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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: INDEX

Index

The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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I

Iceland, Enabling Clause notifications, special treatment of least-developed countries GATT 79

 

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2) TRIMs 23, AD 898, DSU 94, 209301

availability of public information regarding measure, relevance DSU 234

case-by-case approach DSU 209, 211, 220, 240

discretion in identifying, desirability DSU 200

establishment of existence of measures distinguished DSU 188

exclusion of measure included in request for establishment DSU 374

identification of each challenged measure DSU 189

identification of industry, need for DSU 233

identification of “measures” (DSU 4.4) distinguished DSU 157

identification of product, need for DSU 22632

identification within narrative of request requirement DSU 222

“identify”, sufficiency of

“among others” DSU 224

expedited sunset review, treatment as subsidiary of closely related measure DSU 217

numbers of measures and places of promulgation DSU 216

reference to an EC Regulation or to the “EC regime” DSU 218, 2378

reference to general measure DSU 211, 222, 223

reference to instruments implementing challenged measures DSU 214, 215

identity with specific measure the subject of consultations, relevance SCM 2023, DSU 1425, 206

“scope” of consultations and DSU 147

inclusion of measure, sufficiency for inclusion in terms of reference (DSU 7) DSU 374

inclusion of reference to WTO obligation DSU 185, 219

jurisdictional issues distinguished DSU 200

legal basis of claim distinguished DSU 220

omission of measure

exclusion from terms of reference (DSU 7) DSU 375

good faith assumption that it was not being challenged DSU 213, 222

ordinary meaning DSU 211, 237

recommendations of panel/DSB (DSU 19.2), effect AD 9545, DSU 353, 394

“specific” DSU 23540

“attendant circumstances”, relevance DSU 240

preliminary ruling on DSU 2367, 23940, 344, 345

provided information in conjunction with introductory paragraph DSU 239

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 224

substance of WTO obligation being violated, relevance DSU 185, 219

 

IF Trust Fund: see Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to least-developed countries (IF)

 

ILC Articles, status as “rule” of international law, 17.1588, 17.1599–600: see also international law/ “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2))

 

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j))

assessment of adequacy to cover SCM 6236

as contextual guidance SCM 61517

“export credit guarantee … programmes” SCM 618

“inadequate to cover” SCM 620

“long-term” SCM 620

“operating costs and losses” SCM 622

“premiums” SCM 619

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)) SCM 62765

as affirmative defence under SCM 3.1(a) SCM 636, 647, 653

“benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) and SCM 945

burden of proof SCM 627, 6535, 656, 661

Commercial Interest Reference Rate (CIRR), relevance SCM 6325

“export credit” SCM 628

“in the field of export credit terms” SCM 638

legislation as such SCM 6624

“used to secure a material advantage” SCM 627, 630, 631

“material” SCM 631

offset of advantage, sufficiency to prohibit measure (items (e)-(i)) SCM 603

“provision … through government-mandated schemes … on terms more favourable …” (item (d)) SCM 602

relationship with SCM 3.1(a), determination by footnote 5 SCM 632

remission or deferral of direct taxes (item (e))

deferral not amounting to export subsidy (footnote 59) SCM 158

third and fourth sentences as remedies SCM 160

“safe haven” (international undertaking (item (k), second paragraph))

as affirmative defence under SCM 3.1(a) SCM 656

Canadian Policy Guideline SCM 652

“export credit practice” SCM 6447

“in conformity” SCM 6502

“interest rates provisions” SCM 6489

legislation as such (mandatory/discretionary distinction) SCM 6624

matching derogation, permissibility SCM 65761

OECD Arrangement SCM 63941, 6423

qualification for inclusion under, requirements SCM 637

“successor undertaking” SCM 6401

social welfare charges (item (e)) footnote 59, relevance SCM 978, 15860

 

Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2)

analysis of TRIMs status of measure (TRIMs 1) and TRIMs 4

local content requirements (Item 1) TRIMs 4

national treatment (GATT III:4) and: see national treatment regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4) see also under TRIMs and Illustrative List

QRs (GATT XI:1) and GATT 409 n. 596, 425, 6279, 646, TRIMs 1516

tax and customs duty benefits (para. 1(a)) TRIMs 1011

 

IMF/WTO relationship (WTO III:5)

see also World Bank/WTO relationship (WTO III:5)

Agreement (1996)

conclusion WTO 424, 162

as fulfilment of WTO mandate to cooperate as appropriate with IMF WTO 46

Members’ rights and obligations under IMF and WTO Agreements, effect on WTO 46

conflict or inconsistency between, resolution WTO 46

observer status WTO 45

annual reports WTO 51

consultations and exchange of information, WTO panels and WTO 47

Declaration on Coherence in Global Economic Policymaking (1994)

adoption WTO 42

informal meetings on coherence issues at request of delegations or Director-General WTO 49

joint report on Coherence WTO 48

legal effect WTO 46, 307

exceptions to non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIV) and GATT 692

panel’s right to seek information from (DSU 13.1) DSU 753

 

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings, surveillance (DSU 21)

see also “reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations); review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

ad hoc procedural agreements, appointment of panellist DSU 1171

Article 22.6 panel’s right of review DSU 1176

as precedent DSU 1016

choice of means at authorities’ discretion (DSU 21.3), 17.972, 17.983–4:

see also “reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), arbitrator’s limited mandate

good faith obligation, whether DSU 105

prompt compliance (DSU 21.1)

adoption of report, obligation to begin implementation following DSU 10045

“compliance” DSU 9971000

flexibility DSU 10013

judicial economy and DSU 653

modification of underlying economic or social conditions distinguished DSU 9971000

“recommendations and rulings” DSU 1006, 1148

review: see review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

surveillance mechanisms DSU 985

suspension of WTO-inconsistent measure during “reasonable period of time”, need for DSU 10956

tables, Article 21.3(b) agreements DSU 1017

 

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

see also implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings, surveillance (DSU 21); “reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

“bring the measure into conformity with”, “measure” for purposes of DSU 966

choice of means at authorities’ discretion (DSU 21.3) DSU 11089

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), (DSU 6.2) and AD 9545, DSU 353, 394

measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence DSU 93140

recommendation to implement measure inconsistent with agreement, exclusion DSU 930, 9312

mechanisms, absence DSU 985

panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 96782

panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 94866, 986

legal effect DSU 9867

subsequent proceedings/continuance of recommendations DSU 9437, 1147

 

Import Licensing Committee

annual reports (LIC 7.4) LIC 35, 47

establishment WTO 93

procedural and institutional duplication, decision on avoidance of (2 May 1995) LIC 48

rules of procedure (1995) WTO 94, LIC 345

Understanding on Procedures for the Review of Notifications (1996) LIC 36

 

import licensing procedures

see also developing countries’ economic development purposes/ financial and trade needs (LIC 1.2); notification obligations (LIC 1.4 and 5)

conformity with GATT principles and obligations requirement (LIC Preamble and 1.2) LIC 1, 3

continuity of terminology between 1979 and 1994 LIC LIC 7

single undertaking principle, effect LIC 7

export performance, relevance (LIC 3.5(j)) LIC 1213, 301

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4) and GATT 359, TRIMs 6

neutrality in application and administration in a fair and equitable manner (LIC 1.3) LIC 1213

administration in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner (GATT X:3(a)), equivalence GATT 594, LIC 12

non-automatic import licensing (LIC 3)

GATT II(1)(b) and LIC 32

newcomer provision (LIC 3.5(j)) LIC 29

small quantities, allocation in respect of (LIC 3.5(i)) LIC 29

transparency and predictability requirement (LIC 3.5(a)) LIC 234

over-quota trade, applicability to LIC 1, 3

rules and procedures distinguished LIC 46, 13

speculation in licences (LIC 3.5(h) and (j)) LIC 27

tariff quota procedures, applicability to LIC 2

use of “restriction” in LIC 3.2 and 3.3, relevance LIC 2

trade-restrictive or trade-distortive effects, avoidance (LIC 1.2 and 3.2) LIC 3, 9

transparency and predictability requirement (LIC Preamble) LIC 1, 15

frequent changes to rules and LIC 15

non-automatic import licensing (LIC 3) and LIC 234

 

Import Licensing Procedures Agreement (LIC)

relationship with 1979 Agreement LIC 48

reservations (LIC 8.1) WTO 297, LIC 501

review of implementation and operation (LIC 7)

annual questionnaire (LIC 7.3), replies to LIC 426

biennial reviews (LIC 7.1 and 7.2) LIC 41

procedures for LIC 42

termination LIC 49

 

income tax, marketing cost, whether AG 108

 

Independent Entity (IE) (PSI 4)

annual reports PSI 19

constitution (IFIA/ICC) (PSI 4(a)) PSI 17

cost of proceedings PSI 20, 21

exporters’ reluctance to use PSI 20

immunities PSI 18

independent review procedures

2005 (Alcatel — SGS) PSI 21

2006 (Alcatel — SGS) PSI 1415, 21

list of experts (PSI 4(b)) PSI 19

rules of procedure WTO 95, PSI 18

status including structure and functions (General Council Decision of 13 and 15 December 1995) PSI 18

 

India — Additional Import Duties (AB), WT/DS360/AB/R GATT 137

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise GATT 159

relationships within and between agreements, GATT II:1(b)/GATT II:2(a) GATT 158

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

“charge equivalent to an internal tax”(GATT II:2(a)) GATT 15960

burden of proof GATT 160

“other duties or charges” (ODCs) (GATT II:1(b)) GATT 149

 

India — Additional Import Duties (Panel), WT/DS360/R GATT 137

 

India — Autos (AB), WT/DS146/AB/R, WT/DS175/AB/R, DSR 2002:V

judicial economy, order of analysis and DSU 648

order of analysis, judicial economy and DSU 648

withdrawal of appeal (ABWP 30), simple withdrawal DSU 1468

 

India — Autos (Panel), WT/DS146/R and Corr.1, WT/DS175/R and Corr.1, DSR 2002:V

balance of payments difficulties, developing countries’ right to take import measures (GATT XVIII:B), burden of proof, prima facie case GATT 761

exchange arrangements (IMF/WTO) (GATT XV), consultations (GATT XV:2), dispute settlement and GATT 702

Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2), quantitative restrictions (GATT XI:1) and GATT 409 n. 596, 425, TRIMs 1516

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1) DSU 929

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, dictionaries GATT 356, 357

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose TRIMs 16

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred”(DSU 6.2/7.1), clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 349

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 22

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, GATT/TRIMs DSU 1722

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4), relevant factors, nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 338

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1), applicability, measures imposed at the time or point of importation (“internal measures”) (Ad Article), QRs (GATT XI) distinguished GATT 408

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“affecting” GATT 361

nature of advantage, relevance GATT 361

“laws, regulations or requirements”

non-mandatory measures GATT 353

“requirements” GATT 3567

“requirements” GATT 3567

TRIMs and GATT 409 n. 596, 4256, TRIMs 1516

order of analysis

GATT/TRIMs DSU 1722

specific/general provision GATT 4256

preliminary rulings (procedural aspects), absence of requirement/ established practice DSU 349

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

GATT III and GATT 4089, 4089

“prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1)

“restriction” GATT 600–600bis

trade balancing condition GATT 616

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III/GATT XI GATT 4089

GATT III:4/TRIMs 2 GATT 409 n. 596, 4256, TRIMs 1516

GATT XI:1/TRIMs 2 GATT 426, TRIMs 1516

GATT XI:1/TRIMs Illustrative List GATT 409 n. 596, 425, TRIMs 1516

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, events during proceedings, exclusion from panel’s considerations DSU 941

TRIMs Agreement, quantitative measures (GATT XI and) GATT 409 n. 596, 425, TRIMs 1516

 

India — Patents (EC) (Panel), WT/DS79/R, DSR 1998:VI

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

“clarification of existing provisions” DSU 1708

ex aequo et bono jurisdiction, exclusion DSU 1708

not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) DSU 1708

ex aequo et bono jurisdiction DSU 1708

intellectual property rights, enforcement (TRIPS Part III), “shall have the authority” (TRIPS 43–8) TRIPS 226

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), ex aequo et bono jurisdiction DSU 1708

legal status of panel reports, reports on same subject-matter in parallel proceedings DSU 823

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

single panel “whenever feasible” (DSU 9.1) DSU 444

ordinary meaning DSU 444

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“original panel” (DSU 10.4/DSU 21.5/DSU 22.6) DSU 475

“whenever feasible” (DSU 9.1) DSU 444

precedent, security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 823

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), precedent/AB jurisprudence, need to follow DSU 823

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), submission to original panel (DSU 10.4) DSU 475

 

India — Patents (US) (AB), WT/DS50/AB/R, DSR 1998:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), due process and DSU 1366

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) DSU 1551

consultations (DSU 4)

disclosure obligation DSU 138, 303

obligation to disclose information DSU 138

consultations (SCM 4.1–4), object and purpose, clarification and development of the facts of the situation/mutually agreed solution (SCM 4.3) SCM 194

developing countries (TRIPS), right to delay application (TRIPS 65) TRIPS 186

disclosure obligation, consultations (DSU 4) DSU 138, 303, 675

dispute settlement (TRIPS 64)

DSU, applicability (DSU 1.1) DSU 4

non-violation and situation complaints, moratorium DSU 1551

domestic law

as evidence of

compliance with international obligations DSU 526

Certain German Interests in Polish Upper Silesia DSU 526

interpretation of legislation distinguished DSU 526

state practice DSU 526

as fact for purposes of international adjudication DSU 526

DSU, applicability

covered agreements (DSU 1.1/DSU 7.2)

DSU DSU 4

DSU (as covered agreement) DSU 4

TRIPS Agreement DSU 4

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

panel working procedures, need for DSU 579, 622 n. 1015, 671

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 675

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II)

exclusive marketing rights obligations (TRIPS 70.9) TRIPS 31415

existing rights, applicability to (TRIPS 70.2), obligation to provide means for filing applications relating to delayed application of TRIPS 27 (TRIPS 70.8) TRIPS 31213

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase WTO 19

legitimate expectations (including GATT II:5 provisions) DSU 1551

object and purpose, TRIPS TRIPS 1

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) DSU 1551

judicial economy, discretionary nature DSU 640

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

arguments distinguished DSU 303, 327

clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 327

identification of treaty provisions DSU 310

“including but not necessarily limited to” DSU 310

summary “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 303

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

establishment of working procedures DSU 409, 667, 673 n. 1103, 683

limitations DSU 409, 667

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), “benefit” /legitimate expectation of improved market access as DSU 1551

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)) (DSU 26.1), remedies (DSU 26.1(b)) DSU 1352

patents (TRIPS part II Section 5), existing subject matter, applicability to (TRIPS 70), patent protection (TRIPS 27) and TRIPS 186

relationships within and between agreements, TRIPS 27/TRIPS 70.8 TRIPS 186

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2),

disclosure of all relevant information DSU 303

special or additional procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1), margin of discretion DSU 683

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment of domestic law DSU 526

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

consideration of issues outside terms of reference, exclusion DSU 4089

as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue, specific legal claim included in terms of reference, limitation of jurisdiction to DSU 4089

TRIPS Agreement

object and purpose, effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights TRIPS 1

obligations (TRIPS 1), implementation obligation (TRIPS 1.1), freedom to choose method TRIPS 7

 

India — Patents (US) (Panel), WT/DS50/R, DSR 1998:I

developing countries (TRIPS)

exclusive marketing rights (TRIPS 70.9), right to delay application (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 293

national treatment (TRIPS 3), right to delay application (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 292

pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products, patent protection (TRIPS 70.8), right to delay (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 293

right to delay application (TRIPS 65) TRIPS 2889

dispute settlement (TRIPS 64), DSU, applicability (DSU 1.1) DSU 1551

IGOs, panel’s right to seek information from DSU 753

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 967

panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 954

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II)

exclusive marketing rights obligations (TRIPS 70.9) TRIPS 315

developing countries, right to delay application (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 293

existing subject matter, applicability to (TRIPS 70), transitional arrangements (TRIPS 65) and TRIPS 2923

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TRIPS 1

preamble of agreement under consideration as aid TRIPS 1

relationships within and between agreements

TRIPS 65/TRIPS 70.8 TRIPS 292

TRIPS 65/TRIPS 70.9 TRIPS 293

TRIPS Agreement, transitional arrangements (TRIPS 65), procedural nature TRIPS 289

 

India — Quantitative Restrictions (AB), WT/DS90/AB/R, DSR 1999:V

balance of payments difficulties, developing countries’ right to take import measures (GATT XVIII:B)

change in development policy, exclusion of requirement for (GATT XVIII:9), macroeconomic policy instruments and structural measures distinguished GATT 775

competence of panel to examine justification GATT 7559, 776

progressive relaxation obligation (GATT XVIII:11), Ad Note (removal of restrictions and recurrence of one of GATT XVIII:9 conditions)

burden of proof GATT 768

temporal sequence (“thereupon produce”) GATT 7734

balance of payments restrictions, GATT XVIII:B, DSU, applicability to disputes relating to DSU 10

Balance of Payments Understanding (BOP)

DSU, applicability (BOB Understanding footnote 1) GATT 7559

preparatory work, absence of GATT 755

burden of proof (general rules)

allocation, requirement to indicate DSU 553

prima facie case requirement, explicit finding, relevance

expert evidence, independent assessment by panel DSU 538

government assistance to economic development (GATT XVIII), dispute settlement (GATT XXIII), applicability to GATT 7557

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), nullification or impairment, need for, government assistance to economic development (GATT XVIII) and GATT 7557

preparatory work (VCLT 32), BOP Understanding footnote 1 GATT 755, DSU 1640

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, BOP DSU 10

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

balance of payments measures (BOP Understanding footnote 1) GATT 7559

“objective assessment of matter before it”, expert evidence, panel’s obligation to make independent assessment DSU 538

 

India — Quantitative Restrictions (Panel), WT/DS90/R, DSR 1999:V

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, separability of AD and GATT VI GATT 493

balance of payments difficulties, developing countries’ right to take import measures (GATT XVIII:B) GATT 653, 754

adequacy to forestall the threat of or stop a serious decline in monetary reserves (GATT XVIII:9(a)) GATT 7645

IMF information as evidence of GATT 763

burden of proof GATT 760

change in development policy, exclusion of requirement for (GATT XVIII:9 and Ad Note), burden of proof GATT 760

justification (GATT XVIII:9)

Ad Note GATT XVIII:11 and GATT 7704

critical date for evaluation by panel GATT 763

phase out, right to in absence of balance of payments difficulties (GATT XVIII:12(c)) GATT 759, 777, 782

progressive relaxation obligation (GATT XVIII:11)

General Council/BOB Committee role (GATT XVIII:12(c)) GATT 7589

“gradual relaxation” GATT 771

progressive relaxation obligation (GATT XVIII:11), Ad Note (removal of restrictions and recurrence of one of GATT XVIII:9 conditions) GATT 7704

causal relationship (“would produce”) GATT 773

threat of return, sufficiency GATT 771

right (GATT XVIII:2) GATT 754

balance of payments restrictions (GATT XII), developing countries’ right to take measures (GATT XVIII:B) distinguished GATT 650, 653, 754

Balance of Payments Understanding (BOP)

status in relation to GATT XII and XVIII:B GATT 493, 779, DSU 10

time-schedule (paras. 1 and 13) GATT 759, 782, 789

burden of proof (general rules)

onus probandi actori incumbit GATT 768

prima facie case requirement GATT 598

change in development policy, exclusion of requirement for (GATT XVIII:9 and Note Ad), burden of proof GATT 7689

consultations (DSU 4), developing countries and (DSU 4.10), extension of periods agreed under DSU 4.7 and 4.8 (DSU 12.10) DSU 713

developing countries (WTO Preamble), “positive efforts” WTO 5

dispute settlement, special provisions relating to developing countries, requirement for specific indication of form in which account has been taken of special needs (DSU 12.11) DSU 716

Enabling Clause (EC), as “positive effort” (WTO Preamble) WTO 5

exchange arrangements (IMF) (GATT XV), consultations (GATT XV:2), DSU 13.1 consultations and GATT 701, DSU 753

exchange arrangements (IMF/WTO) (GATT XV), consultations (GATT XV:2), dispute settlement and, IMF findings, status GATT 704

government assistance to economic development (GATT XVIII)

balance of payments (GATT XVIII) and GATT 653, 754

dispute settlement (GATT XXIII), applicability to GATT 7557

IMF/WTO relationship (WTO III:5), panel’s right to seek information from (DSU 13.1) DSU 753

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 956

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, “special meaning” (VCLT 31(4)) DSU 1606

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), evidence to support claim distinguished DSU 410

licensing requirement, as quantitative restriction (GATT XI:1) GATT 612

market access, measures required to be converted into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2 and footnote 1), measures excepted from requirement (footnote 1) AG 65

modification of schedules (GATT XXVIII), applicability of GATT XI and GATT 598

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), meaning which best reconciles texts (VCLT 33(4)) DSU 1657

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), nullification or impairment, need for, government assistance to economic development (GATT XVIII) and GATT 7557

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “restriction” (GATT XI:1) GATT 600

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

burden of proof GATT 598

GATT XIII and GATT 685 n. 960

“prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1)

licensing requirements GATT 612

“restriction” GATT 6001, 600–600bis

restriction, as “limiting condition” GATT 600–600bis

“restriction”, ordinary meaning GATT 600

restrictions on imports by particular persons GATT 618

“restrictions made effective through state-trading organizations” (Ad Articles XI, XI, XIII, XIV and XVIII) GATT 621, 648, 792

relationships within and between agreements

GATT XI/GATT XIII GATT 685 n. 960

GATT XII and XVIII:B/BOP GATT 493, 779, DSU 10

GATT XII/GATT XVIII:B GATT 653, 754, 793

GATT XVIII:9(a)/GATT XVIII:9(b) GATT 764

State trading enterprises (STEs) (GATT XVII)

quantitative restrictions (GATT XI:1) GATT 621

“quantitative restrictions made effective through state-trading organizations” (Ad Articles XI, XI, XIII, XIV and XVIII) GATT 621, 792

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

consideration of issues outside terms of reference, exclusion DSU 410

material used in defence distinguished DSU 410

WTO Agreement, preamble, developing countries and trade WTO 47

 

Indonesia — Autos (Panel), WT/DS54/R and Corr.1, 2, 3, 4, WT/ DS55/R and Corr.1, 2, 3, 4, WT/DS64/R and Corr.1, 2, 3, 4, DSR 1998:VI

adverse effects (SCM 5), obligation to remove adverse threats or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.8) SCM 327

burden of proof (general rules), SCM provisions, “serious prejudice” (SCM 27.8) SCM 568

composition of delegation

legal representation/private counsel DSU 725

Member’s right to determine DSU 725

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/ WP 3), obligation to respect/ensure respect for DSU 725

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), in absence of specific provision SCM 6945

developing countries (SCM 27)

actionable subsidies (SCM 27.9). nullification or impairment claims, limitation to SCM 569

exemption from SCM 3.1(a) (transitional period) (SCM 27.3), as authorization of prohibited subsidies (GATT III:2) SCM 535

serious prejudice (SCM 27.8) SCM 568

developing countries (TRIMs 4), TRIMs 2.1 and TRIMs 22

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

national treatment and (GATT III:8(b)) GATT 390, 422

national treatment (GATT III) and GATT 4201

GATS Agreement, GATT 1994, effect on GATT 419

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), measure not yet taken DSU 378

Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2)

analysis of TRIMs status of measure (TRIMs 1) and TRIMs 4

local content requirements (Item 1) TRIMs4

tax and customs duty benefits (para. 1(a)) TRIMs 1011

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty TRIPS 57

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, GATT III/SCM 15 footnote 46 SCM 424

same or closely related phrases in same agreement

GATT XVI:1/SCM 5(c)/6.3(c) SCM 267

SCM 6.3(a)/SCM 6.4 SCM 308

“investment measures” (TRIMs 1) TRIMs 12

analysis of TRIMs status, relevance of Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2) TRIMs 4

legislative measures, relevance TRIMs 2

judicial economy

limitation of consideration to claims essential to resolution of dispute (DSU 3.2) GATT 423, TRIMs 11

prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose TRIMs 11

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), summary “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 378

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

“conflict” DSU 1720 n. 2701

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, SCM/TRIMS TRIMs 7, SCM 6945, DSU 1712

SCM/TRIMs TRIMs 8

“like product” (GATT I), “like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4) compared GATT 39

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

GATT I:1 and GATT 39

relevant factors

nationality of producer or origin of parts and components GATT 249

nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 249

“like product” (SCM 15 footnote 46)

“characteristics closely resembling” SCM 4248

physical characteristics SCM 426

price SCM 4267

unassembled/assembled products SCM 428

unassembled/assembled products, whether SCM 428

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”

differential treatment on the basis of origin of product and GATT 46

local content requirement, relevance GATT 46

private action and GATT 46

“accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”, order of analysis GATT 27

customs duties and tax benefits as (GATT III:2) GATT 117

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1), publication and administration of regulations (GATT X) and GATT 590

national treatment, payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers as exception (GATT III:8(b)), SCM Agreement and GATT 390, 41922

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

all laws, regulations or requirements affecting TRIMs 10 n. 17

applicability to direct taxes [on individual] GATT 420

TRIMs and GATT 423, TRIMs 3, 911

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2), applicability, indirect taxes [taxes on products] GATT 420

national treatment (TRIPS 3)

applicability (TRIPS 3.1 footnote 3) TRIPS 57

TRIPS 20 (special requirements) and TRIPS 57, 147

order of analysis, “advantage” /discrimination (GATT I:1) GATT 27

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“displacment” (SCM 6.3(a)) SCM 307

“impede” (SCM 6.3(a)) SCM 307

preliminary rulings on, specificity of request for panel (DSU 6.2) DSU 373

preparatory work (VCLT 32), GATT III:8 GATT 390

relationships within and between agreements

GATT I/GATT X GATT 590, 590

GATT III/GATT X GATT 590, 592

GATT III/SCM Agreement GATT 117

GATT III:2/SCM SCM 535, 688

GATT III:2/SCM Agreement GATT 4201

GATT III:4/TRIMs 2 GATT 423, TRIMs 911

GATT III:4/TRIMs 3 TRIMs 9, 20

GATT III:8(b)/SCM 1 GATT 390, 422

GATT III/SCM SCM 6867

GATT/SCM GATT 419

SCM 2.3/SCM 3 SCM 118

SCM 3.1(b)/TRIMs TRIMs 79, SCM 695

SCM 27.3/TRIMs 5 TRIMs 8

TRIMS 1/Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2) TRIMs 4

TRIMs 2.1/TRIMs 5 TRIMs 24

TRIPS 3/TRIPS 20 TRIPS 57, 147

TRIPS 3/TRIPS 65.2 TRIPS 291

TRIPS 20/TRIPS 65.5 TRIPS 148, 290

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 378

SCM Agreement, transitional arrangements (existing programmes) (SCM 28.1), “inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement” (SCM 28.1) SCM 574

“serious prejudice” (GATT XVI:1), “serious prejudice” (SMC 5(c)/ 6.3(c)), identity of meaning SCM 267

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c)), “significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c)) as SCM 267

“serious prejudice” (SCM 6)

developing countries, exclusion (SCM 27.9) SCM 569

displacement or impediment to imports (SCM 6.3(a)) SCM 267

“displacement” SCM 307

“impediment” SCM 307

market share data, relevance SCM 308

SCM 4, relevance SCM 308

nationality of producers, relevance SCM 267

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c))

“effect of the subsidy”, expired subsidy programme SCM 298

“price undercutting” SCM 267, 314

“serious prejudice” (SCM 27.8) SCM 568

standing as claimant (SCM)

SCM 6.3(a) SCM 267

serious prejudice requirement (SCM 7.2) SCM 267

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2), subsidy “contingent upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 2.3/3.1(b)) SCM 118

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

amended measures, amendment following establishment of panel DSU 396

terminated measures, termination following agreement on terms of reference DSU 392

trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2), special requirements (TRIPS 20), national treatment (TRIPS 3) and TRIPS 147

treaties, conflict between, definition and general principles DSU 1712

TRIMs Agreement, as integral part of WTO Agreement TRIMs 89

TRIPS Agreement, transitional arrangements (TRIPS 65), “lesser degree of consistency” (TRIPS 65.5) TRIPS 290

WTO Agreement, cumulative nature of obligations SCM 687

 

Indonesia — Autos (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS54/15, WT/DS55/14, WT/DS59/13, WT/DS64/12, DSR 1998:IX

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings), “reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1064

developing countries, implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.2) DSU 1007

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts DSU 1712

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

terminated measures

GATT practice DSU 392

termination following agreement on terms of reference DSU 392

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1007, 1064

economic and social conditions, relevance DSU 1064

structural adjustment, relevance of need for DSU 1062

 

Informal Group on Anti-Circumvention, ADP Committee Decision on (April 1997) AD 1017–18

 

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2)

see also adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (DSU 13); expert evidence (DSU 13.2/SPS 11.2)

burden of proof and DSU 556

comprehensive nature of panel’s authority DSU 7367, 738, 766

confidentiality considerations SG 11315, DSU 764, 1334

discretion not to seek DSU 607, 736, 754, 75660

discretion to accept or reject requested information or advice DSU 736, 1334

discretion to accept or reject unrequested information or advice DSU 73842

“from any individual or body” DSU 73660

good faith obligation (DSU 3.10) and DSU 11617

IGOs DSU 7535

table showing exercise of right DSU 755

non-parties DSU 752

parties DSU 632, 74651

frequency of exercise DSU 746

panel’s right to evaluate source of information or advice DSU 736

panel’s rights, to assess facts SPS 39

prompt and full response requirement DSU 7613

role/value SPS 3956

 

Information Technology Agreement (Singapore) GATT 1939

“instrument … in connection with the conclusion of the threat” (VCLT 31(2)(b)), whether DSU 1567

“products” /product coverage GATT 199

 

information technology products

Committee of Participants on the Expansion of Trade in Information Technology Products

establishment GATT 197

Non-Tariff Measures Work Programme GATT 198

observer status GATT 197 n. 289

rules of procedure (1997) GATT 197

Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products (Singapore) WTO 53, 67, GATT 1939

 

Information Technology Products, Committee of Participants on the Expansion of Trade in WTO 93

 

Infrastructure Contract (WTO–Switzerland) (1995) WTO 193

 

injury: see determination of injury (AD 3); determination of injury (SCM 15); safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2); transitional safeguards (ATC 6); serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2)

 

Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation DSU 1357

 

Integrated Data Base (IDB) WTO 135, GATT 1856

 

Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to least-developed countries (IF) GATT 11026

Aid for Trade GATT 1106

endorsement as viable model WTO 109

Enhanced IF

role GATT 1105

Task Force (2005–6) GATT 1104

establishment GATT 1102

mandate GATT 1102

objectives GATT 1103

Pilot Scheme WTO 110

review of Integrated Framework WTO 110, GATT 1103

Working Group work programme (2004) WTO 113

 

integration process (ATC 2): see quantitative restrictions (ATC 2) (integration process)

 

intellectual property conventions (TRIPS 2)

assimilation to nationals “of the Union” (PC 3) TRIPS 24

continuing obligations under (TRIPS 2.2) TRIPS 33

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II):

see trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2)

national treatment (PC 2(1))/TRIPS 3.1 TRIPS 202

trademark registration (PC): see trademarks (Paris Convention (PC))

 

intellectual property rights, acquisition and maintenance including inter partes procedures

inter partes proceedings (TRIPS Part IV) and enforcement (TRIPS Part III) distinguished TRIPS 219, 278

unwarranted curtailment, prohibition (TRIPS 62.2), term of protection (TRIPS 33) as distinct and cumulative provision TRIPS 8, 276

 

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II)

acquisition and maintenance (TRIPS 62), unwarranted curtailment, prohibition (TRIPS 62.2), freedom to choose method of implementation (TRIPS 1.1) and TRIPS 8

exclusive marketing rights obligations (TRIPS 70.9) TRIPS 31415

developing countries’ right to delay application (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 293

least-developed countries, waiver TRIPS 316

exhaustion (TRIPS 6), Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (2001) and TRIPS 76

existing subject matter, applicability to (TRIPS 70)

“acts which occurred before date” (TRIPS 70.1) and “existing at the date” (TRIPS 70.2) distinguished TRIPS 307, 311, DSU 1524

“acts” (TRIPS 70.1) TRIPS 30810, DSU 1524

freedom to choose method of implementation (TRIPS 1.1) and TRIPS 8

obligation to provide means for filing applications relating to delayed application of TRIPS 27 (TRIPS 70.8) TRIPS 31213

patent protection (TRIPS 27) and TRIPS 186

“subject matter” (TRIPS 70.2) TRIPS 311

term of protection (TRIPS 33) and TRIPS 317

transitional arrangements (TRIPS 66) and TRIPS 2923

“intellectual property” (TRIPS 1.2) TRIPS 1214, 216

categories covered TRIPS 12

as private rights (preamble) TRIPS 4

MFN treatment (TRIPS 4), “less favourable treatment”, applicability to all trademark owners requirement TRIPS 656

national treatment (TRIPS 3): see national treatment (TRIPS 3)

 

intellectual property rights, enforcement (TRIPS Part III)

“acts of infringement” (TRIPS 41.1) TRIPS 217

criminal procedures: see criminal procedures (TRIPS 61)

due process: see fair and equitable procedures (TRIPS 42)

“intellectual property rights” (TRIPS 41/TRIPS 1.2) TRIPS 216

inter partes proceedings (TRIPS Part IV) distinguished TRIPS 219, 278

“other remedies” (TRIPS 46)

16.229–31: see also border measures special measures related to enforcement of (TRIPS Part III Section 4),  destruction or disposal of infringing goods (TRIPS 59), “principles set out in Article 46”

exhaustiveness of TRIPS 46 list TRIPS 231

preparatory work in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32(a)) TRIPS 229

proportionality requirement TRIPS 230

“such request”, ambiguity TRIPS 229

rights not protected by Berne Convention and TRIPS 221

“shall have the authority” (TRIPS 43–8) TRIPS 226

 

Inter-Agency Panel on Short-Term Difficulties in Financing Normal Levels of Commercial Import of Basic Foodstuffs

see also NFIDC implementation (AG 16)

establishment AG 1578, 167, 219

recommendations (2002) AG 221

report (2002) AG 221

terms of reference AG 1578, 220

 

intergovernmental organizations (IGOS), panel’s right to seek information from (DSU 13.1) DSU 7535

 

interim review (DSU 15)

additional comments following relevant AB report DSU 817

additional meeting DSU 8067

changes to report in absence of request DSU 8045

correction of non-substantive error DSU 805

confidentiality of reports DSU 81316, 913, 918

contested factual issues DSU 7767

failure to inform panel of errors DSU 7868

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 799

inclusion of discussion of arguments (DSU 15.3) DSU 808

multiple complainants/separate reports DSU 80911

on a particular issue DSU 812

new arguments DSU 8023

new evidence DSU 626, 78995

“precise aspects of the interim report”, limitation to (DSU 15.2) DSU 77881

reargument of case, exclusion DSU 7825

reconsideration of evidence, arguments and findings DSU 7968

termination of measures following, effect DSU 384 n. 623

third party rights DSU 480, 7745

timeliness of objections to terms of reference DSU 367, 799801

timing of comments DSU 7723

translation issues DSU 81819

 

International Bovine Meat Agreement

acceptance provisions (IBM VI) WTO 270

amendments (IBM VI:4) WTO 220

reservations (IBM VI:1(b)) WTO 302

termination/deletion from WTO Annex IV (Plurilateral Agreements) (IBM VI) WTO 161, 218, 257, 270

 

International Dairy Agreement (IDA)

acceptance provisions (IDA VIII) WTO 270

amendments (ID VIII:4) WTO 220

reservations (IDA VIII:1(b)) WTO 302

 

International Dairy Council, termination WTO 161

 

international food aid (AG 10.4)

3.129–31: see also NFIDC implementation (AG 16)

Food Aid Convention (1999) AG 131

relationship with AG 10.1 AG 129

 

international law/ “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2))

17.1587–605: see also customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2)

burden of proof: see burden of proof (general rules)

compétence de la compétence DSU 366, 1327, 1702

consistency in jurisprudence DSU 53, 823, 835, 903, 1701

constituent elements (“rules” / “relevant” / “applicable between the parties”) DSU 1598, 1604

countermeasures: see countermeasures (general principles)

customary international law as DSU 1598

determination of “ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 15946

erga omnes obligations DSU 1699700

estoppel/acquiescence, 17.112, 17.1703–7:

see also estoppel

ex aequo et bono jurisdiction DSU 1708

general principles of law/international law as DSU 1594

good faith as GATT 857, AD 575, SCM 196, DSU 387, 1594, 1597

harmless error principle AD 3903, 456, 483, 827, DSU 311 n. 495, 1709

Harmonized System as DSU 1593

ILC Articles on State Responsibility, whether, 17.1588, 17.1599–600: see also State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles)

in dubio mitius principle DSU 1713 n. 2689, 17345

jura novit curia DSU 324, 326, 328, 416, 5745, 1710

legislation as such and DSU 339

lex specialis: see lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) and DSU 16014

precautionary principle as SPS 67, DSU 1594, 17301

relevance when unsupported by the text DSU 1320, 1674

rules applicable between WTO Members as “parties” DSU 1595, 16024, 1602 n. 2483, 1740

rule applicable only to some WTO Members, whether DSU 15901, 1595, 1740

“sources of international law” (ICJ Statute 38(1)) as DSU 1598

sovereignty DSU 1605, 173343

State responsibility: see State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles)

as supplementary means/ “taken into account” DSU 1587, 1596, 1600, 1604

terms in Schedules as DSU 1592

treaties concluded by other parties as DSU 1596, 1602 n. 2483

treaties concluded by parties as DSU 1589

treaties concluded prior to treaty being interpreted DSU 16014

treaty interpretation and treaty application distinguished DSU 1590

 

International Meat Council, termination WTO 161

 

international minimum standard (TRIPS 1.3), procedural rights (TRIPS 42) and TRIPS 223

 

International Plant Protection Convention Secretariat, provision of information to SPS Committee SPS 2

 

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex 1)

see also technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures, information and assistance (TBT 10–12); technical regulations and standards, conformity with (TBT 5–9); technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1)

applicability to pre-existing measures TBT 5, 4951

participation in preparation of international standards (TBT 2.6) and TBT 74

unilateral measures under MFA (TBT 2.5) TBT 72

burden of proof, effectiveness of standard TBT 53

burden of proof (general rules), onus probandi actori incumbit TBT 523

explanation of justification on request (TBT 2.5)

“applying” TBT 723

as mandatory obligation TBT 73

“upon the request” TBT 71

“fulfilment of legitimate objective” (TBT 2.2)

“ineffective or inappropriate means” (including distinction between) TBT 679

“legitimate objective”, qualification as (including TBT 2.2 provisions) TBT 70

“international standard”

consensus, relevance TBT 568, 1523

elements TBT 54

ISO/IEC Guide 2 TBT 545, 154

“standard” (Annex 1.2) distinguished TBT 545, 167

ISO/IEC Guide/Annex 1, relationship TBT 1524

obligation to participate in preparation of (TBT 2.6) TBT 745

TBT Committee decision on principles relating to TBT 75

practice of international standard-setting bodies distinguished TBT 58

“relevant” TBT 5960

“relevant parts of them” TBT 65

TBT objectives (TBT preamble) and TBT 5

technical regulations distinguished TBT 6

use “as a basis for” GATT 48, 53, 66

 

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex)

“as a basis for” TBT 626

“shall use them” TBT 61

 

International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

WTO Cooperation Agreement GATS 221

WTO, Cooperation Agreement with WTO 162

 

interpretation of covered agreements, ordinary meaning: see ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

 

interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for authoritative (WTO IX:2)

“authoritative” interpretation DSU 1586

interpretation in dispute settlement distinguished WTO 200

“subsequent practice” (VCLT 31(3)(b)) and DSU 1586

General Council (WTO IV:2)/Ministerial Conference (DSU 3.9) WTO 197202, DSU 639

request to (1999) WTO 62, 197202, 198

role of dispute settlement system to “clarify the existing provisions” (DSU 3.2) and DSU 49, 51, 523, 57, 299, 386, 529, 630, 639, 661, 703

Secretariat role WTO 201

 

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

see also Schedules of Concessions (GATT II); interpretation and clarification

AD 6.8/DSU 21.3(c) DSU 1035

AG 9.1(c)/SCM Illustrative List items (c), (d) and (k) SCM 601

“any subsequent agreement … regarding its interpretation or application” (VCLT 31(3)(a)) DSU 157580

definition (ILC Articles on the Law of Treaties) DSU 15789

Doha Declaration, whether DSU 1580

multilateral interpretation (WTO IX:2) as WTO 202, DSU 1578

NAFTA DSU 1576

Report of Working Party on DRC Accession GATT 500

SCM Code (Tokyo Round) WTO 277, DSU 1575

waiver as WTO 211

“any subsequent practice … which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b)) AG 40, DSU 15816

ADP recommendations as evidence of AD 222 n. 309

“authoritative” interpretation (WTO IX:2) and DSU 1586

“common practice” DSU 15845

discernible pattern requirements GATS 182, DSU 1582

failure to protest a customs classification practice, effect GATT 130

GATT decisions including adoption of panel reports WTO 27980, SCM 100, DSU 1581

panel report (adopted) WTO 197, DSU 821, 1581

Scheduling Guidelines (1993) GATS 182

Scheduling Guidelines (2001) GATS 183

scheduling practice AG 42

SCM Code (Tokyo Round) WTO 277

balance between flexibility/certainty of the law DSU 42

“circumstances of conclusion” (VCLT 32) GATT 131

classification as exception, relevance GATT 81

classification for purpose of allocating burden of proof, relevance GATT 80

consistency with article/agreement as a whole GATT 342, 345, AD 530 n. 719

context (VCLT 31(2))

see also under as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise below

“any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) GATS 181, 1867, TRIPS 101, DSU 155665

minor exceptions doctrine TBT 1001, DSU 15601

“any instrument … made by one or more of the parties in connection with the conclusion of the treaty” (VCLT 31(2) (b)) DSU 15667

Harmonized System as DSU 1566

Information Technology Agreement, whether DSU 1567

“instrument” DSU 1567 n. 2413

Document W/120 GATS 185

Harmonized System as GATT 124, 1259, DSU 16456

jurisprudence, relevance DSU 821

other articles in same agreement AG 23, SCM 356

DSU 23.1 as context for DSU 23.2 DSU 1299, 1307

SG 3.1 as context for SG 4.2(a) SG 92

VAL 1 (“primary basis”) as context for “examine” (VAL 1.2 (a)) VAL 1718

prior practice, need for consistency DSU 1646

Scheduling Guidelines (1993) GATS 181

Scheduling Guidelines (2001) GATS 184

title GATT 441, AG 31

customary international law: see customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2)

customary international trade usage as applicable law AG 69

dictionaries GATT 32, 52, 84, 124, 356, 357, 774, 803, 819, AG 41, 57, 85, 87, 108, 137, SPS 231, AD 102, 224, 259, 305, 388, 530 n. 719, 550, 557, 573, 580, 857, VAL 12, RO 12, SCM 27, 136, 2212, 226, 227, 356, 451, 622, SG 100, 261 n. 423, GATS 109, DSU 248 n. 357, 886, 1029, 1114, 12867, 1289, 1305, 1660, 1694

cautious approach to SCM 43, 223, 224, 227, 331, DSU 1288, 1552

different language in same agreement SPS 81, SCM 237, 33940, 631

GATT III:2, first and second sentences GATT 3067

SCM 4.10 and 4.11/SCM 7.9 SCM 2512

SCM 5(c) and 6.3(c)/SCM 15.2 and 15.5 SCM 303

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) GATT 805, AG 71, AD 101, 7423, 878, 931, LIC 7, SCM 221 n. 343, DSU 161117

meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase WTO 19, GATT 218, 226, 862, SPS 29, 493, AD 598, 1000, SCM 246, 309, 646, SG 1, 7, GATS 25, DSU 1279, 1282, 161113

meaning to be attributed to omissions DSU 161417

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1659 n. 2594

presumption of meaning SCM 237

evolutionary approach/intertemporal law WTO 2, GATT 935, GATS 35, DSU 42, 1596, 1618

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty GATT 470, AG 38, 66, SPS 95, 470, AD 961, SCM 22830, 236, 372, TRIPS 17, 578, DSU 12901, 1698

good faith interpretation: see good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)); good faith interpretation of treaty (VCLT 31(1))

grammar, respect for AG 37

“or” AD 247, 250

semi-colons AD 247, 250

use of plural form, relevance AD 327, 625 n. 859, 703

hierarchical relationship between elements in VC 31, whether DSU 1599

ILC draft articles SCM 221, DSU 1286

in dubio mitius principle, as supplementary means of interpretation DSU 1713 n. 2689, 17345

international tax law principles SCM 610

interpretative notes (Ad Articles) GATT 236, 282, 307

legitimate expectations (including GATT II:5 provisions) WTO 279, GATT 1213, 132, 162, DSU 1542

panel reports and GATT 169, 169 n. 240, DSU 820

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33): see multiple authentic languages interpretation (VCLT 33)

multiple permissible interpretations AD 92834

compliance with one permissible interpretation, sufficiency AD 928, 9356

narrow/broad interpretation GATT 241, 260, AD 66

object and purpose GATT 50, 119, 237, 290, 389, 672, 797, SPS 134

AD 2.4 AD 80, 102

AD as a whole AD 735

AG AG 15

ATC ATC 1

caution in use of DSU 156873

GATT I:1 GATT 50

GATT III:2 GATT 290, 2924

GATT XX(g) GATT 940

GATT XIII:2 GATT 655, 659

preamble as evidence of GATT 86, AG 3, TBT 17, SCM 4, SG 1, TRIPS 13

SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 56, 8, 44

SG SG 266

SG/GATT XIX GATT 7989, SG 227

TBT 2.8 TBT 80

TRIPS TRIPS 1, 77, 310

“ordinary meaning … in their context … in light of object and purpose” (VCLT 31(1)) GATT 851, AG 379, 70

other treaties

MFA (omission of provision from ATC) ATC 778

Treaty of Rome (1958) GATT 206

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)) GATT 119, 121, GATS 177, DSU 1536, 1542, 1573, 1604

ordinary meaning as aid in establishing AD 934

party’s intention in respect of own schedule, government document as evidence of GATS 190

preamble as reflection of GATT 858, AD 533

preamble of agreement under consideration as aid GATT 86, 858, AG 3, TBT 17, AD 533, LIC 1, SCM 4, SG 1, TRIPS 13

same or closely related phrases in different agreements

see also countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10), “appropriate”; order of analysis; relationships within and between agreements

AD 3.4/SG 4.2 AD 251

AD 3.5/SG 4.2(b) SG 210

AD 3.5/SG 4.2(c) SG 107, DSU 424, 519

AD 6.8/SCM 12.7 AD 547, SCM 390

AD 12.2.2/SCM 22.4 and 22.5 SCM 504

AD 17.6(ii)/DSU 3.2 AD 927, 931

AD/SCM: see determination of injury (SCM 15), identity of AD 3 provisions/applicability of jurisprudence relating to

AG 1(e)/SCM 3.1(a) AG 14, 1719

AG 9.1/AG 9.2(b)(iii)/AG 9.2(b)(iv) AG 109

AG 9.1(a)/SCM 1.1 AG 84

AG Annex 3, para. 1/GATT XVI:1 AG 9

ATC 6.4/SG 4.2(a) SG 144

caution in use of SCM 40

cross-referencing, role AD 790, 797, SCM 36970, 48990, 498, 499

Enabling Clause (EC 3(c)), SCM 27.4 and TBT 12.2 and 12.3 TBT 139

GATS XIV/GATT XX(b) GATS 74, 83

GATS XVII/GATT III:4 (“less favourable treatment”) GATS 131

GATS Financial Services Annex/SCM Agreement GATS 241

GATS XX/GATT II GATS 177

GATT III:1/SPS Annex A(1)(a) SPS 469

GATT III:2/ATC 6.2 ATC 43

GATT III/SCM 15 footnote 46 SCM 424

GATT X:2/ATC 6.10 ATC 74, 80, 87

GATT X:3(a)/LIC 1.3 GATT 594

GATT XVI:1/SCM 5(c)/6.3(c) GATT 714, SCM 267

GATT XIX:1(a)/SG 2.1 SG 6, 48

GATT XIX:1(a)/SG 11.1(a) GATT 797

GATT XX (chapeau) GATT 860 n. 1180

GATT XXVI:5/TRIPS 1.3 footnote 1 (“separate customs territory”) TRIPS 17

GATT XXXIII/TRIPS 1.3 footnote 1 (“separate customs territory”) TRIPS 17

GATT XVII:1(b)/GPA VIII(c) GPA 22

omission of term (TBT Annex 1) TBT 58, 153

SCM 1/GATS XIII:2 and XV GATS 72

SCM 21.2/AD and SPS Agreements SCM 494

SG 3.1/VAL 1.2(a) VAL 18

SPS 5.5/TRIPS 3 and 4 SPS 243

TRIPS 13, 17 and 26.2/Berne 9(2) (“special purpose”) TRIPS 115 n. 118, 201

same or closely related phrases in same agreement

AD 3.4/AD 17.6(i) AD 259

AD 11.2/AD 11.3 AD 783

AG 4.2/AG 5 AG 39

AG 9.1(a) and (b)/AG 9.1(c) AG 92

AG 9.1(a)/AG 9.1(c) AG 8790

AG Annex 2, para. 6(b)/para. 11 AG 199

DSU 2.1/DSU 11 (“accordingly”) DSU 32

DSU 4.4/DSU 4.6 (“measures” / “specific measures”) DSU 157

DSU 4.4/DSU 6.2 (“legal basis of the complaint”) DSU 1589

GATS Financial Services Annex/other GATS annexes GATS 240

GATT VII:2(b)/GATT X:3(a) GATT 591

GATT XX chapeau/SPS 2.3/SPS 5.5 (“arbitrary or unjustifiable”) SPS 2323

identity of meaning throughout agreement AD 16

SCM 3.2/SCM 27.4 SCM 174

SCM 6.3(a)-(d) SCM 279

SCM 6.3(a)/SCM 6.4 SCM 308

SCM 15.5/SCM 19.1 SCM 461

SG 4.2/SG 5.1 SG 226

SPS 3.1 (“based on”)/SPS 3.2 (“conform to”) SPS 81, 92

SPS 3.1/SPS 5.1 (“based on”) SPS 135

SPS 3.1(a)/SPS 3.1(b) SCM 1667

TRIPS 1.3/3.1 (“nationals of other Members”) TRIPS 35

TRIPS 17/TRIPS 30 (“exception”) TRIPS 136

TRIPS 41–3/TRIPS 61 TRIPS 266

TRIPS 41/TRIPS 59 (“shall have the authority”) TRIPS 241

TRIPS 60/TRIPS 61 TRIPS 275

VCLT 31(2)(a)/31(2)(c)/66 (“parties”) DSU 1595

SCM 21.3 SCM 373

“shall be taken into account” (VCLT 31(3)) DSU 1574

“special meaning” (VCLT 31(4)) DSU 160610

State practice SCM 221, DSU 1286

supplementary means (VCLT 32)

see also preparatory work (VCLT 32)

in case of ambiguity DSU 82

“circumstances of its conclusion” DSU 164452

attitudes of parties DSU 1647 n. 2568

date of conclusion distinguished DSU 1649

objective test DSU 1648

official publication of act or instrument DSU 1650

prevailing international situation DSU 1652

unilateral classification practice DSU 16456, 1649 n. 2574

as confirmation DSU 1656

as customary international law rule DSU 55, 1629

domestic law DSU 1655 n. 2588, 1655 n. 2589

non-exhaustive nature of VCLT 32 list DSU 16368

direct link with treaty, relevance DSU 16478

Oilseeds Agreement as DSU 1635

other agreements between parties DSU 1635

“recourse may be had” SCM 257, DSU 16304

“teachings of the most highly qualified publicists” (ICJ Statute 38(1) (d)) TRIPS 115

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) GATT 79 n. 105, AG 37, 6970, SPS 130, TRIMs 18, AD 734, 99, 107 n. 143, 220, 431, 708, SCM 135, 2367, 392, 433, 475, TRIPS 3, DSU 82, 154952

transitional decisions taken by signatories of Tokyo SCM Code SCM 591

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise WTO 19, 22, GATT 159, 330, AD 931, SCM 260, 475, SG 112, TRIPS 64, 88, 118, 159, 276, 308, DSU 16, 158, 1216, 153940, 1553, 15545, 16045, 1667, 1743

WTO Agreement as single undertaking and WTO 234

 

investigation of conditions for safeguard measures, requirements (SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c))

see also confidential information (SG 3.2); “like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c))

data of an objective and quantifiable nature SG 1548

methodology, absence of provision SG 138, 154, 157, 171

representativeness SG 1358, 1545

interested parties

notification to SG 92

obligation to consult SG 96

opportunity to respond to presentations of other parties SG 92

opportunity to submit evidence and views SG 92

internal decision-making process, relevance SG 98

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “examine” (VAL 1.2(a)) VAL 17

published report: see publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1)

reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) GATT 811, SG 95, 99, 20910

VAL examination (VAL 1.2(a)) compared VAL 18

 

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, dumping, constituent elements/definition (AD 2/GATT VI:1), sufficiency of evidence for initiation of investigation (AD 5) and AD 364 n. 489

evidentiary rules: see evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

methodology, authorities’ discretion AD 334

notification to government of exporting Member (AD 5.5)

“before proceeding to initiate”, date of initiation AD 3846

“before proceeding to legislate”, national legislative provisions, relevance AD 385

breach by other party, relevance AD 386

content AD 389

failure to comply

harmless error and AD 3903, 456, 827

timely objection, relevance AD 391, 456

form of notification AD 388

“initiated” (AD footnote 1) AD 384

public notice and explanation of determinations (AD 12) distinguished AD 421

timing, ADP recommendation AD 387

object and purpose (SCM Part V) SCM 4678

preparatory work (VCLT 32) SCM 371

Secretariat Note for the Uruguay Round Negotiating Group on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (1987), relevance SCM 371

procedural nature of provisions SCM 366, 368

rejection of application (AD 5.8) AD 3969

applicability prior to initiation of investigation AD 3979

“cases”, anti-dumping duty assessment (AD 9.3), relevance AD 4012

de minimis test

anti-dumping duty assessment (AD 9.3) distinguished AD 402, 6713

function/obligation to use AD 402

immediate termination and AD 400

sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to AD 7935, 797

exporters for whom a zero or de minimis margin is established

exclusion from subsequent administrative and changed circumstances reviews AD 405–6, SCM 3745

immediate termination and AD 400

“margin of dumping”, identity of meaning with AD 2.4.2 AD 404

procedural nature AD 396

request for initiation of investigation within 12 months of negative finding on same product (Doha) AD 338

self-initiation (AD 5.6), sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability of rules to AD 78990

simultaneous consideration of evidence of dumping and injury (AD 5.7), initiation of investigation in absence of sufficient evidence (AD 5.3) and AD 376, 3945

sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.3)

AD 2 and AD 340

determination of sufficiency AD 186

AD 2.4 compared AD 3589

determination of sufficiency as satisfaction of AD 5.2

requirements AD 348

“examine” AD 3714

“injury”, threat of, AD 3.7 requirements, relevance AD 3636

standard of review (DSU 17.6) AD 36770

elements (AD 2) and AD 356, 364 n. 489

evidence of causal link (AD 5.2(iv)) AD 3446

“information” and analysis distinguished AD 3456

evidence of dumping AD 35662

AD 2 and AD 342, 356

evidence of injury AD 3636

AD 2 and AD 343

raw numerical detail AD 347

interrelationship with AD 5.2 AD 340, 343, 34955

“simple assertion, unsubstantiated by relevant evidence” (AD 5.2) AD 186, 347

“such evidence is reasonably available to the applicant” (AD 5.2) AD 341

sufficiency to initiate (AD 5.2) and for final determination (AD 2) distinguished AD 344, 34954, 356 n. 474

“sufficient evidence of” (SCM 11.2), causal link SCM 361

sufficient evidence requirement in case of initiation of investigation in absence of application (SCM 11.6) SCM 365

support for (AD 5.4/SCM 11.4)

“a major proportion” (AD 4.1) distinguished AD 382

authorities’ need to determine level AD 37982

“by or on behalf of the domestic industry”

determination based exclusively on information in application SCM 363

quantitative test SCM 362

determination of standing and AD 381

identity of provisions AD 379, 383, SCM 362, 364

major proportion of the domestic industry AD 380

motivation for support, relevance AD 379, SCM 362

termination (SCM 11.9)

de minimis standard, applicability SCM 36673

developing countries (SCM 27.10) SCM 570

limitation of SCM 11.9 to investigation phase SCM 366

time limits for conclusion of investigation (SCM 11.11), 18 month limit SCM 376

 

investigations and reviews of existing [SCM] measures initiated … on or after date of entry into force of WTO Agreement (SCM 32.3) GATT 451, SCM 5901

“existing measures” SCM 595

procedural aspects of investigations, limitation to SCM 594

retroactivity GATT 451, SCM 5901

“this agreement” SCM 5923

transitional decisions of Tokyo Round Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Committee, relevance SCM 591

 

“investment measures” (TRIMs 1) TRIMs 12

analysis of TRIMs status, relevance of Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2) TRIMs 4

legislative measures, relevance TRIMs 2

“related to trade” TRIMs 3

 

Israel, GPA offset regime, modification (GPA XXIV:6) GPA 445

 

issues of law and legal interpretations: see standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

 

ITU: see International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

 

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