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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: INDEX

Index

The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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L

Labour Markets Integration Agreement (GATS V bis), notification format GATS 57

 

language, parties’ submissions DSU 1387

 

least-developed countries (LDCs)

see also developing countries; developing countries (SG 9); Enabling Clause; Enabling Clause (EC); special treatment of least-developed countries (EC 2(d)); Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to least-developed countries (IF); NFIDC, implementation (AG 16); special and differential treatment for developing countries (Doha); special procedures involving LDCs (DSU 24); technical cooperation and capacity building (Doha); technical and financial assistance and training; Trade, Debt and Finance, Working Group on (Doha 36) trade and environment (Doha 31–3); transparency mechanism (PTAs) (2010); least-developed countries’ products

accession to membership, facilitation and acceleration of process WTO 2512

Guidelines for Facilitation and Acceleration of Negotiations (2002) WTO 2512

High-Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives WTO 251

work programme (Doha 42) WTO 251

Comprehensive and Integrated WTO Plan of Action for the least-developed countries (1996) WTO 108, 110

positive measures taken by Members WTO 114

cooperation between WTO and other multilateral agencies, High Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for Least-Developed Countries’ Trade Development (1977) WTO 109

Decision on duty-free and quota-free market access for LDCs (2005) (DFQF): see MFN treatment (GATT I:1); Decision on duty-free and quota-free market access for LDCs (2005) (DFQF)

Decision on implementation-related concerns (2000) and

SCM 3.1(a), exemption SCM 530

SCM 27.4 (extension of transition period): see developing countries (SCM 27); phase out/standstill obligation (SCM 27.4)

SCM 27.5 and 27.6 (phase-out of export subsidies) SCM 530

Decision on Measures in Favour of Least-Developed Countries (Doha), Doha Round negotiations related to WTO 311

favourable and preferential treatment WTO 11421, GATT 1107

High-Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for the Least-Developed Countries’ Trade Development WTO 109, 114, 251, GATT 1102

Joint Integrated Technical Assistance (JITAP), identification of ways of enhancing and rationalizing (Doha) WTO 111

market access

duty and quota-free access as objective (Doha 42–3) WTO 115

integration into multilateral trading system and

original membership, special arrangements (WTO XI:2) including Ministerial Decision on Measures in Favour of LDCs WTO 2347

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c)) DSU 13213

small economies (Doha 35) GATT 11089

technical assistance (SPS 9) SPS 3778

technical assistance (TBT 12), 6.132–41: see also special and differential treatment (TBT 12)

TPRM reviews TPRM 17

Waiver on Preferential Tariff Treatment for LDCs (1999): see MFN treatment (GATT I:1); Waiver on Preferential Tariff Treatment for LDCs (1999)

WTO Work Programme for the Least-Developed Countries GATT 1097

 

least-developed countries (LDCs) (TRIPS 66)

enhanced technical cooperation (TRIPS Council decision of 29 November 2005) TRIPS 305

exclusive marketing rights, waiver of obligations (TRIPS 70.9) TRIPS 316

extension of transition period (TRIPS 66.1) TRIPS 2946, 305

reports by developed country Members (TRIPS 66.2) TRIPS 298

 

Least-Developed Countries Sub-Committee

establishment WTO 105

notifications, market access measures under Waiver on Preferential Treatment for LDCs GATT 103

observer status WTO 103

rules of procedure WTO 106

terms of reference WTO 105

work programme WTO 107, 117, GATT 1097101

 

Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Countries, Decision on Measures concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme, implementation (AG 16) (NFIDC): see NFIDC implementation (AG 16)

 

legal basis of claim/ “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

see also notice of appeal requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d)); claims and arguments distinguished

arguments distinguished DSU 120, 303, 305, 309, 314, 32334, 41112, 624

clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 114, 120, 152, 270, 306, 309, 325, 327, 328, 329 n. 529, 334, 342, 345, 348, 349, 415

evidence to support claim distinguished DSU 328, 410

identification of specific measure distinguished AD 898, DSU 1969, 220, 370

identification of treaty provisions DSU 30719, 1146

clauses/subclauses, relevance DSU 316

complementary or alternative claims and DSU 318

“especially, but not exclusively” DSU 313

“including but not necessarily limited to” DSU 310

linked multiple obligations DSU 315

listing of articles without explanation, sufficiency DSU 309, 311, 312

obligation of panel to address cited provisions (DSU 7.2)

DSU 423

reference to mutually exclusive articles DSU 317

right of panel to address provisions other than those cited (DSU 7.2) DSU 424

limitation of jurisdiction to cited provisions (DSU 7.2) DSU 313, 352, 424, 519, 520

developing countries, special and differential provisions and (DSU 12.1) DSU 717

rectification at subsequent stages, arguments in written or other submission or statement DSU 323

reliance on issues raised in underlying anti-dumping dispute DSU 322

request for consultations (DSU 4.4) compared DSU 1589

summary “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 18691, 1934, 196, 3023, 306, 332, 3405, 3768, 415

which measures violate which provisions requirement DSU 3201

 

legal status of adopted AB reports (DSU 17.14)

as final resolution of dispute DSU 826, 899, 901, 1137

as precedent DSU 53, 68, 835, 899903, 903

 

legal status of panel reports

adopted reports (DSU 16) DSU 8201

“distinguishing” previous cases and DSU 825

as final resolution of dispute DSU 826, 901, 1130, 1138

“moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 8925

“other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (GATT 1994 1(b)(iv)), whether WTO 275, GATT 169 n. 240, DSU 8201, 899

reports reversed by AB AD 368 n. 495, DSU 824

reports on same subject-matter in parallel proceedings DSU 823

unadopted reports WTO 280, AD 878, DSU 1148

unappealed findings WTO 281, GATT 1041, DSU 822, 826, 892, 901, 1115, 1130, 11389

 

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4) WTO 2867, 2913, 295, DSU 278301

AD 17.3/AD 17.4 AD 8737, 8913

AD 18.4 and AD 1435, 878

analysis of legislation for purposes of DSU 280

claims “as such” vs claims “as applied”, relevance of distinction DSU 277, 3368

conformity of laws with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure, see also consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

future application distinguished SCM 483

GATT II:1 and GATT 120

GATT XXIII:1(a) and

legislation adopted by customs union DSU 246

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability AD 87880, 880 n. 1188, 969, SCM 71, 81, DSU 278, 289301

affirmative defence (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) and SCM 6624

assessment of mandatory nature AD 879, DSU 2915

burden of proof and DSU 336

DSU 23 and WTO 286, DSU 296

GATT practice AD 882, DSU 40, 278, 28990

order of analysis DSU 2945

rejection/non-endorsement of doctrine DSU 296301

relevance AD 8812, DSU 296301

resort to facts available (AD 6.8/Annex II) and AD 602

normative value as determining factor DSU 264, 2818

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 45, 281

seriousness of claim/need for diligence in presentation DSU 279

State responsibility and DSU 339

subsidy programmes: see subsidy definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit); subsidy programmes as such, right to challenge (mandatory/discretionary distinction)

Tokyo Round Anti-Dumping Code AD 878

unilateral action (DSU 23) and DSU 339, 1312

unwritten instrument and DSU 288

US Customs Bond Directive AD 964

 

legitimate expectations: see GATT 1947/WTO continuity, decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1); good faith interpretation of treaty (VCLT 31 (1)), legitimate expectations, relevance; interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, legitimate expectations (including GATT II:5 provisions); non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), “benefit” /legitimate expectation of improved market access as

 

legitimate interests

Berne 9.1 TRIPS 145

TRIPS 13 TRIPS 109, 118 n. 123, 1226, 145

TRIPS 17 TRIPS 13943, 145

TRIPS 26.2 TRIPS 145

TRIPS 30 TRIPS 189, 198203

 

less favourable treatment: see MFN treatment (GATS II); national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4); “less favourable treatment”; national treatment (TRIPS 3) see also under “treatment no less favourable” (TRIPS 3.1)

 

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

2.404, 2.666 n. 937, 7.8, 8.83, 8.934, 13.527, 13.694–5, 16.249, 17.1713: see also order of analysis, relationships within and between agreements, special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2)

“conflict” DSU 1717, 171920

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) WTO 25, GATT 4956, TRIMs 5, SCM 5834, DSU 171429

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB

AD 18.1/GATT VI DSU 1726

AD/DSU provisions AD 8702

AG/GATT AG 191, DSU 1725

GATT VI/SCM Part V DSU 1723

GATT X:3(a)/LIC 1.3 DSU 1718, 1726

GATT XIX/SG 2.1 DSU 1720

GATT XX(b)/SCM DSU 1727

GATT X:3/VAL 11.1 DSU 1728

GATT/LIC and TRIMs 2 TRIMs 412, DSU 171718

GATT/SPS DSU 1719

GATT/TBT DSU 1729

GATT/TRIMs DSU 1722

ILC Articles on State Responsibility SCM 331 n. 557

SCM/TRIMs TRIMs 79, SCM 6945, DSU 1712

TRIPS/Berne Convention TRIPS 859

TRIPS/WIPO Copyright Agreement (1966) TRIPS 89

precedence/hierarchy in case of conflict AD 8702, SCM 6902, DSU 1720, 1724, 1726

 

LIC Committee Decision on Avoidance of Procedural and Institutional Duplication LIC 48

 

licensing requirement

as QR (GATT XI:1) GATT 606, 61214

progressive elimination (GATT XIII:2(b)) GATT 669

 

“like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c))

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) compared SG 191

“domestic industry” (SG 4.1(c)) and SG 1304

“collective output … constitutes a major proportion”, representative data and SG 1358

integration of production processes, relevance SG 134

object and purpose (preamble) as aid to definition SG 2

“producers as a whole SG 1323

as sole determinant ATC 40 n. 50, SG 131

finding of inconsistency with, effect SG 129

specific product, need for SG 132

 

“like product” (GATT I) GATT 3944

“any product originating in or destined for another country” GATT 45

GATT practice GATT 44

“like product” analysis

explicit discrimination and GATT 40

nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 41, 43

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4) compared GATT 39

relevant factors: see “like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4); relevant factors

 

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

burden of proof GATT 240

determination of “likeness”

in case of conflicting evidence GATT 336

as legal issue DSU 841, 859

narrow interpretation GATT 241, 242, 260

need to take account of all the evidence GATT 331, 336

as a relative concept (“accordion”)/case-by-case approach GATT 2412, 248, 260, 3424, SCM 424, DSU 841, 859

directly competitive or substitutable products distinguished GATT 234, 2546, 32830

GATT practice GATT 253

GATT I compared GATT 39

GATT III:1 compared/as context GATT 227, 328, 342

GATT III:2 and III:4 interrelationship GATT 2579, 32830, 3427

consistency of interpretation GATT 342, 345

“less favourable treatment” requirement and GATT 3457

GATT practice GATT 253

relevant factors

2.241–53, 2.331–40: see also directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2)

Border Tax Adjustment Working Party Report GATT 241, 260, 343

competitive relationship GATT 324, 3325, 342, 343

evidence of health risks, relevance GATT 334

consumer preferences GATT 42, 241, 242, 248, 331, 3336, 343

health risks and GATT 334

cross-price elasticity GATT 2869

differences between sellers GATT 252

end-uses GATT 42, 241, 242, 248, 333, 337, 343

GATT practice GATT 349

nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 41, 43, 24851, 33840, DSU 598 n. 955

nature of product GATT 332, 343

physical properties GATT 42, 241, 242, 248, 332, 334, 337

situation of parties dealing in [subject products] GATT 337

tariff bindings GATT 2467

tariff classifications GATT 42, 2456, 343

 

“like product” (SCM 15 footnote 46)

“characteristics closely resembling” SCM 4248

physical characteristics SCM 426

price SCM 4267

unassembled/assembled products SCM 428

 

“like service and service supplier” (GATS II:1), wholesale transactions GATS 367, 128

 

loan guarantees

as benefit (SCM 14(c)) SCM 93, 41415

as direct transfer of funds (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) SCM 301

 

Lomé waiver WTO 209, GATT 114, 6823, DSU 534

right of Panel to consider DSU 534

 

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