions (TRIPS 13), applicability to Berne 11/ 11bis TRIPS 11012

successive treaties relating to the same subject matter (VCLT 30) and TRIPS 101

rights guaranteed/protected “works” (Berne 5(1)) TRIPS 901

synchronization of Berne/TRIPS renewable periods (Berne Appendix I(2)) TRIPS 106

 

BFA Committee: see Budget, Finance and Administration Committee (WTO IV:7) (BFA Committee)

 

bilateral agreements, status DSU 419

EC–Korea Agreed Minutes DSU 7

Oilseeds Agreement (EC–Brazil) WTO 276, GATT 10, 671, DSU 6

 

border measures, special measures related to enforcement of (TRIPS Part III Section 4)

see also market access, measures required to be converted into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2 and footnote 1); national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1), applicability, measures imposed at the time or point of importation (“internal measures” ) (Ad Article)

border measures, special measures related to enforcement of (TRIPS Part III Section 4), destruction or disposal of infringing goods (TRIPS 59), “principles set out in Article 46”, “principles” TRIPS 247

destruction or disposal of infringing goods (TRIPS 59) TRIPS 23662

destruction or disposal of infringing goods (TRIPS 59),

“infringing goods” TRIPS 2368

“disposal”, ambiguity TRIPS 245

English, French and Spanish texts compared TRIPS 245

“exceptional circumstances” TRIPS 262

initiation of procedures as responsibility of rights holder TRIPS 244

“other infringing goods” (TRIPS 51) TRIPS 2378

“principles set out in Article 46” TRIPS 24662

alternative disposal methods as such preventing compliance with principles TRIPS 252

as alternative to duplicating text of TRIPS 46 TRIPS 247

alternatives to destruction TRIPS 253

“avoid harm” TRIPS 251

common objective TRIPS 248

disposal by auction, whether mandatory TRIPS 2535, 257

link to “authority” TRIPS 246

list of TRIPS 248

“outside the channels of commerce” TRIPS 250

“principles” TRIPS 247

responsibility for disposal by non-government bodies TRIPS 250

result vs purpose TRIPS 250

risks of reinfringement TRIPS 25960, 262

“simple” TRIPS 258, 2601

simple removal of trademark TRIPS 25662

TRIPS 46 as lex specialis TRIPS 249

“shall have the authority” TRIPS 23944

conditional, whether TRIPS 243

discretionary nature TRIPS 241, 244, 257

duration of authority TRIPS 239

risk of WTO-inconsistent measures TRIPS 242

to order remedies other than TRIPS 59 measures TRIPS 2412

TRIPS 46 compared GATS 241

suspension of release (TRIPS 51) TRIPS 2345

“other infringing goods” TRIPS 2378

“provisions set out below” TRIPS 234

scope TRIPS 235

 

Border Tax Adjustment Working Party Report, “like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4), criteria GATT 241, 260, 343

 

Brazil, ATC safeguard measures (ATC 6), TMB discussion ATC 81

 

Brazil — Aircraf dispute (WT/DS46)

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), ad hoc procedural agreements, establishment of panel DSU 1170, 1176

relationships within and between agreements, AIR 6/SCM AIR 23

SCM and AIR 23

 

Brazil — Aircraft (AB), WT/DS46/AB/R, DSR 1999:III

business confidential information (BCI), additional procedures, AB (ABWP 16(1)) DSU 919, 1379

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3)

“proceedings” (DSU 17.10) DSU 886

“submissions” and statements of own position distinguished DSU 887

consultations (DSU 4)

consultations (SCM 4.1–4) compared DSU 140, 142

identity of specific measures in the consultations and the request for establishment of a panel, relevance DSU 142

consultations (SCM 4.1–4)

consultations (DSU 4) compared DSU 140, 142

object and purpose, clarification and development of the facts of the situation/mutually agreed solution (SCM 4.3) SCM 202, DSU 142

developing countries (SCM 27)

phase out/standstill obligation (SCM 27.4)

burden of proof SCM 1556, 5534

“grant” (SCM 27.4 footnote 55) SCM 176, 543

inflation, relevance SCM 545

SCM 25, relevance SCM 524

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identity with specific measure the subject of consultations, relevance SCM 202, DSU 142

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k))

“benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) and SCM 95, 631

burden of proof SCM 627

Commercial Interest Reference Rate (CIRR), relevance SCM 632

international undertaking on official export credits (item (k), second paragraph)

(“safe haven”), “in the field of export credit terms” SCM 638

“used to secure a material advantage” SCM 627, 630, 631 “material” SCM 631

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries DSU 886

different language in same agreement SCM 631

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), amended measures, amendment before establishment of panel DSU 395

notification obligations (SCM 25), transparency and SCM 518

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“advantage” (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) SCM 631

“proceedings” (DSU 17.10) DSU 886

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), withdrawal of prohibited subsidies (SCM 4.7), applicability to DSU 1091

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 4 and 6/SCM 4 DSU 140, 142

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM Annex I item (k) SCM 95

SCM 3.1/SCM 27.4 SCM 1556

SCM 3.2/SCM 27.4 SCM 176

SCM 25/SCM 27.4 SCM 524

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, SCM 4.2–4.12 DSU 18

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution), conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) as parallel requirement SCM 9

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), SCM Illustrative List, Item (k) and SCM 95

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), time–limits, DSU 21.3 provisions, relevance DSU 875 n. 1390, 1091

 

Brazil — Aircraft (Panel), WT/DS46/R, DSR 1999:III

business confidential information (BCI), additional procedures, panel (DSU 12.1) DSU 687, 919

consultations (DSU 4)

as prerequites DSU 206

panel’s obligation to examine absence DSU 206

consultations (SCM 4.1–4), object and purpose, clarification and development of the facts of the situation/mutually agreed solution (SCM 4.3) SCM 202, DSU 142

developing countries (SCM 27)

phase out/standstill obligation (SCM 27.4)

benchmark period (SCM 27.4 footnote 55) SCM 546

burden of proof SCM 154, 5534

constant or nominal values as determining factor SCM 545

“grant” (SCM 27.4 footnote 55) SCM 542

actual expenditure, limitation to SCM 5478

“inconsistent with its development needs”, responsibility for determining SCM 5502

“prohibited” subsidy status (SCM 3.1(a)) and SCM 154, 527

SCM 27.2(b) and SCM 154, 5278, 532

“shall phase out” SCM 53941

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identity with specific measure the subject of consultations, relevance SCM 202, DSU 206

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k))

“benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) and SCM 631

“used to secure a material advantage” SCM 630

offset of advantage, sufficiency to prohibit measure (items (e)-(i)) SCM 603

“provision … through government-mandated schemes … on terms more favourable …” (item (d)) SCM 602

“safe haven” (international undertaking (item (k), second paragraph)), “in the field of export credit terms” SCM 638

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SCM 3.2/SCM 27.4 SCM 174

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise SCM 527

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts SCM 527

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“field of export credit terms” (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) SCM 638

“in the field of export credit terms” (Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)) SCM 638

“level of subsidies” (SCM 27.4/footnote 55) SCM 547

“subject to compliance with the provisions” (SCM 27.2) SCM 527

relationships within and between agreements

SCM 3.1/SCM 27.2(b) SCM 154, 5278

SCM 3.1/SCM 27.4 SCM 154, 5278

SCM 3.2/SCM 27.4 SCM 174

SCM 27.2(b)/SCM 27.3 SCM 532

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, scrutiny by panel DSU 206

request for establishment of panel, requirements (SCM 4.4), failure to reach mutually agreed solution through consultations DSU 206

SCM Agreement, object and purpose (SCM 1), multilateral disciplines on subsidies distorting international trade SCM 1, 548

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, SCM 4.2 (consultations) SCM 211

special and differential treatment (SCM 27/SCM 29) SCM 575

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

potential direct transfer of funds (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) SCM 289

timing of transfer, relevance SCM 29

transformation into a market economy (SCM 29), special and differential treatment (SCM 27) and SCM 575

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), “without delay”, DSU 21.3 and SCM 211, 217, DSU 875 n. 1390

  

Brazil — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Canada) (AB), WT/DS46/AB/RW, DSR 2000:VIII and DSR 2000:IX

burden of proof (general rules), onus probandi actori incumbit SCM 653

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), “may uphold, modify or reverse” legal findings (DSU 17.13), “moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 893

domestic law, as justification for failure to fulfil international obligations, exclusion (VCLT 27) DSU 1517

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k))

as affirmative defence under SCM 3.1(a) SCM 653

burden of proof SCM 653

Commercial Interest Reference Rate (CIRR), relevance SCM 633

“used to secure a material advantage” SCM 627, 631

legal status of panel reports, “moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 892

relationships within and between agreements, SCM 3.1(a)/SCM Illustrative List, item (k) SCM 627

transformation into a market economy (SCM 29), special and differential treatment (SCM 27) and SCM 576

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7)

continuation of payments SCM 2067, 241

“without delay”, private action and SCM 213, 241

 

Brazil — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Canada) (Panel), WT/DS46/RW, DSR 2000:VIII and DSR 2000:IX

composition of delegation, Member’s right to determine DSU 727, 915

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3), obligation to respect/ensure respect for DSU 91516

developing countries (WTO Preamble), “positive efforts” WTO 4

domestic law, as justification for failure to fulfil international obligations, exclusion (VCLT 27) DSU 1516

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)), “export credit” SCM 628

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), surveillance mechanisms DSU 985

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), mechanisms, absence DSU 985

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“credits” (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) SCM 628

“export credit” (Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), item (k)) SCM 628

special and differential treatment (SCM 27/SCM 29) SCM 576

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), repayment of past subsidy/retroactive effect SCM 210

WTO Agreement, preamble WTO 4

  

Brazil — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Canada II) (Panel), WT/DS46/RW/2, DSR 2001:X

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27)

“deliberations” (DSU 14.1) DSU 769

private counsel/advisers not part of delegation and DSU 91516

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), omission of measure, exclusion from terms of reference (DSU 7) DSU 375

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k))

as affirmative defence under SCM 3.1(a) SCM 636

burden of proof SCM 655, 656

Commercial Interest Reference Rate (CIRR), relevance SCM 6345

“export credit practice” SCM 6445

relationship with SCM 3.1(a), determination by footnote 5 SCM 632

“safe haven” (international undertaking (item (k), second paragraph))

as affirmative defence under SCM 3.1(a) SCM 656

“interest rates provisions” SCM 6489

legislation as such (mandatory/discretionary distinction) SCM 662

matching derogation, permissibility SCM 660

OECD Arrangement SCM 6489

“successor undertaking” SCM 6401

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) SCM 646

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/ discretionary legislation, distinguishability, affirmative defence (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) and SCM 662

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“interest rate support” (Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), item (k)) SCM 649

“interest rate support” (SCM Illustrative List item (K)) SCM 648

“successor undertaking” (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) SCM 641

relationships within and between agreements, SCM 3.2/SCM 27.4 SCM 177

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit)

burden of proof SCM 61

“recipient of a benefit” SCM 635

subsidy programmes as such, right to challenge (mandatory/ discretionary distinction) SCM 662

assessment of mandatory nature DSU 293 n. 466

 

Brazil — Aircraft (Article 22.6 — Brazil), WT/DS46/ARB, DSR 2002:I

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

burden of proof, SCM 4.11 and DSU 585

multiple complainants DSU 1282

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7)

ad hoc procedural agreements for implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings DSU 1176

determination of appropriateness of countermeasure (SCM 4.11) SCM 244, DSU 1260, 1292

determination of “equivalence” (DSU 22.3), methodology paper, request for DSU 1244

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (SCM 4.11), burden of proof, allocation SCM 248

“specific”, specific level of suspension (DSU 22.4) DSU 1267

third party rights DSU 509, 510 n. 833

burden of proof (general rules)

Article 22.6 arbitrations DSU 585

allocation by arbitrator SCM 248

Article 22.6 arbitrations under SCM 4.11 DSU 585

onus probandi actori incumbit SCM 248, DSU 585

prima facie case requirement SCM 248

countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10)

“appropriate” SCM 176, 221, 2256, DSU 1288

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and (SCM 4.11) SCM 244, DSU 1260, 1292

footnote 10 and SCM 236

proportionality (footnote 9) SCM 236

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and (SCM 4.11)

burden of proof DSU 585

as special or additional rules and procedures SCM 2467, 253, DSU 22, 1241

task of arbitrator SCM 244, DSU 1260, 1292

burden of proof, obligation of other party to present evidence SCM 248

calculation of countermeasure, possible bases/relevant factors

adverse trade effects SCM 233

amount of subsidy SCM 233

burden of proof SCM 240, 248

products not in competition SCM 240

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) distinguished SCM 221 n. 343, 233, 234, 253

“countermeasure” SCM 221, DSU 1286, 1694

inducement of compliance as objective SCM 221, 224, 225, DSU 1286, 1288

State responsibility and SCM 221, DSU 1286, 1674 n. 2617, 1694

countermeasures (general principles)

definition SCM 221, DSU 1286, 1694

proportionality SCM 236

domestic law, as justification for failure to fulfil international obligations, exclusion (VCLT 27) SCM 241, DSU 1518

evidence, evaluation

good faith and SCM 250

private parties/subjects of international law distinguished SCM 250

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), evidence submitted by government SCM 250

ILC Articles, status as “rule” of international law DSU 1588

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), Article 22.6 panel’s right of review DSU 1176

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)) DSU 1588

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries SCM 221, DSU 1286, 1694

cautious approach to SCM 224

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) SCM 221 n. 343

meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase SCM 246, DSU 1279, 1282

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty SCM 237

ILC draft articles SCM 221, DSU 1286

State practice SCM 221

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) SCM 236

multiple complainants (DSU 9), Article 22.6 arbitration and DSU 1282

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8)

inconsistency with covered agreement as prima facie evidence of, rebuttal SCM 225

SCM 3 and 4 (prohibited subsidies) distinguished SCM 225, 234, DSU 12813

SCM 5 (adverse effects) SCM 225, 2345

SCM 7.9 and 10 (commensurate with degree and nature of adverse effects) distinguished SCM 235

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “appropriate” (SCM 4.10) SCM 224

preparatory work (VCLT 32), SCM 4 SCM 236

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 3.8/SCM 3 and 4 SCM 234, DSU 12813

DSU 22.4/SCM 3 and 4 DSU 1281

SCM 4.9 and 10/SCM 7.9 and 10 SCM 235

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), ad hoc procedural agreements, panel’s scope of review DSU 1176

“sequencing” (interrelationship between Article 21.5 and Article 22.6 arbitration, ad hoc procedural agreements) DSU 1176

arbitrators’ role in relation to DSU 1157

arbitrators’ scope of review DSU 1176

recourse to Article 22.6 before completion of Article 21.5 proceedings as breach DSU 1176

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2)

arrangements considered for classification as

SCM 4.10 DSU 22

SCM 4.11 SCM 2467, 253, DSU 22, 1241, 1279, 1282

“shall prevail” in case of a difference with DSU DSU 22

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles) DSU 1588

countermeasures SCM 221, DSU 1674 n. 2617, 1694

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

agreement to DSU 1267

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4)

“appropriate” (SCM 4.10) distinguished SCM 233, 234, 253, DSU 233, 1241, 1260

SCM 3 and 4 (prohibited subsidies) distinguished SCM 234, 253, DSU 1241, 1281

“or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2) DSU 1191

termination of treaty for breach (VCLT 60), rights created prior to and (VCLT 70) DSU 1176, 1218, 1673

third party rights (Article 22.6 arbitrations) DSU 509, 510 n. 833

 

Brazil — Desiccated Coconut (AB), WT/DS22/AB/R, DSR 1999:IV

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI), non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) GATT 451

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

countervailing duties, compliance with both GATT VI:3 and SCM GATT 468

violation of GATT VI, sufficiency for finding of violation of AD 2.1 and 2.2 GATT 451

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17), “matter”, referral to DSB (AD 17.4), “matter” AD 898

countervailing duties (SCM Part V), compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) GATT 451, 468, SCM 357, 6912

DSU, as integral part of WTU Agreement WTO 18

DSU, applicability, covered agreements (DSU 1.1/DSU 7.2) DSU 1 due process (dispute settlement proceedings), opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties DSU 360

GATT 1947/WTO continuity, GATT 1994 as distinct agreement (WTO II:4) WTO 27

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, transitional decisions taken by signatories of Tokyo SCM Code SCM 591

investigations and reviews of existing [SCM] measures initiated … on or after date of entry into force of WTO Agreement (SCM 32.3)

procedural aspects of investigations, limitation to SCM 594

retroactivity GATT 451, SCM 5901

“this agreement” SCM 5923

transitional decisions of Tokyo Round Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Committee, relevance SCM 591

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts SCM 6902

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) and GATT 96, 488

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28)

in absence of different intention DSU 1521

as general principle of international law DSU 1521

pre-existing rights, countervailing duties (SCM 32.3) GATT 451, SCM 5901

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) and GATT 451

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “provisions of this agreement” (SCM 32.3) GATT 451

relationships within and between agreements

AD 18.3/SCM 32.3 GATT 451 n. 647, AD 965

GATT I/GATT VI GATT 96, 110

GATT VI/SCM GATT 4967, SCM 6902

SCM 10 and 32.1/SCM 32.3 SCM 592

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, subsequent cure of defect, exclusion DSU 1145 n. 1789

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), inconsistency with GATT VI and GATT 489

SCM Code (Tokyo Round)

subsequent agreement for purpose of interpretation of GATT VI, whether

subsequent practice for purpose of interpretation of GATT VI, whether

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), “shall prevail” in case of a difference with DSU DSU 22 n. 25

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue DSU 360

due process and, opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties DSU 360

“matter referred to the DSB” (DSU 7.1) DSU 371

WTO Agreement

objectives, “integrated multilateral trading system” WTO 12, SCM 6902

preamble WTO 2

as single undertaking (WTO II:2) WTO 18

 

Brazil — Desiccated Coconut (Panel), WT/DS22/R, DSR 1999:IV

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, separability of AD and GATT VI GATT 493

consultations (DSU 4)

as prerequites DSU 205

panel’s obligation to examine absence DSU 205

as unconditional obligation (DSU 4.2) DSU 137

consultations (SCM 4.1–4), “without prejudice” nature of obligation (DSU 4.6) DSU 137

countervailing duties (AG 13 footnote 4) AG 138

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) SCM 6912

measures to which GATT VI not applicable SCM 481

continuing collection of duties imposed prior to entry into force of WTO Agreement, SCM 32.3 and SCM 595

review of need for continued imposition (SCM 21.2) SCM 481

due restraint (AG 13) (“peace clause”), domestic support measures conforming with AG 6 (AG 13(b)), countervailing duties (AG 13 footnote 4) AG 138

GATT 1947, continuing relevance under WTO, GATT 1947/WTO continuity, decisions, procedures and customary practices (WTO XVI:1)

GATT 1947/WTO continuity

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1)

“decisions” (WTO XVI:1/GATT 1(b)(iv)), classification as, SCM Code WTO 277

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent agreement … regarding its interpretation or application” (VCLT 31(3)(a)) DSU 1575

“any subsequent practice … which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b))

investigations and reviews of existing [SCM] measures initiated … on or after date of entry into force of WTO Agreement (SCM 32.3), “existing measures” SCM 595

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) GATT 4956, SCM 583, DSU 171415

precedence/hierarchy in case of conflict SCM 6902

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) and GATT 96, 488

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “in accordance with the provisions” (SCM 32.1) SCM 583

relationships within and between agreements

GATT I/GATT VI GATT 96, 110

GATT VI/SCM GATT 495, SCM 583, 690

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), inconsistency with GATT VI and GATT 489

SCM Agreement, preparatory work (VCLT 32), SCM Code (Tokyo Round) WTO 277

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement, “except in accordance with the provisions” SCM 583

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), special terms of reference (DSU 7.3) DSU 425

WTO Agreement, objectives, integrated multilateral trading system SCM 6902

 

Brazil — Retreaded Tyres (AB), WT/DS332/AB/R

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, GATT XX measure as (GATT XX chapeau)

capricious or unpredictable reasons and GATT 870, 872

cause vs effects test GATT 870

“disguised restriction on international trade”, significant effect on achievement of objective and GATT 876, 877

link with legitimate objective, need for GATT 870, 873

balance between restrictive effect on international trade and “necessity” GATT 909

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health

“necessary”, for achievement of legitimate objective GATT 8979

“reasonably available” alternative WTO-consistent measure GATT 9078

complimentary measures distinguished GATT 908

three-tier test GATT 891

judicial economy

definition DSU 642

prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose, finding of non-compliance in first situation, need for DSU 642

panel reports, adoption of report/notice of appeal (DSU 16.4), extension of deadline procedural agreement on DSU 831

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), reversal of panel findings, effect GATT 876

 

Brazil — Retreaded Tyres (Panel), WT/DS332/R

General Exceptions (GATT XX), two-step analysis (justification under paras. (a)–(j)/compliance with chapeau) GATT 850

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, justification, compliance with GATT XX chapeau, need for GATT 910

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements, “laws or regulations” GATT 924

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

“prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1)

import prohibition GATT 609

enforcement measures GATT 611

 

Brazil — Retreaded Tyres (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS332/R

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

administrative measures as means of implementation, relevance DSU 1050 n. 1634

shortest period possible within Member’s normal legislative process DSU 1034

time required for ratification of treaty DSU 1500

treaty, provisional application (VCLT 25) DSU 1500

 

broadcasting (copyright): see Berne Convention/TRIPS, broadcasting (Berne 11bis)

 

budget and contributions (WTO VII)

see also Budget, Finance and Administration Committee (WTO IV:7) (BFA Committee)

annual budget estimate WTO 181

annual budgetary and financial reports WTO 180

BFA recommendations WTO 181

contributions, measures in respect of members in arrears WTO 187

“inactive members” WTO 187

contributions, methodology for calculating

1947 WTO 183

1995 WTO 184

2000 WTO 1856

Financial Regulations (WTO) WTO 182, 189

regular review WTO 182

Financial Rules (WTO) WTO 182, 189

Global Trust Fund (Doha Development Agenda) WTO 188

Voluntary Contributions, Gifts, or Donations from Non-Governmental Donors, Guidelines (2000) WTO 190

 

Budget, Finance and Administration Committee (WTO IV:7) (BFA Committee)

see also budget and contributions (WTO VII)

annual reports WTO 129

establishment WTO 99, 127

rules of procedure (1995) WTO 128

technical assistance, instruction to develop plan for long-term funding (Doha) WTO 111

terms of reference WTO 127

 

burden of proof (general rules)

For specific applications see also under individual subject headings

adverse inferences (DSU 13) and DSU 55863

sufficiency of burden of proof rules DSU 563

allocation

requirement to indicate DSU 553

responding party SPS 33

allocation (general rule/exception relationship)

characterization of SPS 5.7 as autonomous right, effect SPS 3245, 335

SPS 2.2 and 5.7 (including consolidation) SPS 36, 326, 327

TBT 2.4 TBT 52

arbitration (DSU 25) DSU 1328

Article 21.5 compliance proceedings DSU 582

Article 22.6 arbitrations DSU 5834

allocation by arbitrator SCM 248, 337

Article 22.6 arbitrations under SCM 4.11 DSU 5856

compliance with SG 4.2 DSU 549

cooperation of parties and DSU 573, 586

defences and exceptions

GATT XV:9(a) GATT 707

GATT XXIV (RTAs) GATT 1035

difficulty in collecting information and DSU 5702

disclosure obligation and DSU 573

on domestic law DSU 578

exception/affirmative defence and GATT 707, 853, SCM 656, SG 65, DSU 540

good faith presumptions, relevance DSU 1276

impossible burden SG 71, DSU 5649

proving a negative DSU 5669

non-violation claims (GPA XXII:2) GPA 33

onus probandi actori incumbit GATT 768, 853, 9678, SPS 323, TBT 523, AD 51, SCM 248, 337, 653, SG 71, 314, 317, 333, DSU 53943, 585, 1690, 1691

order of analysis DSU 554

panel’s right to seek information and advice (DSU 13/SPS 11.2), relevance DSU 556, 738

post-suspension cases (DSU 22.8/SPS 5.7) DSU 12746

prima facie case requirement GATT 598, 853, SPS 76, AD 96, 1213, 163, 172, 189, 1967, 211, 216, 217, 610, SCM 248

establishment of party’s case by panel, exclusion SPS 278, 421, 548, DSU 5567, 766

evidence necessary to establish, case-by-case approach SPS 35, DSU 548

evidence other than that submitted by parties, panel’s right to consider DSU 54950

explicit finding, relevance DSU 546, 5512

failure to present sufficient evidence GATT 761, GATS 102, DSU 547

inconclusive outcome/ “equipoise” DSU 545

“more likely than not” test DSU 555

presumption of no relevant studies or report/proving a negative SPS 34

prima facie DSU 5467

procedural fairness and DSU 572

reversal SG 15, DSU 544

sovereignty issues DSU 1741

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) DSU 5834

written record of analysis, relevance AD 267

on WTO law GATT 823, DSU 5747

 

business confidential information (BCI)

additional procedures

AB (ABWP 16(1)) DSU 91921, 137981

panel (DSU 12.1) DSU 6878, 919, 1381

table showing use of DSU 921

ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1) and DSU 9057

obligation to return or destroy

parallel confidential/non-confidential reports DSU 709, 9223

 

business confidential information (PSI 2.9–2.13) PSI 89

 

business practices (GATS IX) GATS 68

electronic commerce GATS 68

 

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