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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: INDEX

Index

The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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M

Macau, China, as WTO member WTO 232

 

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3) DSU 449, 4901, 622, 6658

establishment of working procedures DSU 409, 667, 673 n. 1103, 6836

evaluation of evidence (DSU 11) and DSU 609, 610 n. 991, 612

expert evidence (DSU 13.2) and DSU 601, 613

limitations DSU 409, 667

separate panel reports DSU 449, 452

unregulated situations and DSU 471, 472, 508 n. 828

 

maritime services

MFN treatment (GATS II), exemption GATS 42

progressive liberalization (GATS XIX) and GATS 169

 

Maritime Services, Negotiating Group on, establishment GATS 216

 

Market Access Committee (WTO IV:7)

annual/periodic reports WTO 133

establishment WTO 93, 99, 131

GATT 1947 activities WTO 134

non-tariff measures, decisions relating to GATT 6368

rules of procedure WTO 94, 132

terms of reference WTO 131

 

market access, concessions and commitments (AG 4.1)

consistency with GATT XIII requirement GATT 168, 689, AG 1, 36, 190, DSU 875

reform process, as essential part of AG 1, 190

 

market access (GATS XVI)

electronic commerce and GATS 96

excluded measures (GATS XVI:2)

applicability of mode 1 to all mode 1 means of delivery GATS 101

applicability to sector as a whole including subsectors (“sector” (GATS XXVIII(e))) GATS 100, 228

exhaustive nature of list GATS 97, 99

limitations on the number of suppliers in the form of (GATS XVI:2(a)) GATS 10818

dictionary meaning GATS 109

preparatory work (Scheduling Guidelines) GATS 115, 121

temporal qualifications GATS 1034

time-frame, need for (GATS XX:1(d)) GATS 104

zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(a)) GATS 1056, 109, 11417

zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(a), (b) and (c)) GATS 1056

zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(c)) GATS 1204

failure to make prima facie case GATS 102, DSU 547

relationship between GATS XVI:1 and VI:2 GATS 979

 

market access, measures required to be converted into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2 and footnote 1)

border measures

distorting effect AG 63

“similar border measures” (footnote 1)

“similar” AG 5760

tariff caps and AG 612

“converted” AG 41

developing countries (preamble) and AG 4

“discretionary import licensing” (footnote 1) AG 556

elimination of quantitative restrictions (GATT XI) and AG 48

exceptions to GATT obligations, exclusion (footnote 1) GATT 649

exemptions (AG Annex 5) AG 2047

price gap methodology AG 2089

failure to convert by due date, effect AG 37

GATT II:1(b) and: see Schedules of Concessions (GATT II); ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b))

“have been required to be converted” AG 37, 39

“have been converted” (AG 5) distinguished AG 39

“have been required to be converted” (AG 4.2) AG 37

interpretation, subsequent practice (VCLT 32(3)(b)) AG 40, DSU 1582

interpretation, rules governing AG 3740

measure and result of measure distinguished AG 46

measure similar to measure identified in footnote 1, sufficiency for finding of inconsistency with AD 42 AG 64

measures excepted from requirement (footnote 1) AG 65

“minimum import price” (footnote 1) AG 54

object and purpose (preamble) and AG 4

“ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2)/ GATT II:1(b) GATT 1435, 174, AG 425, DSU 1660

“quantitative import restrictions” (footnote 1) AG 50

special safeguards (AG 5.1) and AG 39

STEs (GATT XVII) GATT 753

timing of obligation AG 37, 47

“variable import levies” (footnote 1) AG 512

 

market access for non-agricultural products (Doha 16)

see also Market Access Committee

Negotiating Group on Market Access

establishment WTO 156

role WTO 156

 

marketing costs: see export subsidy commitments (AG 9); costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d))

 

marks of origin, absence from TBT Agreement TBT 11, 166

 

marks of origin (GATT IX)

GATT practice GATT 509

TBT 2.1 (MFN treatment) and TBT 11, 166

 

material injury: see determination of injury (AD 3); determination of injury (SCM 15); transitional safeguards (ATC 6)

 

“measure” (GATS XXVIII(a)) GATS 223

 

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1) GATS 913

“affecting” (GATS I:1) GATS 1013

GATT III:4 compared GATT 362

wholesale trade service suppliers in their capacity as service suppliers, need to examine GATS 12, 33

 

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2): see identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

 

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

17.241–301: see also identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

administrative guidance DSU 248

amended measures

amendment after establishment of panel DSU 25860, 3801

amendment before establishment of panel DSU 395

amendment during AB proceedings DSU 402

amendment following establishment of panel DSU 396403, 677

any act or omission attributable to a Member DSU 2425, 253, 271

application of tariffs as DSU 273

continued zeroing AD 145, 8967

“cumulatively claim” /system as a whole DSU 265, 335

de facto vs de jure measures DSU 272

“effects” of measure and measure distinguished DSU 254

expired measure with continuing effects DSU 255, 380

independent operational status test AD 883, 885, DSU 266, 2678

legal instrument as DSU 263

legislation as such: see legislation as such right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

legislative instruments, classification by reference to WTO law DSU 264

measure actually applied DSU 228

measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to DSU 2557, 378, 37983

dispute as to existence of measure DSU 406

evidence of measure and measure distinguished DSU 256

measures not in existence as evidence DSU 4045

measure as source of impairment DSU 2534

“measure taken by another Member” (DSU 3.3) DSU 241

“measures taken to comply” (DSU 21.5) and DSU 11237, 1146, 11512

“practice” as AD 8835, DSU 26771, 273

“general” practice AD 884, DSU 268 n. 407, 409 n. 680

practice “as a whole” DSU 271

prompt settlement of the dispute considerations DSU 404

prospective measure DSU 2612

“of the same essence” DSU 383

“same effect” DSU 401

“subsequent closely related measures” DSU 262 n. 395, 382 n. 618

several instruments as single measure DSU 2756

terminated measures

continuing relevance DSU 3889

GATT practice DSU 384, 392

good faith obligation not to reintroduce DSU 387, 393

termination before agreement on terms of reference DSU 38590

termination following agreement on terms of reference DSU 384 n. 623, 3914

termination following interim review DSU 384 n. 623

total prohibition as DSU 254

 

“measures by Members” (GATS I:3), “services” (GATS I:3(b)), allocation to specific sector/subsector GATS 23

 

mediation, request for in absence of dispute (DSU 5) DSU 1801

 

MERCOSUR

Enabling Clause (EC) and GATT 668

Working Party on, terms of reference GATT 67, 1018

 

MERCOSUR Ad Hoc Arbitral Tribunal

proceedings before as impediment (estoppel) to DSU proceedings DSU 1704

relevance of decisions in DSU proceedings DSU 1590

 

Mexico — Anti-Dumping Measures on Rice (AB), WT/DS295/ AB/R, DSR 2005:XXII

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1389

ADP recommendations, legal status AD 175

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

assessment (AD 9.3)

conditions (AD 9.3.2, AD 11.2 and SCM 21.2) AD 6767, SCM 4867

finality of duty AD 678

expedited review (AD 9.5), requirements AD 724

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement AD 189, 1967

consultations (DSU 4)

identity of specific measures in the consultations and the request for establishment of a panel, relevance DSU 144

purpose/importance, definition of dispute DSU 144

data collection period (AD 2 and AD 3)

causal link, need for AD 180, 18990, 197

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) and AD 180, 18990, 1967

use of different periods, dumping/injury determinations AD 97

determination of dumping (AD 2), definitions, “dumping” and “margin of dumping”, identity of meaning throughout AD Agreement AD 404

determination of injury (AD 3)

methodology, right to choose AD 183

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1), “positive evidence” AD 1834

due process (anti-dumping measures) (AD 6)

as underlying principle

balance of interests considerations AD 438

time–limits and AD 438

due process (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12.7) SCM 390

“dumping” / “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1), “for purposes of this agreement” /identity of meaning throughout AD Agreement AD 404

evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12)

questionnaires (SCM 12.1.1), supplementary questionnaires, status SCM 380

resort to “facts available” (SCM 12.7)

AD 6.8 compared/distinguished AD 547, SCM 390

due process considerations SCM 390

limitation to facts which might reasonably have been made available SCM 390

obligation of panel to consider all information provided SCM 390

purpose of provision SCM 390, 400

secondary source information SCM 390

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

due process as underlying principle, balance of interests considerations AD 438

“known exporters” (AD 6.10) AD 632

“known exporters” (AD 6.1) / “interested parties known” (AD 12.1) AD 436

obligation of exporting country to make exporters/producers aware of investigation (AD 6.1.1 footnote 15) AD 448

questionnaires (AD 6.1.1)

right of all interested parties to receive AD 446

time–limits for reply AD 438

resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II)

AD 6.8/SCM 12.7 relationship AD 547, SCM 390

in case of exporter not notified of required information AD 553

conditions for (Annex II) AD 544

secondary source information … with special circumspection (Annex II para. 7) AD 587

time–limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1)

due process and AD 438

reply to questionnaires AD 438

date of receipt as trigger AD 446

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identity with specific measure the subject of consultations, relevance DSU 144

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

rejection of application (AD 5.8)

de minimis test, exporters meeting requirement, immediate termination and AD 400

exporters for whom a zero or de minimis margin is established, exclusion from subsequent administrative and changed circumstances reviews AD 4056, SCM 3745

“margin of dumping”, identity of meaning with AD 2.4.2 AD 404

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), identification of treaty provisions DSU 319

public notice of initiation of investigation (AD 12.1), “known exporters” (AD 12.1) / “interested parties known” (AD 12.1) AD 436

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), consistency of request with, interpretation DSU 319

sampling (AD 6.10), “known exporters” AD 632

 

Mexico — Anti-Dumping Measures on Rice (Panel), WT/DS295/R

ADP Recommendation (2000), legal status AD 175

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11), rejection of application (AD 5.8), de minimis test, immediate termination and AD 400

 

Mexico — Corn Syrup (Panel), WT/DS132/R and Corr.1, DSR 2000:III

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

legal basis for consultation/claim (AD 17.3/AD 17.4), “measure” (AD 17.4), provisional measures AD 8945

“matter”, referral to DSB (AD 17.4)

identification of measure at issue requirement (DSU 6.2) AD 899

specificity AD 899

request for establishment of panel, DSU 6.2 requirements and AD 903

consultations (DSU 4), confidentiality (DSU 4.6), third party participation and DSU 169, 517

determination of injury (AD 3)

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on eventual relevance of factor, relevance AD 248

factors not involving material injury, right to consider AD 298

factors not listed in AD 3.4, right/obligation to consider AD 253

consideration of each factor, need to be “apparent” in final determination AD 248

factors not listed AD 248

“injury” (AG 3 footnote 9), domestic industry (AD 4) and AD 176, 325

threat of material injury (AD 3.7)

AD 3.4 factors and AD 298300

“facts, not merely allegation, conjecture or remote possibility”, “likelihood of substantially increased importation” (AD 3.7(i)) AD 296

“domestic industry” (AD 4), “injury” (AG 3 footnote 9) and AD 176, 325, 336

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

rejection of application (AD 5.8)

applicability prior to initiation of investigation AD 398

procedural nature AD 396

sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.2)

determination of sufficiency (AD 5.3), “examine” AD 373

evidence of causal link (AD 5.2(iv)), “information” and analysis distinguished AD 345

sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.3), determination of sufficiency standard of review (DSU 17.6) AD 368

sufficiency of evidence to initiate (AD 5.2), sufficiency to initiate (AD 5.2) and for final determination (AD 2) distinguished AD 344

legal status of panel reports, reports reversed by AB AD 368 n. 495

provisional measures (AD 7)

duration (AD 7.4) AD 648

claim relating to as claim relating to definitive anti-dumping duty (AD 10) AD 8945

as “measure” (AD 17.4) AD 8945

public notice of initiation of investigation (AD 12.1)

separate report (AD 12.1.1)

notice of preliminary or final determination distinguished AD 829

summary of factors (AD 12.1.1(iv)) AD 8289

public notice of preliminary or final determination (AD 12.2), “all relevant information on the matters of fact and law and reasons” for measures (AD 12.2.2) AD 248

relationships within and between agreements

AD 5.3/AD 17.6 AD 368

AD 7.4/AD 17.2 AD 652, 8945

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), nullification or impairment, indication of (AD 17.5(i)) AD 9034

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6)

assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), AD 5.3 (sufficiency of evidence), applicability to AD 368

investigating authorities’ establishment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), “was proper” AD 367

third party rights (consultations (DSU 4.11)), confidentiality (DSU 4.6) and DSU 169, 517

 

Mexico — Corn Syrup (Article 21.5 — US) (AB), WT/DS132/AB/RW, DSR 2001:XIII

arguendo assumptions, Article 21.5 proceedings and DSU 355 n. 575, 657, 1152

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

“clarification of existing provisions” DSU 51, 703

compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 77, 364

GATT practice DSU 151

mutually agreed solution (DSU 3.6) and DSU 136

obligation to disclose information DSU 136, 139

as prerequisite to establishment of panel/requirement to indicate whether held (DSU 6.2) DSU 153

exceptions, parties’ agreement to forego consultations DSU 153, 1723, 207

omission of indication, effect DSU 208

requirement to indicate whether held (DSU 6.2) distinguished DSU 153, 207

purpose/importance DSU 136, 139

“shall address the relevant provisions/each issue” (DSU 7.2/DSU 17.12), judicial economy and DSU 890

consultations (DSU 4), as prerequites, request for Article 21.5

arbitration and DSU 208

determination of injury (AD 3)

threat of material injury (AD 3.7)

“facts, not merely allegation, conjecture or remote possibility” AD 302

a “clearly foreseen and imminent” change of circumstances, need for AD 302

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), panel reports, rationale/reasons (DSU 12.7) and DSU 7034

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, dictionaries DSU 703

judicial economy, “shall address the relevant provisions/each issue” (DSU 7.2/DSU 17.12) DSU 422, 890

legal status of panel reports, unappealed finding DSU 826

mutually agreed/acceptable solution to matters raised formally (DSU 3.6), consultations (DSU 4) and DSU 136

panel reports

rationale/reasons, need for (DSU 12.7) DSU 703

Article 21.5 proceedings and DSU 704

direct quotation from previous report, desirability DSU 703

sufficiency DSU 703

reference to previous panel report (DSU 21.5) DSU 703

surety and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 51, 703

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) as aid to DSU 826

relationships within and between agreements, AD 17.6(i)/AD 17.6

(ii) AD 938

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), fruitfulness of action (DSU 3.7), determination by Member DSU 77

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel, deviation from original panel report DSU 1105 n. 1709, 1105 n. 1711

DSU 6.2 procedures, applicability DSU 208, 1152

arguendo presumptions in Article 21.5 proceedings DSU 355 n. 575, 657, 1152

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2)

finality of adopted panel reports DSU 826

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) and DSU 826

reasons/rationale in panel report (DSU 12.7) and DSU 51, 703

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6)

assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), applicability to investigating authority AD 302, 320

interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii)), assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)) and, cumulative effect AD 938

investigating authorities’ establishment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), “proper” AD 302

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review, exclusion AD 302

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), as definition of jurisdiction/ legal claims at issue, “shall address” (DSU 7.2) DSU 422

 

Mexico — Corn Syrup (Article 21.5 — US) (Panel), WT/DS132/RW, DSR 2001:XIII

determination of injury (AD 3)

threat of material injury (AD 3.7)

“facts, not merely allegation, conjecture or remote possibility”, “likelihood of substantially increased importation” (AD 3.7(i)) AD 296

“material injury would occur” / “consequent impact” AD 2979

as responsibility of authorities AD 302, 320

 

Mexico — Olive Oil (Panel), WT/DS341/R, DSR 2008:IX

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

dumping, constituent elements (AD 2/GATT VI:1) (GATT VI:6 (a)) GATT 483

dumping, constituent elements/definition (AD 2/GATT VI:1), material injury to domestic industry or threat of (GATT VI:6(a)), SCM 16.1 and GATT 483

confidential information (SCM 12.4)

non-confidential summaries (SCM 12.4.1)

access to confidential information, relevance SCM 383

statement of reasons why information “not susceptible of summary” SCM 3846

consultations (SCM 13)

“initiation of investigation” (SCM 13.1)

“in any event before” SCM 402

“initiated” (SCM 10 footnote 37) and SCM 356

invitation to consult and consultations distinguished SCM 401

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10)

“initiated” (SCM 10 footnote 37) SCM 356

domestic law as determining factor SCM 356

data collection period (SCM 15.1/15.2) SCM 423

determination of injury (SCM 15)

causal relationship between subsidized imports and injury to domestic injury (SCM 15.5 and footnote 47), nonattribution of other factors SCM 450

data collection period (SCM 15.1/15.2) SCM 423

determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1), “serious injury” (SG 4.1(a)), “material injury” (AD 3, SCM 15.7 and GATT VI) distinguished GATT 483

“domestic injury” (SCM 16)

“domestic industry” (SG 4.1(c)) distinguished SCM 453

material injury to domestic industry or threat of (GATT VI:6(a)) and GATT 483

ordinary meaning SCM 4534

domestic law, as determinant of date of “initiation” SCM 356

due restraint (AG 13) (“peace clause”)

domestic support measures conforming with AG 6 (AG 13(b))

“due restraint” (AG 13(b)(i)) AG 137

elements/order of analysis AG 135

“injury or threat of” (AG 13(b)(i)) AG 136

evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12)

notification to all interested parties of essential facts under consideration (SCM 12.8), “essential facts” SCM 3934

procedure at Members’ discretion SCM 377, 507

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2)), other articles in same agreement SCM 356

dictionaries AG 137, SCM 356

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

support for (AD 5.4/SCM 11.4), “by or on behalf of the domestic industry”, determination based exclusively on information in application SCM 363

time–limits for conclusion of investigation (SCM 11.11), 18 month limit SCM 376

judicial review (SCM 23), Members’ discretion to define own procedure SCM 377, 507

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “producers” (SCM 16.1) SCM 4534

relationships within and between agreements, GATT VI:3/SCM 10 SCM 88

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), determination of date of “initiation” by reference to domestic law SCM 356

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

“any” method (chapeau) SCM 405

“adequately explained” SCM 407

national legislation/implementing regulations SCM 406

transparency requirement SCM 407

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), passing the benefit through, sales to unrelated buyers SCM 889

 

Mexico — Steel Pipes and Tubes (Panel), WT/DS331/R, DSR 2007:IV

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement AD 211, 216

confidential information (AD 6.5)

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6), due process as underlying principle, balance of interests considerations AD 512

non-confidential summaries (AD 6.5.1)

access to confidential information, relevance AD 517

as balance between protection of confidentiality and need to ensure opportunity to defend interests AD 512

obligation to provide/evaluation of sufficiency AD 513

confidential information (SCM 12.4)

non-confidential summaries (SCM 12.4.1)

statement of reasons why information “not susceptible of summary”, “in exceptional circumstances” SCM 3856

“sufficient detail to permit a reasonable understanding” SCM 3823

data collection period (AD 2 and AD 3)

absence of provision AD 179, 191

causal link, need for AD 17980, 191

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) and AD 180

determination of injury (AD 3)

causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5), non-attribution to dumped imports of injury caused by other factors (AD 3.5), “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) and AD 216

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4), “domestic industry”, selective and inconsistent approach to AD 215

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

domestic industry, use of information relating to AD 215

non-attribution obligation and AD 216

use of different periods for data collection and AD 180

volume and price effects (Ad 3.2) AD 21011

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2), “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) AD 21011

threat of material injury (AD 3.7), AD 5.3 and AD 3656

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

“facts available”, right of resort to (AD 6.8/Annex II), reasons for disregarding information, need for AD 5956

“facts available”, right to use (AD 6.8/Annex II), failure to cooperate (AD Annex VII para. 7), cooperation “to the best of its ability” AD 5779, 581

resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II), in case of verifiable information, “verifiable” (Annex II para. 3) AD 558

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 963

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.3)

determination of sufficiency, “injury”, threat of, AD 3.7

requirements, relevance AD 3656

evidence of dumping AD 35962

evidence of injury AD 3656

sufficiency to initiate (AD 5.2) and for final determination (AD 2) distinguished AD 3525, 365

relationships within and between agreements, AD 3.7/AD 5.2 AD 3656

sampling (AD 6.10)

“objective examination” obligation (AD 3.1) and AD 21011

volume and price effects determination (AD 3.2) AD 21011

 

Mexico — Taxes on Soft Drinks (AB), WT/DS308/AB/R, DSR 2006:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), submission, correction of clerical error (ABWP 18(5)), requests for DSU 1406

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) DSU 601, 989, 1551

right to “seek redress” (DSU 23.1) and DSU 1303

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements

“laws or regulations”, international rules, exclusion GATT 9223

“to secure compliance” GATT 927

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1), balance of rights and obligations and DSU 1303

 

Mexico — Taxes on Soft Drinks (Panel), WT/DS308/R

arguendo assumptions, “even assuming” DSU 135

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), obligation to exercise jurisdiction/should make an objective assessment GATT 1044, DSU 518, 535

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), complaints and counter-complaints as separate issues DSU 1345

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), identification of treaty provisions, obligation of panel to address cited provisions (DSU 7.2) DSU 423

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “affecting” GATT 3656

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

“directly or indirectly” (GATT III:2, first sentence) GATT 27980

“so as to afford protection” (GATT III:2, second sentence), intention of legislators/regulators, relevance GATT 320

RTAs (GATT XXIV:5), dispute settlement (Understanding 12) GATT 1044

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it”

all arguments DSU 521

independent assessment, in absence of party’s counter-arguments DSU 521

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), as definition of jurisdiction/ legal claims at issue, “shall address” (DSU 7.2) DSU 423

 

Mexico — Telecoms (Panel), WT/DS204/R, DSR 2004:IV

composition of panel (DSU 8), “diverse background” (DSU 8.2) DSU 431, 1356

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), non-performance of obligations under covered

agreements, exclusion of domestic law as justification

(VCLT 27) GATS 140, DSU 1519

developing countries (GATS IV), telecommunications, right to place reasonable conditions on GATS 256

dispute settlement and enforcement (GATS XXIII), nullification and impairment (DSU 3.8) distinguished GATS 204, DSU 100

dispute settlement, special provisions relating to developing countries, requirement for specific indication of form in which account has been taken of special needs (DSU 12.11) DSU 718

domestic law, as justification for failure to fulfil international obligations, exclusion (VCLT 27) GATS 140, DSU 1519

financial services (GATS), Annex, limitations as aid to interpretation of another GATS annex GATS 240

GATS Agreement

GATS Agreement, “public long-distance voice telephone services” (UN 1991 Provisional Central Product Classification) GATS 18

relevant factors (GATS I:2(a)), supplier’s place of operation or presence GATS 16

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, GATS Financial Services Annex/other GATS annexes GATS 240

“special meaning” (VCLT 31(4)) DSU 1607

market access (GATS XVI)

excluded measures (GATS XVI:2)

temporal qualifications GATS 1034

time-frame, need for (GATS XX:1(d)) GATS 104

“where market access commitments are made” (GATS XVI:2 chapeau) GATS 107

zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(a)) GATS 1056

zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(a), (b) and (c)) GATS 1056, 11718

zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(c)) GATS 124

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), GATS XXIII (dispute settlement and enforcement), distinguished GATS 204, DSU 100

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“cost-oriented rates” (Reference Paper on Basic Telecommunications) GATS 1535

“shall apply to all measures” (GATS Annex on Basic Telecommunications) GATS 242

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 3.8/GATS XXIII:1 DSU 100

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX)

required information (GATS XX:1), time-frame for implementation (GATS XX:1(d)) GATS 104, 1925

treaty status GATS 140

Secretariat (DSU 27), role DSU 1356

sovereignty, impairment of other Members’ rights as breach DSU 1739

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1), functional approach to (TBT 2.8), “wherever appropriate” TBT 77

telecommunications, GATS Annex on Basic Telecommunications access and use (Section 5)

“any service supplier of any other member … for a service included in its schedule” (Section 5(a)) GATS 243

by scheduled suppliers of basic telecommunications GATS 2424

“conditions” (Section 5(e)) GATS 252

developing countries’ right to place reasonable conditions on (Section 5(g)) GATS 256

interrelationship between Section 5(a) and Section 5(b)-(f) GATS 2456

“necessary” (Section 5(e)) GATS 2534

“reasonable and non-discriminatory” terms and conditions (Section 5(a)) GATS 245

“reasonable” (Section 5(a)) GATS 2489

“shall apply to all measures” (Section 2(a)) GATS 242

“subject to paragraphs (e) and (f)” GATS 250

“terms” (Section 5(a)) GATS 247

Reference Paper on Basic Telecommunications and GATS 257

“shall ensure” /obligation (Section 5(b)) GATS 251

unscheduled service, prevention (Section 5(e)(iii)) GATS 255

telecommunications (GATS provisions)

cross-border trade, relevant factors (GATS I:2(a))

commercial presence, sufficiency (GATS I:2(c)) GATS 22, 148

degree of interaction between suppliers GATS 20

links to another operator GATS 21

ownership and control of infrastructure to supply service GATS 1719

supplier’s place of operation or presence GATS 16

telecommunications, GATS XVIII Reference Paper on Basic Telecommunications

Annex on Basic Telecommunications and GATS 257

“anti-competitive practices” (Section 1.1)

“anti-dumping practices” GATS 1357

cross-subsidization GATS 138

horizontal price-fixing GATS 1367

“major supplier” and GATS 136

practices not listed under Section 1.2 GATS 137, 138

practices required by domestic law, relevance GATS 13841

proportionate return system GATS 143

setting of uniform price GATS 142

“appropriate measures” (Section 1.1) GATS 144

cross-border supply, applicability to GATS 1459

“specific commitments undertaken” (Section 2.1) GATS 145

interconnection (Section 2)

“cost-oriented rates” (Section 2.2(b)) GATS 15360

aggregate price for domestic use/price for international use comparison, validity GATS 1589

“having regard to economic feasibility” GATS 157

incremental cost methodologies and GATS 155

international grey market rates, relevance GATS 160

ordinary meaning GATS 1535

“reasonable” GATS 156

“major supplier” (Section 2.2) and GATS 150

“major supplier” (definitions)

“ability to materially affect …” GATS 151

competitive safeguards (Section 1.1) and GATS 136

“control over essential facilities” GATS 152

interconnection (Section 2.2) and GATS 150

relevant market, relevance GATS 150

“use of its position in the market” GATS 152

unilateral action by Member (DSU 23.1) and GATS 140

“trade in services” (GATS 1:2)

commercial presence, sufficiency (GATS I:2(c)) GATS 22, 148

cross-border trade (GATS I:2(a)), relevant factors

degree of interaction between suppliers GATS 20

links to another operator GATS 21

relevant factors (GATS I:2(A)), ownership and control of infrastructure to supply service GATS 1719

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1), GATS XVIII Reference Paper on Basic Telecommunications and GATS 140

 

MFA (Multi-fibre Agreement) measures, relevance ATC 778, TBT 72

 

MFN treatment (GATS II) GATS 3043

determination of violation, requirements

aims and effects test GATT 217, GATS 38

analysis of evidence GATS 33

Exemptions, Annex on

Procedures for the Certification of Terminations, Reductions and Rectifications GATS 202

review (Annex para. 3) GATS 231

review (Annex para. 4) GATS 2324

termination of exemption period (Annex para. 7), notification format GATS 236

financial services, exemption (GATS: Fifth Protocol) GATS 41

judicial and administrative assistance, exclusion GATS 6, 30

“like service and service supplier” (GATS II:1), wholesale transactions GATS 367

maritime transport services, exemption

Decision on Maritime Transport Services (1996) GATS 42

negotiations GATS 42

national treatment (GATS XVII) distinguished GATS 34

relationships within and between agreements, GATS I:1/GATS II GATS 11, 32

telecommunications, exemption GATS 43

“treatment no less favourable” (GATS II:1), de facto discrimination GATT 25, GATS 34

vertical integration/exclusive distribution arrangements, effect GATS 35

 

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product” GATT 4655

affiliation with designated local manufacturer/importer requirement and GATT 478

conditional advantage and “advantage accorded unconditionally” distinguished GATT 49

differential treatment on the basis of origin of product and GATT 46, 51, 53–4 GATT practice GATT 55

local content requirement, relevance GATT 46

order of analysis GATT 27

private action and GATT 46

“unconditionally” GATT 52

ordinary meaning GATT 49

“advantage”

access to certification procedures GATT 37

allocation of tariff quotas GATT 35

any advantage … granted … to any product” GATT 34

creation of more favourable import duties GATT 33

flexible import procedures GATT 36

GATT practice GATT 38

“all matters referred to GATT III:2 and III:4” GATT 312

all other contracting parties”, RTAs (GATT XXIV:5) and GATT 50

“all other contracting parties”, RTAs (GATT XXIV:5) and GATT 50, 99

all other contracting parties”, RTAs (GATT XXIV:5) and GATT 115

“all other contracting parties”, RTAs (GATT XXIV:5) and GATT 115

“all rules and formalities” GATT 2830

“in connection with importation” GATT 30

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) and GATT 968, 488

GATT practice GATT 98

“any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by any Member” GATT 338

customs duties and tax benefits as (GATT III:2) GATT 117

de facto discrimination GATT 256

Decision on duty-free and quota-free market access for LDCs (2005) (DFQF) GATT 1056

review of implementation (2006) GATT 106

text GATT 105

findings under GATT III:4 and XX, relevance GATT 61

GATT practice GATT 109

frontier traffic, customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV) and GATT 99100

GATT practice GATT 100

historical preferences (GATT I:2 and I:3)

Secretarial Note reviewing status at 18 December 1992 GATT 56

waiver in respect of GATT I:4 for South Africa and Zimbabwe GATT 57

“like product”: see “like product” (GATT I)

as non-violation claim “benefit” (GATT XXIII:1(b)) GATT 974 n. 1381

Waiver on Preferential Tariff Treatment for LDCs (1999)

adoption WTO 118, GATT 101

extension to 30 June 2019 GATT 102

notification of market access measures GATT 103

notification procedure GATT 103

text GATT 101

transparency mechanism (PDAs) and GATT 1034

waivers (WTO IX:3 and IX:4): see waivers (WTO IX:3 and IX:4)

 

MFN treatment (RO Parts I-IV) and preferential trade regimes (RO Part V) distinguished RO 1

 

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1) TBT 1517

marks of origin and TBT 11, 166

“not more trade-restrictive than necessary” (TBT 2.2) distinguished TBT 32

 

MFN treatment (TRIPS 4)

“any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity” (chapeau) TRIPS 69

applicability to intellectual property rights addressed in TRIPS (TRIPS 3.1 footnote 3) TRIPS 68

“immediately and unconditionally” (chapeau) TRIPS 701

“less favourable treatment”, offset, applicability to all trademark owners requirement TRIPS 656

“nationals of any other country” (chapeau), burden/standard of proof TRIPS 72

notification requirements TRIPS 73

“protection of intellectual property” (chapeau), trade names, applicability of findings on trademarks TRIPS 67

 

Millennium Round, failure to agree on WTO 55

 

“minimum import price” (AG 4.2 and footnote 1) AG 54

 

Ministerial Conference powers

GATS XII:(5)(b) and XII:6 (balance of payments of payments procedures) WTO 64

GATT 1994, para. 2(b) (exercise of powers of Contracting Parties acting jointly) WTO 63, 82

TRIPS 64.3 (extension of non-applicability of non-violation complaints) WTO 65

WTO IV:3 (overview of WTO activities) WTO 76

WTOIX:2 (authoritative interpretation of WTO/Multilateral Trade Agreements) WTO 62, 197202

WTO IX:3 and IX:4 (waivers) WTO 62, 203

WTO VI:2 (appointment of Director-General) WTO 62, 171

WTOX:1 (adoption of amendments to WTO Agreement) WTO 62

WTO XII:2 (accession decisions) WTO 62, 2489

 

Ministerial Conference (WTO IV:1)

see also Cancún Ministerial Conference (2003); Doha Round decisions; Geneva Ministerial Conference (Seventh)/closing summary (2009); Geneva Ministerial Conference (eighth) (2011); Geneva Ministerial Conference/Declaration (1998); Hong Kong Ministerial Conference/Declaration (2005); Seattle Ministerial Conference (1999); Singapore Ministerial Conference/Declaration (1996)

decisions as of 31 December 2004 WTO 67

frequency of meetings WTO 5361

General Council’s authority to act on behalf of WTO 70

rules of procedure, adoption WTO 69

 

minor exceptions doctrine: see Berne Convention/TRIPS; minor exceptions doctrine

 

modification of Schedules (GATT XXVIII)

applicability of GATT I and XIII GATT 116, 139, 687, 10734

applicability of GATT XI and GATT 598

compensatory withdrawals (GATT XXVIII:3) (including application under GATT XXIV:6) GATT 1083

GATT practice GATT 1085

“general level of concessions … not less favourable to trade” (GATT XVIII:2) GATT 1075

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS) changes and GATT 178

notifications (GATT XXIV:5) GATT 1084

periodic updates GATT 180

procedures for (GATT 1947 council decision of 26 March 2980) GATT 179

renegotiations

GATT 1947 GATT 10778

GATT 1994 GATT 10802

Understanding on the Interpretation of, review (paragraph 1) GATT 1076

waivers (GATT II) and GATT 171, 17680

 

monopolies and exclusive service providers (GATS VIII)

electronic commerce GATS 66

notification format GATS 67

 

Movement of Natural Persons, Negotiating Group on

establishment GATS 216

“natural person of another Member” (GATS XXVIII(k)(ii)) GATS 230

 

Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services under the Agreement (GATS, Annex), measures relating to the entry and stay of natural persons GATS 237

 

multilateral treaties, modification by some of the parties (VCLT 41) DSU 1668

 

multiple appeals (notice of other appeal (ABWP 23)) DSU 14358

AB explanations of

choice of “identification” over “description” DSU 1437 n. 2239

decision to require (April and October 2004) DSU 14367

procedure (7 February 1996) DSU 1435

“statement of the nature of the other appeal” (ABWP 23(2)(c)(ii)), as equivalent of ABWP 20(2)(d) DSU 1438

third party rights DSU 515 n. 843

 

multiple appeals (special procedure for consolidation (ABWP 16 (1))) DSU 1365, 1383

 

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33)

“and” / “comme” GATT 4067

customary international law rules of interpretation, applicability DSU 1665 n. 2604

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) and DSU 1659 n. 2594

English, French and Spanish texts compared GATT 4067, TBT 101, SCM 43, TRIPS 17, 245, DSU 165767

ILC Commentary on DSU 1665 n. 2604

English and French texts compared TRIPS 103 n. 105, 103 n. 106, 103 n. 107

meaning which best reconciles texts (VCLT 33(4)) AG 42, DSU 1660

“ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and SCM 43, DSU 1660, 16647

presumption of identity of meaning (VCLT 33(3)) SPS 454, SCM 43, DSU 16617

“unduly strict requirements” (RO 2(c)) RO 12 n. 20

 

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

Article 22.6 arbitration and DSU 1282

harmonization of panels and timetables (DSU 9.3), joint meeting with experts DSU 488

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3) and, joint meeting with experts DSU 488

separate AB reports DSU 45860

separate interim review reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 80911

on a particular issue DSU 812

separate panel reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 44660

in absence of objection DSU 447

effect on timeframe (DSU 20) DSU 994

panel’s discretion DSU 449

structure DSU 4517

timeliness of request DSU 44850, 80911

single panel “whenever feasible” (DSU 9.1) DSU 444

ordinary meaning DSU 444

table DSU 445

third party rights DSU 515

third party participation in panel proceedings initiated by another complainant DSU 48894

 

multiple panels/different parties/measure in common DSU 183

 

multiple panels/same parties/same dispute (DSU 9.3) DSU 182, 4614

harmonization of timetables DSU 4635

panel’s discretion DSU 465

separate panel reports DSU 453

table DSU 461

 

municipal law: see domestic law

 

mutually agreed/acceptable solution to matters raised formally (DSU 3.6)

Article 21.5 compliance proceedings and DSU 801

characterization as such by parties, need for DSU 522

consultations (DSU 4) and DSU 136, 170

interpretation, parties’ statements as supplementary means in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32) DSU 82

notifications as at 31 September 2011 DSU 74

“solution” DSU 80

statements made at DSB meetings, whether DSU 27

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.8) and DSU 81

“would be fruitful” (DSU 3.7) DSU 79, 845, 87, 1089, 111, 1706

 

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