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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: INDEX

Index

The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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U

Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU): see DSU

 

undertakings (SCM 18): see price undertakings (AD 8)/undertakings (SCM 18)

 

unforeseen developments: see emergency action (GATT XIX); “as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a))

 

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1)

13.700, 17.1294–7: see also DSU dispute settlement, obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1)

balance of rights and obligations and DSU 13034, 1306

“chilling” effect DSU 29, 1313, 1689

“determination” DSU 1313

examples of excluded actions (DSU 23.2) DSU 13002, 1307

GATS XVIII Reference Paper on Basic Telecommunications and GATS 140

legislation [as such] in breach of unilateral undertaking DSU 339, 1312

relationship between DSU 23.1 and 23.2 DSU 1298304

statements at DSB meetings as DSU 29, 1313, 1689

 

unilateral statements, legal effect DSU 16859

 

United States

ATC safeguard measures (ATC 6), TMB discussion ATC 7, 10, 11, 13, 22, 50

Enabling Clause notifications

GSP schemes GATT 63

special treatment of least-developed countries GATT 79

 

Uruguay Round, quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI) and GATT 521

  

US — 1916 Act (AB), WT/DS136/AB/R, WT/DS162/AB/R, DSR 2000:

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), principles (AD 1), “anti-dumping measure” AD 5

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

AD 1 as link AD 1003, 1006

anti-dumping measure other than duty, applicability to GATT 4479

AD 18.1 and GATT 449

“may levy” and (GATT VI:2) GATT 460

dumping, constituent elements (AD 2/GATT VI:1)

material injury to domestic industry or threat of (GATT VI:6 (a)) GATT 454, 482

specific reference in legislation, relevance GATT 450

“may levy” (GATT VI:2) as limitation to Member’s choice whether or not to impose anti-dumping duty (AD 9) GATT 460, AD 723

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 367, 800, 1327, 1702

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4)

dispute settlement procedures (AD 17) and AD 876

legislation “as such” and AD 878, 969, DSU 278

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

GATT XXII and XXIII compared AD 8734

“matter”, referral to DSB (AD 17.4), identification of measure at issue requirement (DSU 6.2), identification as antidumping duty, acceptance of price undertaking or provisional measure, need for AD 891

determination of dumping (AD 2), constituent elements, intention and (AD 2/GATT VI:1) GATT 454

DSB, GATT acquis, commitment to adhere to (DSU 3.1) DSU 40, 278

DSU, applicability, covered agreements (DSU 1.1/DSU 7.2), AD Agreement DSU 3

GATT 1947/WTO continuity

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1)

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1)/provisions of legal instruments in force under GATT 1947 (GATT 1994 1(b)) (GATT acquis), dispute settlement, commitment to adhere to (DSU 3.1) DSU 40, 278

interim review (DSU 15)

jurisdictional challenge, timeliness DSU 367, 800

timeliness of objections to terms of reference DSU 800

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

AD 17.3/AD 17.4 AD 8736, 8913

GATT 1947, XXIII:1(a) and

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability AD 878, DSU 40, 278

GATT practice AD 882, DSU 40, 278, 28990

rejection/non-endorsement of doctrine DSU 297, 300

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“anti-dumping measure” AD 5

“specific action against dumping” GATT 449

preliminary rulings on, timing of objections DSU 367, 800

preparatory work (VCLT 32), AD 1 AD 5

relationships within and between agreements

AD 1/GATT VI:1 GATT 448

AD 9.4/GATT VI:2 AD 723

AD 17/AD 18 AD 876

AD 17/GATT XXII and XXIII AD 8734

AD 17.4/AD 18.1 and AD 876, TPRM 4

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement GATT 449, AD 956

action under other relevant provisions of GATT 1994 distinguished (AD 18.1 footnote 24) GATT 449, AD 956

“except in accordance with the provisions” SCM 584

“legislation as such” AD 876

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), claims against legislation as such

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), timeliness of objections DSU 367, 800

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

limited nature of DSU 476

multiple complainants (DSU 9) and DSU 492

as sole basis of rights DSU 476

 

US — 1916 Act (EC) (Panel), WT/DS136/AB/R and Corr.1, DSR 2000:X

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

AD 1 as link AD 1004

AD Agreement as context AD 10002

AD Agreement and GATT 1994 as integral part of WTO Agreement AD 723, 10002

separability of provisions AD 1000

violation of GATT VI, sufficiency for finding of violation of AD 2.1 and 2.2 GATT 451, 492, AD 163

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement AD163

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), “clarification of existing provisions” DSU 529

determination of injury (AD 3)

as detailed version of GATT VI GATT 494, AD 321

as evidence of AD 602 n. 836, DSU 52830

compliance with international obligations, interpretation of legislation distinguished DSU 529 n. 861

decisions of domestic courts, applicability DSU 529

domestic law, as fact for purposes of international adjudication, legislative history, relevance DSU 530

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

development of arguments at earliest possible stage DSU 118

interim review (DSU 15) and DSU 799

interim review (DSU 15)

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 799

reargument of case, exclusion DSU 782

timeliness of objections to terms of reference DSU 799

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) AD 878

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase AD 1000

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose GATT 400, 404, SPS 494, AD 321

legal status of panel reports, unadopted reports AD 878, DSU 1148

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability AD 878, 969

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts GATT 404

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

anti-dumping (GATT VI) and GATT 4002

GATT VI and GATT 400

order of analysis, specific/general provision GATT 4002

relationships within and between agreements

AD 3/GATT VI GATT 494

AG 3/GATT VI:1 AD 321

GATT III:8/GATT VI GATT 4002

specific/general provision, as general principle of international law AD 467 n. 622

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement, “except in accordance with the provisions” AD 959

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

claims against legislation as such AD 891

“objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment of domestic law DSU 52830

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), timeliness of objections DSU 367, 799

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

agreement between the parties, relevance DSU 491

multiple complainants (DSU 9) and DSU 491

unilateral statements, legal effect DSU 1686

 

US — 1916 Act (Japan) (Panel), WT/DS162/R and Add.1, DSR 2000:X

AD 18.1/other Ad Articles AD 9789

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), object and purpose, absence of specific provision/preamble AD 1

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

AD 1 as link AD 1005

quantitative restrictions (GATT XI) and AD 248

separability of AD and GATT VI GATT 493

separability of provisions GATT 493, AD 1000

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4), finding of non-conformity under any AD provision WTO 290, AD 9789

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4) WTO 290

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), correction of factual errors and DSU 124

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts GATT 404

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), GATT VI and GATT 4034

order of analysis, specific/general provision GATT 4034

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI), GATT VI and GATT 648

relationships within and between agreements

AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/WTO XVI:4 WTO 290

AD/GATT VI AD 1005

AD/GATT XI GATT 648, AD 1007

GATT III:3/GATT VI GATT 4034

GATT VI/GATT XI GATT 490, 641

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement, action under other relevant provisions of GATT 1994 distinguished (AD 18.1 footnote 24) AD 960

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), claims against legislation as such AD 891

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

agreement between the parties, relevance DSU 491

multiple complainants (DSU 9) and DSU 491

participation in proceedings initiated by another complainant (DSU 9) DSU 492

 

US — 1916 Act (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS136/11, implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings, surveillance (DSU 21), prompt compliance (DSU 21.1), flexibility DSU 1002

 

US — 1916 Act (EC) (Article 22.6 — US), WT/DS136/ARB, DSR 2004:IX

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

“by the original panel” DSU 1211

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7), suspension of concessions or “other obligations”, limitations on role DSU 1219

burden of proof (general rules)

nature and purpose of countermeasures DSU 1180

“or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2) DSU 1193

“specific” DSU 1196

suspension of concessions, conformity with DSU 22.4 DSU 584

changes in level after authorization DSU 1239

court judgments and DSU 1233, 1269

deterrent / “chilling” effect DSU 1235

litigation costs and DSU 1236

reasoned estimates, need for DSU 1229

settlement agreements and DSU 1234, 1269

zero level, exclusion DSU 1224

retaliatory measures, legality, WTO law DSU 1251 n. 1949

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), “equivalent”, qualitative test DSU 12502, 1269

as retaliatory measure DSU 1251 n. 1949

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) DSU 1180

 

US — Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties (China) (AB), WT/DS379/AB/R

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), documents (ABWP 18), failure to file by deadline (ABWP 18(1)) DSU 1401, 11401

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

AD 2.1/GATt VI:1(a) and AD 2.2/GATT VI:1(b) distinguished GATT 481

anti-dumping vs countervailing duties/exclusion of double remedy (GATT VI:5/SCM 19) GATT 4801

determination of dumping (AD 2/GATT VI:2), sale “destined for consumption in exporting country” (AD 2.1/GATT VI:2) GATT 481

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of normal value, eligible transactions, requirements (AD 2.1), sale “destined for consumption in exporting country”, GATT VI:1(a) compared GATT 481

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

non-market economies (NMEs) and (Note 2 Ad Article VI:1) GATT 455

as exceptional method GATT 455, 481

sales transaction not “in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.2), AD 2.1/GATT VI:1(a) distinguished GATT 481

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1627

expedited review, right to (SCM 19.3), double remedies and GATT 455, 480, SCM 466, 4801

good faith interpretation of treaty (VCLT 31(1)), presumption of good faith and DSU 1546

ILC Articles, status as “rule” of international law DSU 1599600

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)) DSU 1598600

constituent elements (“rules” / “relevant” / “applicable between the parties”) DSU 1598

customary international law as DSU 1598

“sources of international law” (ICJ Statute 38(1)) as DSU 1598

as supplementary means / “taken into account” DSU 1600

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent practice … which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b)), panel report (adopted) DSU 821

context (VCLT 31(2))

“any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) DSU 1559

jurisprudence, relevance DSU 821

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to omissions DSU 1617

hierarchical relationship between elements in VC 31, whether DSU 1599

object and purpose, SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 8

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise DSU 1555, 1667

legal status of panel reports, adopted reports (DSU 16) DSU 821

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), “ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 1667

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1627

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1667

relationships within and between agreements, SCM 1.1(a)(1)/ILC Articles on State Responsibility DSU 1683

SCM Agreement

object and purpose (SCM 1)

balanced framework of rights and obligations relating to countervailing duties SCM 8

strengthening and improvement of GATT disciplines on subsidies and countervailing measures SCM 8

strengthening and improvement of GATT disciplines on subsidies and countervailing measures SCM 8

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

legal findings or developed interpretations, limitation to (DSU 17.13) DSU 898

completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/ omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 882

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles) DSU 1599600

responsibility for act or omission of, agency with specific official responsibilities and powers / “public body” DSU 1683

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

loans (SCM 14(b)), benchmarks SCM 41112

provision of goods or services (SCM 14(d)), “prevailing market conditions” /benchmarks SCM 419

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

“private body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)), government entrustment or direction, effect SCM 8, 567

“public body”, classification as, relevance SCM 8, 58

“public body”, criteria for classification as, government authority SCM 17, DSU 1683

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2)

“certain enterprises” (SCM 2 chapeau) SCM 103

de facto specificity (SCM 2.1(c)), relevant factors SCM 101

principles determining (SCM 2.1), structure of SCM 2.1/ interrelationship between subparagraphs SCM 2.1(a)-(c) SCM 101

 

US — Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties (China) (Panel), WT/DS379/R

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, anti-dumping vs countervailing duties/exclusion of double remedy (GATT VI:5/SCM 19) GATT 4801

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1627

double remedies, notification to all interested parties of essential facts (SCM 12.8) and SCM 395, DSU 1617

evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12)

notification to all interested parties of essential facts under consideration (SCM 12.8)

double remedies and SCM 395

notification of “essential facts” and evidence required to establish claim distinguished SCM 395

questionnaires (SCM 12.1.1), supplementary questionnaires, status SCM 381, 679

resort to “facts available” (SCM 12.7), authorities’ failure to give notice of required information (SCM 12.1) and SCM 392

evidence (investigation of countervailing duties) (SCM 12)

“information which the authorities require” (SCM 12.1) SCM 3789

“due notice” / “ample opportunity” (SCM 12.1) SCM 379

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to omissions DSU 1617

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) SCM 392

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1627

regional specificity (SCM 2.2), definition problems SCM 11617

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14), loans (SCM 14(b)), benchmarks SCM 41112

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2), regional specificity (SCM 2.2), definition problems SCM 11617

 

US — Anti-Dumping Measures on Oil Country Tubular Goods (Panel)

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), retroactivity of trade measures (ATC 6.10) and GATT 542

retroactivity (trade measures) (ATC 6.10), prior publication (GATT X:2), relevance GATT 542

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test), causation, relevance AD 805

 

US — Anti-Dumping Measures on Oil Country Tubular Goods (AB), WT/DS282/AB/R, DSR 2005:XX

judicial economy. “positive solution to dispute” requirement (DSU 3.7)/false judicial economy and. DSU 655

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test)

cumulative assessment (AD 3.3), applicability AD 81115

determination of likelihood

causation, relevance AD 80610

injury requirement AD 80610

determination of likelihood qualitative assessment AD 81618

objective assessment (DSU 11) AD 816

investigating authorities’ obligation to seek out information AD 818

“other factors”, importance AD 817

 

US — Anti-Dumping Measures on PET Bags (Panel), WT/DS383/R

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement AD 122

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), “comparable” AD 122

 

US — Canada Tuna (GATT Panel), BISD 295/91

interim review (DSU 15), termination of measures following, effect DSU 384 n. 623

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), terminated measures, termination following agreement on terms of reference DSU 384 n. 623

 

US — Carbon Steel (AB), WT/DS213/AB/R and Corr.1, DSR 2002:IX

amicus curiae briefs, confidential information obligations (DSU 18.2) DSU 126

burden of proof (general rules), on domestic law DSU 578

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) SCM 501

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

balance between rights and obligations relating to, need for SCM 4

duration (SCM 21.1) SCM 478

preconditions (SCM19.1), standard of proof (SCM22.1) SCM503

public notice and explanation of determinations (SCM 22), standard of proof (SCM 22.1) SCM 503

as remedy to offset benefits of subsidies SCM 4

determination of injury (SCM 15), “subsidization” and injury caused by “subsidized imports” distinguished SCM 372

developing countries (SCM 27)

de minimis subsidization threshold (SCM 27.10 and 27.11) SCM 570

notification of nature of case DSU 187

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance DSU 187, 194

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes, practice in application of laws DSU 336

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6), sunset review (SCM 21.3), absence of cross-reference from SCM 36970, 48990, 498, 499

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

as limitation on right to bring action under DSU DSU 108

prompt challenge to deficient procedures DSU 126

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

case-by-case approach DSU 209

“specific”, “attendant circumstances”, relevance DSU 240

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), discretion not to seek DSU 607, 758

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

footnotes to treaty SCM 372

object and purpose, preamble as evidence of SCM 4

preamble of agreement under consideration, as evidence of object and purpose SCM 4

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, crossreferencing, role SCM 36970, 48990, 498, 499

supplementary means (VCLT 32), “recourse may be had” DSU 1634

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) DSU 1552

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

preparatory work (VCLT 32) SCM 371

Secretariat Note for the Uruguay Round Negotiating Group on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (1987), relevance SCM 371

procedural nature of provisions SCM 366, 368

sufficient evidence requirement in case of initiation of investigation in absence of application (SCM 11.6) SCM 365

termination (SCM 11.9)

de minimis standard, applicability SCM 36673

developing countries (SCM 27.10) SCM 570

limitation of SCM 11.9 to investigation phase SCM 366

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), summary “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 194

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

claims “as such” vs claims “as applied”, relevance of distinction DSU 336

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability

burden of proof and DSU 336

rejection/non-endorsement of doctrine DSU 300

preparatory work (VCLT 32)

AD 5/SCM 11 SCM 371

SCM 11 SCM 371, DSU 1642

relationships within and between agreements

SCM 11.6/SCM 21.3 SCM 365

SCM 11.9/SCM 21.3 SCM 36673

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2)

compliance, importance of

demonstration of on the “face of the request”, need for DSU 187, 194

scrutiny by panel DSU 187

subsequent cure of defect, exclusion DSU 187, 194

due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 187, 194

fruitfulness of action (DSU 3.7), determination by Member DSU 108

“sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 187

SCM Agreement, object and purpose (SCM 1), balanced framework of rights and obligations relating to countervailing duties SCM 4

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, discretion in selection of evidence to refer to explicitly DSU 606

subsidy, definition (SCM 1), level of subsidy, relevance SCM 372

sunset review (SCM 21.3)

burden/standard of proof

original investigation requirements (SCM 11 and 12) distinguished SCM 4901

SCM 11.6, relevance SCM 365

SCM 11.6, relevance in absence of cross-reference to SCM 36970, 48990, 498, 499

de minimis standard

absence of reference to, relevance SCM 5001

termination of investigation provisions (SCM 11.9) distinguished SCM 36673, 5001

as threshold test SCM 367, 372

original investigation requirements distinguished SCM 4901, 4978

likelihood test SCM 4945

preparatory work (VCLT 32) SCM 373

self-initiation, right of SCM 488

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue DSU 361

request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 187

 

US — Carbon Steel (Panel), WT/DS213/R and Corr.1, DSR 2002:IX

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), expedited sunset review, treatment as subsidiary of closely related measure DSU 217

interim review (DSU 15), timeliness of objections to terms of reference DSU 801

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in different agreements, SCM 21.2/AD and SPS Agreements SCM 494

relationships within and between agreements, SCM 11.6/SCM 21.3 SCM 365

sunset review (SCM 21.3)

AD 11.2 standard, applicability SCM 494

burden/standard of proof, SCM 11.6, relevance SCM 365

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), timeliness of objections DSU 801

 

US — Certain EC Products (AB), WT/DS165/AB/R, DSR 2001:I and DSR 2001:II

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement, “prima facie DSU 415

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

“may uphold, modify or reverse” legal findings (DSU 17.13), “moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 894

right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) DSU 416

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 415

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

arguments distinguished DSU 326, 415

clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 415

legal status of panel reports, “moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 894

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), terminated measures, termination before agreement on terms of reference DSU 390

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 23.1/DSU 23.2 DSU 1301

GATT II/GATT XI GATT 626

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), treatment no less favourable than that provided in appropriate schedule (GATT II:1 (a)), bonding requirements, imposition of import duties distinguished GATT 626

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), authorization, need for (DSU 3.7, 22.6 and 23.2(c)), suspension without authorization as breach of DSU 3.7 DSU 89, 1318

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue

failure to make specific mention of alleged inconsistency (DSU 23.2(a)) DSU 415

specific legal claim included in terms of reference, limitation to DSU 415

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1)

examples of excluded actions (DSU 23.2) DSU 1301

relationship between DSU 23.1 and 23.2 DSU 1301

 

US — Certain EC Products (Panel), WT/DS165/R and Add.1, DSR 2001:I and DSR 2001:II

customs value determination (VAL), surety for ultimate payment (VAL 13) VAL 48

DSU dispute settlement

obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1)

prohibition of suspensions prior to completion of DSU 22 procedures DSU 1317

in “seeking redress of WTO violation” DSU 1305

fees and formalities connected with importation and exportation “limited … to the approximate cost of services rendered” (GATT VIII:1(a)), bonding requirements GATT 501

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence DSU 931, 940 n. 1479

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2)), other articles in same agreement, DSU 23.1 as context for DSU 23.2 DSU 1299, 1307

dictionaries DSU 1305

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), terminated measures, termination before agreement on terms of reference DSU 390

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), “accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”, differential treatment on the basis of origin of product and GATT 51

order of analysis, specific/general provision, DSU 23.1/DSU 23.2 DSU 1300

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP)), separate opinion (DSU 14.3) GATT 626

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI), “prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1), bonding requirements GATT 626, 639

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 3.7/DSU 22.6 and DSU 22.3(c) DSU 89, 1318

DSU 23.1/DSU 23.2 DSU 1299300

DSU 23.1/VCLT 60 DSU 1672

GATT II/GATT XI GATT 639, 626

remedies as means of restoring balance of WTO rights and obligations DSU 1306

retaliatory measures, legality

international law DSU 1693

WTO law DSU 13067, 1693

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

as last resort “solution” (DSU 3.7) DSU 89, 1306

as retaliatory measure DSU 13067, 1693

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) DSU 1177, 1306

WTO authorization, need for (DSU 3.7, 22.6 and 23.2(c)) DSU 1317

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1) DSU 1299300

examples of excluded actions (DSU 23.2) DSU 1300, 1302 n. 2061

relationship between DSU 23.1 and 23.2 DSU 1299300

 

US — Clove Cigarettes (Panel), WT/DS406/R

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 366

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identification of product, need for DSU 232

interim review (DSU 15), timing of comments on report DSU 773

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex 1), explanation of justification on request (TBT 2.5), “upon the request” TBT 71

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent agreement … regarding its interpretation or application” (VCLT 31(3)(a)) DSU 1580

Doha Declaration, whether DSU 1580

context (VCLT 31(2)), “any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)), minor exceptions doctrine TBT 1001

object and purpose

preamble as evidence of TBT 7

TBT 2.8 TBT 80

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, Enabling Clause (EC 3(c)), SCM 27.4 and TBT 12.2 and 12.3 TBT 139

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose TBT 23

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1) TBT 16

“not more trade-restrictive than necessary” (TBT 2.2) distinguished TBT 32

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), english, French and Spanish texts compared (TBT 2.9.2) TBT 101

notification procedures (TBT 2.9)

notification of proposed regulations (TBT 2.9.2)

French and Spanish texts compared TBT 101

as inherent obligation TBT 101

provision on request of copy of proposed regulation (TBT 2.9.3) distinguished TBT 101

provision on request of proposed regulation, timing (TBT 2.9.3) TBT 102

“significant effect on trade of other members” (TBT 2.9 and 5.6) TBT 100 timing TBT 101

“urgent problems … arise or threaten to arise” (TBT 22.10) and TBT 103

publication of technical regulations/entry into force (TBT 2.12), “reasonable interval” TBT 107

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III:4/TBT 2.1 TBT 19

GATT XX/TBT 2.1 TBT 21

GATT XX/TBT 2.2 TBT 378

SPS 5.6 and footnote 3/TBT 2.2 TBT 39

SPS 10.1/TBT 12.3 SPS 389, TBT 138

SPS/TBT 1.5 TBT 14

SPS/TBT SPS 286

TBT 2.1/TBT 2.2 TBT 32

TBT 2.2/TBT 12.3 TBT 136

TBT 2.9/TBT 2.10 TBT 103

special and differential treatment (SPS 10), obligation to “take account of” special needs of developing countries (SPS 10.1), “take account of” TBT 1401

special and differential treatment (TBT 12)

“not more trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfil a legitimate objective” obligation (TBT 2.2) distinguished TBT 136

“special development, financial and trade needs” (TBT 12.2 and 12.3), Enabling Clause (EC 3(c)) and SCM 27.4 compared TBT 139

SPS Agreement, TBT Agreement, applicability to (TBT 1.5) TBT 14

TBT Agreement

object and purpose (preamble)

as aid to interpreting TBT Agreement TBT 7

avoidance of unnecessary obstacles to trade/regulatory autonomy, functional approach to requirements (TBT 2.8) and TBT 76

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1)

functional approach to (TBT 2.8) TBT 769

interpretation in accordance with terms, context, object and purpose TBT 80

specificity, relevance TBT 80

test for determining compliance with TBT 79

“wherever appropriate” TBT 779

burden of proof TBT 78

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1) TBT 16

“not more trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfil a legitimate objective” (TBT 2.2)

availability of less trade-restrictive alternative TBT 26

burden of proof TBT 28

“for this purpose” /interrelationship between first and second sentences TBT 334

functional approach to (TBT 2.8) and TBT 76

“legitimate objective”

multiple objectives TBT 42

qualification as TBT 26, 44

as starting point for analysis TBT 41

“necessary”

GATT XX and TBT 37

SPS 5.6 footnote 3 and TBT 39

special account of needs of developing countries (TBT 12) distinguished TBT 136

TBT 2.1 (MFN treatment) distinguished TBT 32

two-step analysis TBT 30

publication of regulations/entry into force (TBT 2.12), “reasonable interval” TBT 107

 

US — Continued Suspension (Panel), WT/DS320/AB/R, DSR 2008:X

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), suspension of concessions (DSU 22) and WTO 289

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identification of each challenged measure DSU 189

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test), zeroing and AD 771

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

conformity of measure with WTO obligation, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4) WTO 289

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) WTO 289

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), sunset reviews (AD 13.3) and AD 771

 

US — Continued Zeroing (AB), WT/DS350/AB/R

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 1420

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4), legislation “as such” and, zeroing procedures and AD 145

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17), legal basis for consultation/claim (AD 17.3/AD 17.4), “measure” (AD 17.4), continued zeroing AD 896

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law, AD 17.6(ii) AD 9313

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes

circumstantial evidence DSU 635

factual findings in previous disputes DSU 631

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), establishment of existence of measures distinguished DSU 188

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), discretion not to seek DSU 759

interpretation of covered agreements, applicable law, customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in VCLT] AD 931

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) AD 931

multiple permissible interpretations AD 9313

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise AD 931, DSU 1540

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

claims “as such” vs claims “as applied”, relevance of distinction DSU 277

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), claims “as such” vs claims “as applied”, relevance of distinction DSU 277

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

continued zeroing AD 145, 8967

prospective measure DSU 261

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d)), failure to meet, consequences, error relating to jurisdiction DSU 1420

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3), “Member considers” DSU 70

public observation of oral hearing / “passive participation” (ABWP 27(3)), methodology DSU 1451

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 1889

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/ omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 87980

excess of jurisdiction, in absence of claim by party DSU 1420

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii)), “admits of more than one permissible interpretation” AD 9313

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, circumstantial evidence DSU 635

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 188

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

administrative reviews and GATT 466

legislation “as such” (AD 18.4) and AD 145

as “measure” (AD 17.4) AD 145, 896

 

US — Continued Zeroing (Panel), WT/DS350/R

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), “from any individual or body”, parties DSU 751

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

claims “as such” vs claims “as applied”, relevance of distinction DSU 277

prospective measure DSU 261

 

US — Corrosion-Resistant Steel Sunset Review (AB), WT/DS244/AB/R and Corr.1, DSR 2004:I

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), “clarification of existing provisions” DSU 298

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4)

classification as law, regulation or administrative procedure, applicability of WTO law AD 970 n. 1324

dispute settlement procedures (AD 17) and AD 970

dispute settlement procedures, applicability to AD 970

“laws, regulations and administrative procedures”, normative value as determining factor DSU 264, 2813, 287

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17), special or additional rule and procedure (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), whether DSU 14

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1624

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in same agreement, AD 11.2/AD 11.3 AD 783

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

analysis of legislation for purposes of DSU 280

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability

rejection/non-endorsement of doctrine DSU 299300

relevance AD 8812

normative value as determining factor DSU 264, 2812, 287

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 45, 281

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

any act or omission attributable to a Member DSU 2423, 271

“measure taken by another Member” (DSU 3.3) DSU 241

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “requirements”, non-mandatory measures GATT 352 n. 511

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1624

impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3), “measure taken by another Member” DSU 241

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), “measure taken by another Member”, nexus DSU 241

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.4/AD 11.3 AD 764

AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/WTO XVI:4 WTO 295

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) DSU 281

right to challenge legislation as such (WTO XVI:4) and DSU 45, 281

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, AD 17 DSU 14

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), responsibility for, act or omission of executive DSU 2413

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test)

company-specific determination, need for AD 783

investigatory role of authorities AD 7589

mandatory rule/exception AD 755

methodology

absence of specific provision AD 7634, 783

AD 2.4 disciplines, applicability AD 764

dumping margins, relevance AD 7634

original investigation distinguished AD 757

“positive evidence”, need for, presumptions, exclusion AD 7724

 

US — Corrosion-Resistant Steel Sunset Review (Panel), WT/DS244/R, DSR 2004:I

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), object and purpose, absence of specific provision/preamble AD 2

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

due process as underlying principle, balance of interests considerations AD 443

“facts available”, right of resort to (AD 6.8/Annex II), time–limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1), sunset reviews and AD 443

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in different agreements, cross-referencing, role AD 790, 797

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

rejection of application (AD 5.8), de minimis test, sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to AD 7935

self-initiation (AD 5.6), sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability of rules to AD 78990

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), policy document, whether (US Sunset Policy Bulletin) GATT 555

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “practice” as DSU 270

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a)), “shall administer” /applicability to substantive rule GATT 555, 565

relationships within and between agreements

AD 5.6/AD 11.3 AD 78990

AD 5.8/AD 11.3 AD 793–5, 7989

AD 6.1 and 6.2/AD 11.4 AD 443

AD 17.6/SCM 30 SCM 704

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

applicability to covered agreements other than AD Agreement AD 1014

de minimis test (AD 5.8), applicability AD 7935, 797

methodology, absence of specific provision AD 762

non-applicability to covered agreements other than AD Agreement including the SCM and SPS Agreements SCM 704

“positive evidence”, need for AD 759, 760

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test), self-initiation, applicability of AD 5.6 evidentiary standards AD 78990

 

US — Cotton Yarn (AB), WT/DS192/AB/R, DSR 2001:XII ATC 101

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

“may uphold, modify or reverse” legal findings (DSU 17.13), “moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 895

“may uphold, modify or reverse” panel findings (DSU 17.13) DSU 895

directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2)

criteria

interchangeability ATC 45

potential to compete as determining factor ATC 45

“directly” ATC 40, 45

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation/performance DSU 1503 n. 2316, 1504

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in different agreements, GATT III:2/ATC 6.2 ATC 43

legal status of panel reports, “moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 895

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to, evidence of measure and measure distinguished DSU 256 n. 378

“objective assessment of matter before it”, reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) and SG 152

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “competitive” (ATC 6.2) ATC 44

proportionality

attribution of damage (ATC 6.4) ATC 65

countermeasures ATC 63

safeguard measures (ATC 6.4) and ATC 63

State responsibility and ATC 63, DSU 1674 n. 2617, 1696

relationships within and between agreements

ATC 6.4, possible findings under ATC 60

GATT III:2/ATC 6.2 ATC 423

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review, exclusion ATC 25, 101, SG 152

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, evidence available to Member at time of ATC determination, limitation to ATC 25, DSU 629

relevant factors, position of Member at time of determination ATC 25

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), countermeasures DSU 1674 n. 2617

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), proportionality and ATC 63

transitional safeguards (ATC 6)

attribution of damage from “sharp and substantial increase in imports” /criteria (ATC 6.4) ATC 21, 31, 5765, 65, DSU 1696

comparative analysis ATC 615

methodology ATC 65

reasons for requiring ATC 624

“from a Member or Members individually” ATC 58

relevant factors (ATC 6.3) ATC 21, 31

serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2) ATC 21

“directly competitive”

GATT III:2, applicability ATC 43

proximity of relationship, relevance ATC 445

“domestic industry producing like and/or directly competitive products”

“and/or” ATC 478

captive production ATC 46

“producing” ATC 41

product-oriented definition ATC 40

due diligence review (DSU 11), available evidence, limitation to ATC 25, DSU 629

 

US — Cotton Yarn (Panel), WT/DS192/R, DSR 2001:XII

determination of injury (AD 3), domestic production of like product, assessment of effect on (AD 3.6), sectoral analysis, right to AD 289

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 959

panel reports, high quality/flexibility of panel procedures balance (DSU 12.2) DSU 695

relationships within and between agreements, GATT/ATC WTO 23

transitional safeguards (ATC 6)

attribution of damage from “sharp and substantial increase in imports” (ATC 6.4) (ATC 6.4), “sharp and substantial increase in imports” ATC 59

attribution of damage from “sharp and substantial increase in imports” (ATC 6.4)/criteria, “from a Member or Members individually” ATC 60

serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2)

investigation period, length ATC 38

“or actual threat of” ATC 36

“serious damage”, change of equipment, whether ATC 37

WTO Agreement, as single undertaking (WTO II:2), common context WTO 23

 

US — Countervailing Duty Investigation on DRAMS (AB), WT/ DS296/AB/R, DSR 2005:XVI

consultations (DSU 4), addendum to original request DSU 150

determination of injury (SCM 15), causal relationship between subsidized imports and injury to domestic injury (SCM 15.5 and footnote 47), non-attribution of other factors SCM 445

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes, circumstantial evidence DSU 634

evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12), standard of review (investigating authority) SCM 57980

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

claims and arguments distinguished DSU 1413

statement of allegation of error on issues of law/legal interpretations (ABWP 20(2)(d)), generic statement, sufficiency DSU 1414

“public body” (SCM 1.1(a)(i)), “private body”, attempt to distinguish (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)) SCM 17 n. 28

SCM Agreement, object and purpose (SCM 1), balanced framework of rights and obligations relating to countervailing duties SCM 8

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence

circumstantial evidence DSU 634

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement and VAL 5

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution), “private body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)), government entrustment or direction, effect SCM 514

 

US — Countervailing Duty Investigation on DRAMS (Panel), WT/DS296/R

determination of injury (SCM 15)

“all relevant economic factors” (SCM 15.4) SCM 439

domestic industry definition (SCM 16), relevance SCM 442

causal relationship between subsidized imports and injury to domestic injury (SCM 15.5 and footnote 47)

non-attribution of other factors SCM 448, 449

identity of AD 3.5 provisions/applicability of jurisprudence relating to SCM 4456

identity of AD 3 provisions/applicability of jurisprudence relating to SCM 421, 445

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (SCM 15.1)

“objective examination” SCM 4212

as underlying principle SCM 421

price effect determination (SCM 15.2)

non-attribution of factors other than subject imports SCM 434

price undercutting SCM 433, 4356

existence vs cause of SCM 435

significant increase in subsidized imports (SCM 15.2) SCM 42930

underlying principles (SCM 15.1) and SCM 422

“domestic injury” (SCM 16), determination of injury (SCM 15) and SCM 422

evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12), on-the-spot verification (SCM 12.6 and Annex VI) SCM 387, 679

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) SCM 433

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

“private body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)) SCM 17 n. 28

“public body”, classification as, “private body” (SCM 1.1(a)(iv)), difficulty of distinguishing SCM 17 n. 28

 

US — Countervailing Measures on Certain EC Products (AB), WT/DS212/AB/R, DSR 2003:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

appellant’s submission (ABWP 21), grounds for allegation of specific errors (ABWP 21:2) DSU 1433

“appropriate procedure for the purpose of that appeal only” (ABWP 16(1)) DSU 1423

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, calculation of subsidies (GATT VI:3/SCM 19.4) GATT 471

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with SCM Agreement (SCM 32.5) WTO 293, SCM 598

countervailing duties (SCM Part V), calculation of countervailing duty / “not in excess” (SCM 19.4), nexus, need for, GATT VI:3 and GATT 471

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1623

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

notice of appeal (ABWP 20(2)(d)) and DSU 1408

opportunity to defend oneself DSU 1408

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

choice of means at authorities’ discretion (DSU 21.3) DSU 984

panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 981

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability rejection/non-endorsement of doctrine DSU 298, 300 n. 483

relevance WTO 293

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

amendment (WBWP 23 bis)/clarification DSU 1423

demonstration of need for DSU 1439

clear allegation of panel’s failure to make objective assessment (DSU 11) DSU 1428

due process and DSU 1408

failure to meet, preliminary ruling on DSU 1423

statement of allegation of error on issues of law/legal interpretations (ABWP 20(2)(d)) DSU 1423

paragraph numbers/extracts from panel report, sufficiency DSU 1423, 1425

statement of grounds (ABWP 21:2) DSU 1433

as trigger for appeal process (ABWP 20(1)) DSU 1408

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1623

preliminary rulings on, compliance with ABWP 20(2)(d) DSU 1423

relationships within and between agreements, AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/ WTO XVI:4 WTO 293, SCM 598

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), DSU 11 (function of panel) claims and claims relating to substantive provisions distinguished DSU 1429

 

US — Countervailing Measures on Certain EC Products (Panel), WT/DS212/R, DSR 2003:I

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with SCM Agreement (SCM 32.5) WTO 292, SCM 597

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10), calculation of subsidies GATT 471

“countervailing duty” (SCM 10 footnote 36), “offsetting” requirement SCM 354

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1623

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 977

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), identification of treaty provisions DSU 1146

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/ discretionary legislation, distinguishability, relevance WTO 292

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1623

relationships within and between agreements, AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/WTO XVI:4 WTO 292, SCM 597

 

US — Countervailing Measures on Certain EC Products (Article 21.5 — EC) (Panel), WT/DS212/RW, DSR 2005:XVII

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 1126

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “measures taken to comply” (DSU 21.5) and DSU 1126, 1146

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 6.2/DSU 21.5 DSU 1126, 1146

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, subsequent cure of defect, exclusion DSU 1145

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel, own motion obligation to examine fundamental issues DSU 1126

DSU 6.2 procedures, applicability, “measures at issue” (DSU 6.2) DSU 1126, 1146

“measures taken to comply”

fundamental nature DSU 1126

redeterminations DSU 1116

 

US — Customs Bond Directive (Panel), WT/DS345/R, DSR 2008:VIII

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), “duties” (AD 9/SCM 19), bonds distinguished AD 656, SCM 459

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4), notification of laws and regulations (AD 18.5), US Customs Bond Directive AD 974, SCM 599

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with SCM obligations, obligation to ensure (SCM 32.5), notification of changes to laws and regulations (SCM 32.6) AD 974, SCM 599

provisional measures (AD 7), “not in excess of” (AD 7.2) AD 649

 

US — Customs User Fee (GATT Panel), L/6264, BISD 35S/245, fees and formalities connected with importation and exportation (GATT VIII) GATT 499

 

US — DRAMS (Panel), WT/DS99/R, DSR 1999:II

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD)

applicability (AD 18.3)

pre-/post-WTO reviews AD 966

“reviews of existing measures” AD 965

anti-dumping duties, duration and review (AD 11)

AD 11.1 as general principle underlying AD 11.2 and 3 AD 735

“injury” (AD 3 footnote 9) AD 747, 751

“likely to lead to continuation or recurrence” (AD 11.2)

“not likely” test AD 739, 748

probability, need for AD 749

sunset review (AD 11.3) and AD 749

“necessary to offset dumping” (AD 11.2) AD 739, 7416

necessity (AD 11.1) and AD 739, 741

standard of proof AD 745, SCM 494

sunset review (AD 11.3) and AD 7423, 743

necessity (AD 11.1) AD 7357

“no-dumping” finding (AD 11.2), timing of revocation of anti-dumping duty AD 743

“warranted” (AD 11.2) AD 7501

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), assessment (AD 9.3), de minimis test, AD 5.8 distinguished AD 402, 6713

burden of proof (general rules), onus probandi actori incumbit AD 51

determination of dumping (AD 2)

cost data (AD 2.2.1.1)

burden of proof AD 51

“in accordance with generally accepting accounting principles” AD 47

“reasonably reflect costs” requirement AD 47

records kept by the exporter or producer under investigation, limitation to AD 47

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6), accuracy of information, authorities’ obligation to satisfy themselves (AD 6.6), “satisfy themselves” AD 520

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 968

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) AD 7423

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

rejection of application (AD 5.8)

“cases”, anti-dumping duty assessment (AD 9.3), relevance AD 4012

de minimis test

anti-dumping duty assessment (AD 9.3) distinguished AD 402, 6713

function/obligation to use AD 402

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose AD 749

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/ discretionary legislation, distinguishability, assessment of mandatory nature AD 879, DSU 292

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), any act or omission attributable to a Member DSU 243 n. 349

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), Anti-Dumping Agreement and GATT 595

relationships within and between agreements

AD 3 footnote 9/Ad 11.2 AD 747, 751

AD 3.5/AD 11.2 AD 751

AD 5.8/AD 9.3 AD 4012, 6713

AD 11.1/AD 11.2 AD 739

AD 11.2/AD 11.3 AD 7423, 749

AD 11.2/AD 11.3 footnote 22 AD 743

AD 11.2/GATT I and X GATT 595

AD 18.3/SCM 32.3 GATT 451 n. 647, AD 965, 1011

State responsibility for acts or omissions of, executive DSU 240 n. 349

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test), duration and review of anti-dumping duties (AD 11.2) and AD 749

 

US — Export Restraints (Panel), WT/DS194/R and Corr.2, DSR 2001:XI

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose, caution in use of DSU 1570

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability AD 880 n. 1188, SCM 71

assessment of mandatory nature DSU 294

“practice” AD 883

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

independent operational status test AD 883, 885, DSU 266, 267

“practice” as DSU 267

order of analysis, mandatory/discretionary nature of legislation/ substance DSU 294, 295

preparatory work (VCLT 32), SCM Agreement (SCM 1) SCM 12

SCM Agreement, object and purpose (SCM 1), multilateral disciplines on subsidies distorting international trade SCM 3

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) as parallel requirement SCM 10

payments to a funding mechanism (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)) SCM 12

preparatory work (VCLT 32), SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 12, 14

transactions not qualifying as SCM 14

transfer of economic resources from grantor to recipient for less than full consideration SCM 12

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), subsidy programmes as such, right to challenge (mandatory/ discretionary distinction), order of analysis SCM 72 n. 140, 73 n. 141

 

US — FSC dispute (WT/DS108)

“sequencing” (interrelationship between Article 21.5 and Article 22.6 arbitration, ad hoc procedural agreements)

direct recourse to Article 22 DSU 1164

withdrawal of Article 22 arbitration request DSU 1163

 

US — FSC (AB), WT/DS108/AB/R, DSR 2000:III and DSR 2000:IV

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), timetable, modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1390

agricultural concessions and commitments (AG 3)

export subsidies, prohibition (AG 3.3)

scheduled and unscheduled products distinguished AG 31

applicability of AG 9.1 to both AG 312

consultations (SCM 4.1–4)

accelerated/expedited procedures (ABWP 31), effect SCM 197

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2) SCM 197

DSU 4.4 distinguished SCM 197

evidence of nature as subsidy, need for SCM 197

failure to submit, effect SCM 196

double taxation measures, justification (Illustrative List, SCM Annex I (item (e)) footnote 59)

applicable law/Member’s right to determine applicable rules SCM 605, 608

“foreign-source income” SCM 15960, 608

export subsidy commitments (AG 9)

costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d))

general business costs distinguished AG 108

income tax, whether AG 108

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10)

AG 3.3 prohibition on export subsidies and AG 32, 116

“export subsidies … applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to, circumvention …” (AG 10.1)

“circumvention”

scheduled and unscheduled products distinguished AG 116

threat of circumvention, sufficiency AG 112

“export subsidy commitments” AG 110

tax exemption, discretionary nature/legal right AG 114

“export subsidy” (AG 1(3)/SCM 1.1 and 3.1) AG 1617

export subsidy, definition (AG 1(e)) AG 12

“contingent upon export performance” AG 1415

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) (general) AG 1415

GATT XVI:4 distinguished SCM 100

GATT 1947/WTO continuity

“decisions” (WTO XVI:1/GATT 1(b)(iv)), classification as

GATT 1947 Council decisions WTO 278

GATT Council Understanding on tax legislation (1981) SCM 99100

panel reports (adopted) SCM 100

incorporation of GATT 1947 provisions into WTO Agreement WTO 20

“legal instruments” (GATT 1994 1(b)), “protocols and certifications relating to tariff concessions” (GATT 1994, 1(b)(i) and 1(d)) GATT 5

GATT 1994

constituent elements (GATT 1994, Art. 1)

“other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (Art. 1(b)(iv))

adopted panel reports, whether SCM 99100

panel reports, GATT Council decision adopting GATT 11 GATT 1994, constituent elements

(GATT 1994, Art. 1), “other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (Art. 1(b)(iv)), adopted panel reports, whether SCM 99100

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

prompt challenge to deficient procedures SCM 196, DSU 113

tactics and manoeuvres to avoid, exclusion DSU 113

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation/performance DSU 113

as general principle of international law SCM 196

as general principle of law SCM 196

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identification of product, need for DSU 230

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

remission or deferral of direct taxes (item (e))

deferral not amounting to export subsidy (footnote 59) SCM 158

third and fourth sentences as remedies SCM 160

social welfare charges (item (e)) footnote 59, relevance SCM 978

income tax, marketing cost, whether AG 108

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), good faith as SCM 196

interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for authoritative (WTO IX:2), “authoritative” interpretation and interpretation in dispute settlement distinguished WTO 200

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent practice … which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b)), GATT decisions including adoption of panel reports WTO 278, SCM 100

context (VCLT 31(2)), title AG 31

dictionaries AG 108

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, AG 1(e)/SCM 3.1(a) AG 14

legal status of panel reports

“other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (GATT 1994 1(b)(iv)), GATT Council decision adopting GATT 11

“other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (GATT 1994 1(b)(iv)), whether SCM 99100

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)), applicability to scheduled and unscheduled commitments (AG 3.3) AG 312

Permanent Group of Experts (PGE), panel’s right to establish (SCM 4.5) SCM 197

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) DSU 345

Working Procedures (AB) and SCM 196

relationships within and between agreements

AG 3.3/AG 9.1 AG 312

AG 3.3/AG 10.1 AG 32, 112

GATT XVI:4/SCM 1.1(a) and 3.1(a) GATT 716, SCM 100

SCM 1.1/SCM footnote 1 and footnote 59 SCM 978

SCM 1.1/WTO XVI SCM 99100

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, SCM 4.2 (consultations) SCM 197, DSU 19

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

issues not litigated before Panel SCM 160

new arguments DSU 856, 856

subsidy, definition (SCM 1), footnote 1 and footnote 59, relevance SCM 978

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

foregoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii))

national tax rules as normative benchmark SCM 32

“otherwise due” /basis of comparison (“but for” test) SCM 32

withdrawal of appeal (ABWP 30), withdrawal and re-filing of appeal, for scheduling reasons DSU 1470

Working Procedures, fair, prompt and effective settlement as objective DSU 113

WTO Agreement, as single undertaking (WTO II:2) WTO 20

 

US — FSC (Panel), WT/DS108/R, DSR 2000:III and DSR 2000:IV

consultations (DSU 4)

notification of request for (DSU 4.4), statement of available evidence (SCM 4.2), relevance DSU 171

as prerequisite to establishment of panel/requirement to indicate whether held (DSU 6.2) DSU 171

consultations (SCM 4.1–4)

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2) SCM 197

explicit reference, relevance SCM 195

ordinary meaning SCM 195

export subsidy commitments (AG 9)

costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d))

general business costs distinguished AG 108

income tax, whether AG 108

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10), burden of proof (AG 10.3), scheduled products, limitation to AG 127

GATT 1947/WTO continuity

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1) (GATT acquis), WTO XVI:1 and GATT 1994 1(b) distinguished WTO 282

“decisions” (WTO XVI:1/GATT 1(b)(iv)), classification as, GATT Council Understanding on tax legislation (1981) SCM 99100

GATT 1994, constituent elements (GATT 1994, Art. 1)

“other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (Art. 1(b)(iv))

adopted panel reports, whether SCM 99100

“legal instruments” (WTO Annex 1A, 1(b)) SCM 99100

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identification of product, need for DSU 230

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, “any subsequent practice ¼ which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b)), GATT decisions including adoption of panel reports WTO 278, SCM 100

legal status of panel reports, “other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (GATT 1994 1(b)(iv)), whether SCM 99100

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2) SCM 195

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 4.7/SCM 4.2 and 4.4 DSU 171

SCM 2.3/SCM 3 SCM 120

WTO XVI:1/GATT 1994 1(b) WTO 282

sovereignty, “tax sovereignty” DSU 1736

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), “shall prevail” in case of a difference with DSU SCM 197

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

foregoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii))

national tax rules as normative benchmark SCM 33

“otherwise due” /basis of comparison (“but for” test) SCM 33

 

US — FSC (Article 21.5 — EC) (AB), WT/DS108/AB/RW, DSR 2002:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1390

written reponses (ABWP 28), requests for additional memoranda/submissions DSU 1464

double taxation measures, justification (Illustrative List, SCM Annex I (item (e)) footnote 59)

applicable law/Member’s right to determine applicable rules SCM 607

international tax law principles SCM 610

burden of proof SCM 613

“foreign-source income” SCM 609

design, structure and architecture of measures, relevance SCM 604, 606, 607

international tax law principles and SCM 610

nexus between income and activities in foreign State, need for SCM 61112

export subsidy, definition (AG 1(e)), “contingent upon export performance” AG 16

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) (general)

“contingent” SCM 126

subsidy available to property produced either within or outside subsidizing State SCM 1502

GATS Agreement, “affecting” (GATS I:1), GATT III:4 compared GATT 362

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, international tax law principles SCM 610

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“affecting” GATT 362

GATS 1:1 compared GATT 362

“less favourable treatment”

formal differentiation in treatment, relevance GATT 379

market effect as test GATT 379

standard of proof GATS 131

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements “statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2), “source” (SCM footnote 59) SCM 604

preliminary rulings on, third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3) DSU 506

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 6.2/DSU 21.5 DSU 354, 1151

GATT I/GATT III:4 GATT 362

GATT III:4/TRIPS 3.1 GATT 417, TRIPS 50

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), Article 21.5 proceedings, applicability to DSU 354

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

DSU 6.2 procedures, applicability DSU 354

“measures taken to comply”

examination on basis of facts proved during panel proceedings, limitation to DSU 1142

new measures DSU 1142

third party rights (DSU 10), right to receive submissions to first meeting of the panel, limitation to (DSU 10.3) DSU 506

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution), foregoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii)), “otherwise due” /basis of comparison (“but for” test) SCM 34, 378

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

limited nature of DSU 477

panel’s discretion and DSU 477

third party rights (Article 21.5 proceedings) DSU 506

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), obligation to take “fully” into account (DSU 10.1) DSU 466

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), “without delay”, private action and SCM 213

 

US — FSC (Article 21.5 — EC) (Panel), WT/DS108/RW, DSR 2002:I

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) DSU 1147 n. 1795

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10)

AG 3.3 prohibition on export subsidies and AG 117

AG 3.3 prohibition on subsidies and AG 117

export competition commitments (AG 8) and AG 117

“export subsidies … applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to, circumvention …” (AG 10.1) AG 117

“circumvention”, scheduled and unscheduled products distinguished AG 117

tax exemption AG 117

“export subsidy” (AG 1(3)/SCM 1.1 and 3.1) AG 16

export subsidy, definition (AG 1(e)), “contingent upon export performance” AG 16

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose, SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 5

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose SCM 218

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP)), submission, right of (DSU 12.6 and WP 4), order of submission (DSU 12.6 and WP 12), arbitration (DSU 21.5), applicability to DSU 699

relationships within and between agreements

AG 3.3/AG 10.1 AG 117

DSU 21/SCM 4.7 SCM 218

SCM 3.1/SCM 3.2 SCM 178

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

third party rights (DSU 10)

right to receive submissions to first meeting of the panel, limitation to (DSU 10.3) DSU 506

right to receive submissions to first meeting of the panel, limitation to (DSU 10.3) DSU 506

timing, parties’ submissions, applicability of DSU 12.6 DSU 699

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), interpretation contradictory to object and purpose of agreement and SCM 5

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution), foregoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii)) SCM 5

 

US — FSC (Article 21.5 — EC II) (AB), WT/DS108/AB/RW2, DSR 2006:XI

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), replacement of member (ABWP 13), for serious personal reasons (ABWP 12) DSU 1376

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance DSU 220

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “measures taken to comply” (DSU 21.5) and DSU 11235

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 6.2/DSU 21.5 DSU 355, 11235

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), Article 21.5 proceedings, applicability to DSU 355

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

DSU 6.2 procedures, applicability DSU 354, 1151

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2) DSU 11235

 

US — FSC (Article 21.5 — EC II) (Panel), WT/DS108/RW2

DSB, collegiate/collective entity DSU 1148 n. 1802

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), case-by-case approach DSU 220

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings, surveillance (DSU 21), “recommendations and rulings” DSU 1148

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), subsequent proceedings/continuance of recommendations DSU 943, 1147

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), identification of specific measure distinguished DSU 220

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 220

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel, new recommendation, exclusion DSU 1149

surveillance of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21) as context DSU 1147

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), “matter referred to the DSB” (DSU 7.1) DSU 220

 

US — FSC (Article 22.6 — US), WT/DS180/ARB, DSR 2002:VI

arbitration (DSU 22.6), scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7), determination of “appropriateness/ appropriate” countermeasure (SCM 4.11) DSU 1293

countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10)

“appropriate” SCM 22830

proportionality (footnote 9) SCM 22830, DSU 12901, 1698

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and (SCM 4.11)

as special or additional rules and procedures DSU 23, 1242, 1280, 1283

task of arbitrator DSU 1293

calculation of countermeasure, possible bases/relevant factors

adverse trade effects SCM 233, 2379

amount of subsidy SCM 233

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) distinguished SCM 233

“countermeasure”

as retaliatory act SCM 222, DSU 1287

temporary nature DSU 1287

countermeasures in case of failure to take measures to remove adverse effects of or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.9), “countermeasures”, SCM 4.10 and 4.11 compared SCM 237, 251, 339, DSU 1283

countermeasures (general principles), proportionality SCM 226, 22830, 237, DSU 12901, 1698

erga omnes obligations DSU 1699700

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), erga omnes obligations DSU 1699700

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries LIC 1289, SCM 222, 226, DSU 1287

different language in same agreement SCM 237, 339

SCM 4.10 and 4.11/SCM 7.9 SCM 251

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), presumption of meaning SCM 237

footnotes to treaty SCM 22830

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty DSU 12901, 1698

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, DSU 22.4/SCM 4.10 and 4.11 SCM 233, DSU 1283

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) SCM 237

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“appropriate” (SCM 4.10) SCM 226

“appropropriate” (SCM 4.10) DSU 1289

“countermeasure” SCM 222, DSU 1287

“countermeasure” (SCM 4.10) SCM 222

proportionality

countermeasures SCM 226

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) and SCM 22830, DSU 12901, 1698

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 22.4/SCM 4.10 SCM 233, 238, DSU 1283

DSU 22.6/SCM 4.10 and 4.11 DSU 23

DSU 22.6/SCM 4.11 SCM 247

SCM 4.11/SCM 7.9 SCM 251

SCM 4.9 and 10/SCM 7.9 and 10 SCM 237, 251

retaliatory measures, legality, WTO law DSU 1287

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2)

arrangements considered for classification as

SCM 4.10 DSU 23

SCM 4.11 DSU 23, 1242, 1280, 1283

precedence SCM 247

“shall prevail” in case of a difference with DSU SCM 238, DSU 22

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), countermeasures DSU 1674 n. 2618

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

agreement to DSU 1268

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4)

“appropriate” (SCM 4.10) distinguished SCM 233, DSU 1242, 1283

“equivalent”, quantitative test DSU 1249

SCM 3 and 4 (prohibited subsidies) distinguished DSU 1242

 

US — Fur Felt Hats (Working Party Report), GATT/CP/106, safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2), “sufficient to cause serious injury or threat” (SG 2.1), separate determinations of threat and injury, need for SG 83

 

US — Gambling (AB), WT/DS285/AB/R, DSR 2005:XII, 5663 and Corr.1, DSR 2006:XII

burden of proof (general rules)

impossible burden SPS 71, DSU 565

prima facie case requirement, failure to present sufficient evidence GATS 102, DSU 547

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX) GATS 177

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties DSU 122

GATS Agreement

object and purpose (preamble)

security and predictability GATS 2

transparency GATS 2

“supply of a service” (GATS XXVIII(b)) GATS 226

General Exceptions (GATS XIV) (general)

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, exclusion (GATS XIV chapeau) GATS 78

determination by reference to context GATS 80

GATT XX jurisprudence, relevance GATS 74

order of analysis/freedom to choose issues to address GATS 79

two-step analysis (justification under paras. (a)-(d)/compliance with chapeau) GATS 75

General Exceptions (GATS XIV(a)), measures necessary to protect public morals or maintain public order

“a genuine and sufficiently serious threat … to one of the fundamental interests of society” (GATS XIV footnote 5) GATS 82, 845

balance between restrictive effect on international trade and “necessity” GATS 88

Member’s right to determine level of desired protection GATS 84, 8690

“necessary” GATS 81, 8690

burden of proof GATS 912

public morals exception (GATT XX(a)) and GATS 74

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), due process obligations and DSU 122

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent practice … which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b))

discernible pattern requirement GATS 182, DSU 1582

Scheduling Guidelines (1993) GATS 182

Scheduling Guidelines (2001) GATS 183

context (VCLT 31(2))

“any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) GATS 181, 1867, DSU 1556

Document W/120 GATS 1867

Scheduling Guidelines (1993) GATS 181

Scheduling Guidelines (2001) GATS 184

dictionaries GATS 109

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)), party’s intention in respect of own schedule, government document as evidence of GATS 190

same or closely related phrases in different agreements

GATS XIV/GATT XX(b) GATS 74

GATS XX/GATT II GATS 177

supplementary means (VCLT 32)

“circumstances of its conclusion”, unilateral classification practice DSU 1649 n. 2574

“recourse may be had” DSU 1632

market access (GATS XVI)

excluded measures (GATS XVI:2)

exhaustive nature of list GATS 97

limitations on the number of suppliers in the form of (GATS XVI:2(a)) GATS 10816

preparatory work (Scheduling Guidelines) GATS 115, 121

quotas, exclusion (GATS XVI:2(a), (b) and (c)), zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(a)) GATS 109, 11417

zero quotas (GATS XVI:2(c)) GATS 1203

“measure” (GATS XXVIII(a)) GATS 223

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

any act or omission attributable to a Member DSU 253

measure as source of impairment DSU 2534

“practice” as DSU 270

total prohibition as DSU 254

“effects” of measure and measure distinguished DSU 254

“measures by Members” (GATS I:3), “services” (GATS I:3(b)), allocation to specific sector/subsector GATS 23

preparatory work (VCLT 32)

GATS XVI:2 GATS 115

Scheduling Guidelines as GATS 115, 121

Document W/120 GATS 185

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX)

allocation to specific sector/subsector (“sector” (GATS XXVIII (3))), allocation to specific sector/subsector GATS 191, 229

as integral part of GATS (GATS XX:3) GATS 177, 198

interpretation and clarification

context (VCLT 31(2)), other Members’ schedules GATS 189

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law GATS 177

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)) GATS 177

Scheduling Guidelines (1993)

as “agreement made between all the parties in connection with the conclusion of the treaty” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) GATS 181

as subsequent practice establishing agreement of parties (VCLT 31(3)(b)) GATS 182

as supplementary means including preparatory work (VCLT 32) GATS 180

supplementary means of interpretation (VCLT 32)

Document W/120 GATS 185

Scheduling Guidelines (1993) GATS 1802

Scheduling Guidelines (2001) GATS 184

UN CPC GATS 188

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), transparency and (GATS preamble) GATS 2

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of

consideration of hypothetical case, exclusion GATS 123

panel’s analysis going beyond the strictly necessary and DSU 873

obiter findings of panel DSU 270

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, all legal claims (DSU 3.2), “positive solution” requirement (DSU 3.7) and GATS 79

transparency (GATS preamble/III), as object and purpose GATS 2

 

US — Gambling (Panel), WT/DS285/R

DSB, statements by Members at DSB meetings, legal effect, authorized statements for the record DSU 26

GATS Agreement

object and purpose (preamble)

security and predictability GATS 1

transparency GATS 1

“sector” (GATS XXVIII(e)) GATS 228

“supply of a service” (GATS XXVIII(b)) GATS 225

General Exceptions (GATS XIV(a)), measures necessary to protect public morals or maintain public order

either/or nature of requirement GATS 81

Member’s right to determine level of desired protection GATS 83

public morals exception (GATT XX(a)) and GATS 83

General Exceptions (GATT XX(a)), measures necessary to protect public morals

“necessary”, burden of proof GATT 881

“public morals” GATT 879

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, “reasonably available” alternative WTO-consistent measure GATT 9078

international law / “relevant rules of international law …” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) DSU 1592

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2), terms in Schedules as DSU 1592

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, context (VCLT 31(2)), Scheduling Guidelines (2001) GATS 184

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose GATS 70

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 270

market access (GATS XVI)

excluded measures (GATS XVI:2)

applicability of mode 1 restriction to all mode 1 means of delivery GATS 101

applicability to sector as a whole including subsectors (“sector” (GATS XXVIII(e))) GATS 100, 228

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “practice” as DSU 270

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)) (DSU 26.1), remedies (DSU 26.1(b)) DSU 1354

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(c)) (DSU 26.2), GATT practice distinguished DSU 1355

payments and transfers (GATS XI)

absence of jurisprudence GATS 70

importance of provision GATS 70

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX)

as integral part of GATS (GATS XX:3) GATS 197

interpretation and clarification, context (VCLT 31(2)), other Members’ schedules GATS 189

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), transparency and (GATS preamble) GATS 1

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, in absence of relevant jurisprudence (GATS XI) GATS 70

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), responsibility for act or omission of, agency with specific official responsibilities and powers/ public body DSU 1682

“trade in services” (GATS 1:2), cross-border trade (GATS I:2(a)), relevant factors, means of delivery GATS 1415

transparency (GATS preamble/III), as object and purpose GATS 1

unilateral statements, legal effect DSU 1688

 

US — Gambling (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS285/13, DSR 2005:XXIII

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings) DSU 1012

“reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1068

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

administrative measures as means of implementation, relevance DSU 1049

arbitrator’s limited mandate, determination of reasonable period DSU 1024

complexity of implementation process DSU 1053

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1012, 1068

multiple possibilities DSU 1093

shortest period possible within Member’s normal legislative process DSU 1032

 

US — Gambling (Article 22.6 — US), WT/DS285/ARB, DSR 2007:X

arbitration (DSU 22.6), third party rights DSU 510

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), unregulated situations and DSU 510

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), legislative schedule and DSU 1073

third party rights (Article 22.6 arbitrations) DSU 510

 

US — Gasoline (AB), WT/DS2/AB/R, DSR 1996:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

compliance obligation DSU 1365

written reponses (ABWP 28) DSU 1457

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, GATT XX measure as (GATT XX chapeau)

ambiguity GATT 862

between importing and exporting countries GATT 860

constituent elements GATT 862

“disguised restriction on international trade” GATT 8623

failure to consider costs as GATT 863

measures amounting to arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination as GATT 8623

“disguised restriction on international trade”, interrelationship GATT 874

burden of proof (general rules), defences and exceptions, GATT XX

GATT 852

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law, “general rule of interpretation” (VCLT 31) as DSU 54, 1499, 1535

environment

WTO Agreement

preamble

Members’ right to determine own policies WTO 1

trade policies and, obligation to coordinate WTO 1, GATT 847

General Exceptions (GATT XX) (general)

applicability to GATT as a whole (chapeau) GATT 844, 860

burden of proof, chapeau and paras. a-j distinguished GATT 852

obligation to comply with domestic legislation, relevance GATT 847

two-step analysis (justification under paras. (a)-(j)/compliance with chapeau) GATT 84850

General Exceptions (GATT XX), preamble/chapeau, prevention of abuses of exceptions as objective GATT 855

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, “necessary”, necessity of policy goal vs necessity of measure to achieve it GATT 894

General Exceptions (GATT XX(g)), measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources

GATT III:4 (regulatory discrimination) and GATT 384, 8623

“made effective in conjunction with”, as balance between conservation and domestic production/consumption GATT 9447

“relating to” GATT 851, 894, 914 n. 1286, 921, 93743, 939

“necessary” (GATT XX(d)) distinguished GATT 914 n. 1286

“primarily aimed at” distinguished GATT 894, 921, 938, 9401

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase WTO 19, GATT 862, DSU 1611

object and purpose, GATT XX(g) GATT 940

“ordinary meaning … in their context … in light of object and purpose” (VCLT 31(1)) GATT 851, 894, 921

multiple appeals, consolidation (ABWP 23) DSU 1365

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), General Exceptions (GATT XX) and GATT 384, 8624

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III:4/GATT XX GATT 384

GATT XX/GATT as a whole GATT 384

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis DSU 858

WTO Agreement, objectives, “to protect and preserve the environment” WTO 1

 

US — Gasoline (Panel), WT/DS2/R, DSR 1996:I

burden of proof (general rules), defences and exceptions, GATT XX GATT 888

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health

burden of proof GATT 888

“necessary” GATT 921

necessity of policy goal vs necessity of measure to achieve it GATT 894

three-tier test GATT 888

constituent elements GATT 888

General Exceptions (GATT XX(g)), measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources

“relating to” GATT 939

“primarily aimed at” distinguished GATT 939

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose DSU 385

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

relevant factors

end-uses GATT 337

physical properties GATT 337

situation of parties dealing in [subject products] GATT 337

tariff classification GATT 337

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), terminated measures, termination before agreement on terms of reference DSU 385

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

general principle (GATT III:1) and GATT 225

“less favourable treatment”

equality of competitive conditions as test GATT 369

“equally overall” argument GATT 381

formal differences in treatment, relevance GATT 377

“overall equality” GATT 382

“treatment accorded to similarly situated domestic parties”, relevance GATT 380

relationships within and between agreements

GATT I/GATT III GATT 108

GATT I/GATT III:4 GATT 395

 

US — Hot-Rolled Steel dispute, consultations (DSU 21.5), ad hoc procedural agreement DSU 1169

 

US — Hot-Rolled Steel (AB), WT/DS184/AB/R, DSR 2001:X DSU 1538

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4)

avoidance of prejudice to non-investigated exporters AD 698, 708

comparison of all comparable transactions (AD 2.4), need for AD 700

“margins” AD 701

margins established under circumstances referred to in AD 6.8, exclusion AD 701, 7067

“established” AD 708

lacuna situation AD 7089

“legislation as such” and WTO 291, AD 877

method, absence of provision AD 471

zero/de minimis margins, exclusion AD 701

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)s, competence of panel and AB distinguished AD 925

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4)

finding of non-conformity under any AD provision WTO 291

maintenance of inconsistent legislation AD 968

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), AD 17.6(ii) AD 927, 928

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4)

affiliated party transactions AD 25

calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4), applicability to AD 701

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions AD 701

downstream sales AD 26

“like product” AD 24

sale “destined for consumption in exporting country” AD 24

sales “in ordinary course of trade” AD 24, 279

calculation of normal value, eligible transactions, requirements (AD 2.1), comparability of price AD 24

fair comparison (AD 2.4), affiliated party transactions AD 25

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

“due allowance”, “differences which affect price comparability” AD 91

“fair comparison”, responsibility for AD 103

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1)

affiliated party transactions AD 35, 42

fair exercise of discretion AD 29

prices above or below ordinary course of trade price AD 313

sales not in normal course of trade, exclusion AD 30

scrutiny rules AD 34

sales not “in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.2), sales below cost, method for determining whether (AD 2.2.1), alternative methods, possibility of AD 28, 42

determination of injury (AD 3)

causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5)

non-attribution to dumped imports of injury caused by other factors (AD 3.5) AD 275, 276, 2835

SG 4.2(b) compared AD 285, 323, 1010

domestic production of like product, assessment of effect on (AD 3.6), sectoral analysis, right to AD 290

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on AD 243

factors not listed in AD 3.4, right/obligation to consider AD 254

“objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) and AD 1945, 208

sectoral analysis, right to AD 1945, 243

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

“objective examination” AD 193, SCM 421

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4) AD 194, 208, 243

“positive” AD 182

as underlying principle AD 181, SCM 421

underlying principles (AD 3.1) and AD 181, SCM 421

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

difficulties in supplying information, due account/assistance in case of (AD 6.13) AD 583, 604

balance of interests of investigating authorities and exporters and AD 639

“facts available”, right of resort to (AD 6.8/Annex II) AD 535

adverse facts AD 591

Annex II, mandatory nature AD 537 n. 734

conditions for (Annex II) AD 549, 550 n. 750

failure to submit necessary information “in timely fashion” (Annex II para. 3) and AD 563

interpretation in light of AD 6.1.1, 6.8/Annex II para. 1 AD 563, 567

as “reasonable period” / “reasonable time” AD 563, 56870

information provided within reasonable period, investigating authorities’ obligation to use AD 549, 550 n. 750, 550 n. 751

“notice of the information …” (AD 6.1), extension “upon cause shown … whenever practicable” AD 442

questionnaires (AD 6.1.1), time–limits for reply AD 422

resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II)

balance between rights of investigating authorities and legitimate interests of parties, obligation to cooperate (Annex II para. 7) AD 583, 604, 639

failure to cooperate (AD Annex VII para. 7)

cooperation “to the best of its ability” AD 574

“less favourable result” as possible consequence AD 573, 708

time–limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1) AD 442, 567

reply to questionnaires AD 442

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

“facts available”, right of resort to (AD 6.8/Annex II) and AD 574

as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation/performance DSU 1503, 1507

as general principle of international law AD 575

as general principle of law AD 575

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), good faith as AD 575

interpretation of covered agreements, applicable law, customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in VCLT], DSU 3.2 AD 927

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries AD 573

multiple permissible interpretations AD 928, 935

compliance with one permissible interpretation, sufficiency AD 928

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) AD 708

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), “laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings” (GATT X:1), “of general application” GATT 556

relationships within and between agreements

AD 6.1.1/AD 6.8 AD 458

AD 6.8/AD 9.3 AD 720

AD 6.8/AD 9.4 AD 701, 7067, 708, 720

AD 6.8/AD Annex II AD 534

AD 17.6/DSU 11 AD 911, 925, 936

AD 17.6(i)/DSU 11 AD 925, 926

AD 17.6(ii)/DSU 11 AD 911, 92734

AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/WTO XVI:4 WTO 291

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2)

arrangements considered for classification as, AD 17 AD 888, 954, DSU 15

conflict with DSU provisions, precedence in case of (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 15

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/ insufficiency of facts DSU 868

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6)

assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i))

applicability to investigating authority AD 921

DSU 11 compared AD 925

interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii))

in accordance with customary rules of interpretation of public international law AD 927

“admits of more than one permissible interpretation” AD 928

DSU 11 compared AD 935

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it”

AD 17.6(i) compared AD 911, 925, 926

AD 17.6(ii) compared AD 935

good faith obligation SCM 421

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), subsidy programmes as such, right to challenge (mandatory/ discretionary distinction) SCM 71 n. 135

 

US — Hot-Rolled Steel (Panel), WT/DS184/R, DSR 2001:X

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4), margins established under circumstances referred to in AD 6.8, exclusion, “legislation as such” and AD 877

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4), maintenance of inconsistent legislation AD 968

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4), finding of nonconformity under any AD provision WTO 291

data collection period (AD 10.6) AD 733

determination of injury (AD 3)

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on AD 266

checklist approach AD 266

consideration of each factor, need to be “apparent” in final determination AD 266

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6), resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II), objective decision-making based on facts and AD 532

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), choice of means at authorities’ discretion (DSU 21.3) DSU 972

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 972

judicial economy, limitation of consideration to claims essential to resolution of dispute (DSU 3.2) DSU 386

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), “practice” AD 884

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “practice” as, “general” practice AD 884, DSU 268 n. 407, 409 n. 680

provisional measures (AD 7), preliminary affirmative determination (AD 7.1(ii)), retroactive measures (AD 10.7) and AD 729

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

measures of general application (GATT X:1) GATT 521

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a))

general impact on overall administration, need for GATT 521

significant impact on overall administration of law requirement for violation GATT 564

relationships within and between agreements AD 905 n. 1233

AD 5.3/AD 10.6 AD 730

AD 5.3/AD 10.7 AD 419, 728

AD 6.8/AD 9.3 AD 720

AD 6.8/AD 9.4 AD 706

AD 7/AD 10.7 AD 729

AD 9.4/AD 18.4 AD 877

AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/WTO XVI:4 WTO 291

retroactivity (provisional measures and anti-dumping duties) (AD 10) AD 725

“after initiating an investigation” (AD 10.7) AD 727

conditions (AD 10.6)

AD 10.7 and AD 726

“sufficiency of evidence” (AD 5.3) and AD 730

preliminary affirmative determination (AD 7.1(ii)), relevance AD 729

“such measures” (AD 10.7), provisional measures distinguished AD 727

“sufficient evidence” (AD 10.7)

AD 5.3 and AD 419, 728

exporters’ knowledge of dumping (AD 10.6), relevance AD 731

“massive imports in a relatively short period of time” (AD 10.6), data collection period AD 733

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), “facts made available” (AD 17.5(ii)) AD 905

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review, exclusion AD 302 n. 430, 905

“sufficient evidence” (AD 10.7), “injury caused” (AD 10.6) and, retroactivity (provisional measures and anti-dumping duties) (AD 10) AD 732

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

consideration of issues outside terms of reference, exclusion DSU 409 n. 680

request for establishment of panel as basis AD 900

 

US — Hot-Rolled Steel (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS184/12, DSR 2002: IV

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, AD 6.8/DSU 21.3(c) DSU 1035

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

arbitrator’s limited mandate, determination of reasonable period DSU 1021

Article 21.3(b) agreements as precedent DSU 1016

complexity of implementing process DSU 1021

“reasonable” DSU 1035

“time … shorter or longer, depending on the particular circumstances” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1035

 

US — Lamb (AB), WT/DS177/AB/R, WT/DS178/AB/R, DSR 2001:IX

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of)

“demonstrates” SG 179

“on the basis of objective data” SG 179, 181

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)) SG 74 n. 128

order of analysis SG 2034

reasoned and adequate explanation (SG4.2(a)) GATT 801, SG 181

relevance in absence of serious injury SG 74 n. 128

determination of injury (AD 3), causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5), non-attribution to dumped imports of injury caused by other factors (AD 3.5), SG 4.2(b) compared AD 251, 285, 323

determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1)

“serious injury” (SG 4.1(a)), “material injury” (AD 3, SCM 15.7 and GATT VI) distinguished SG 3, 117, 320

“serious injury” (SG 4.1(a))/ “threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b))

“clearly imminent” SG 156

as “significant overall impairment” / “very high standard of injury” (SG 4.1(a)) SG 11617

“threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b)), data from recent past/ throughout investigation period, relative importance SG 1578

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a))

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)), non-attribution requirement SG 2036

emergency action (GATT XIX)

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a))

“demonstration”, need for GATT 810

“as a pertinent issue of fact and law” /finding (SG 3.1) GATT 806, SG 103

omission from SG 2.1, relevance GATT 841

investigation of conditions for safeguard measures, requirements (SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c))

data of an objective and quantifiable nature

methodology, absence of provision SG 154, 157

representativeness SG 1545

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose SG 233

“like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c))

“domestic industry” (SG 4.1(c)) and SG 2, 1304

“domestic industry” (SCM 16) distinguished SCM 453

integration of production processes, relevance SG 134

object and purpose (preamble) as aid to definition SG 2

“producers as a whole SG 1323

as sole determinant ATC 40 n. 50, SG 131

SCM 16 distinguished SCM 453

specific product, need for SG 132

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “serious injury” (SG 4.1(a)) SG 116

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1) GATT 806

“pertinent issues”, unforeseen developments as SG 103

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1), causation (SG 4.2(b)) GATT 801, SG 181

relationships within and between agreements

GATT XIX:1/SG 11.1 SG 8

GATT XIX/SG 1 SG 8

SG 2/SG 4 SG 223

SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c) SG 22

SG 2.1/SG 4.2(b) SG 22, 23

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2), determination of serious injury or threat (SG 4), violation as violation of SG 2 SG 22, 23

safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX)

relationship between Safeguards Agreement and GATT XIX SG 2

continuing applicability of GATT XIX GATT 842

rules for application of GATT XIX (SG 1 and 11.1(a)) SG 8

safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), characteristics, exceptional nature of remedy.14.2

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

DSU 11, applicability GATT 801

“objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review, exclusion SG 308

“objective assessment of matter before it”, reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) and GATT 801, SG 14851, 3078

 

US — Lamb (Panel), WT/DS177/R, WT/DS178/R, DSR 2001:IX

consultations (DSU 4), confidentiality (DSU 4.6), disclosure of information obtained in different proceedings DSU 166

determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1)

“serious injury” (SG 4.1(a))/ “threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b))

“clearly imminent” SG 123, 125

“serious injury” SG 124

“threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b))

actual increase in imports, need for SG 127

data from recent past/throughout investigation period, relative importance SG 125

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a))

“as a whole” SG 121

segmented domestic industry and SG 1689

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement and SG 1689

emergency action (GATT XIX), “as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)), omission from SG 2.1, relevance GATT 841, SG 7

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), “specific”, “attendant circumstances”, relevance DSU 240 n. 349

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase SG 7

investigation of conditions for safeguard measures, requirements (SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c))

data of an objective and quantifiable nature

methodology, absence of provision SG 138

representativeness SG 1368

judicial economy

discretionary nature, reasons for not exercising SG 129

prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose SG 84, 89, 216, 231, 233, 242, 243, 245, 252

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

identification of treaty provisions DSU 312

listing of articles without explanation, sufficiency DSU 312

“like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c))

“domestic industry” (SG 4.1(c)) and SG 2

“ domestic industry” (SCM 16) distinguished SCM 453

“collective output … constitutes a major proportion”, representative data and SG 1368

finding of inconsistency with, effect SG 129

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1), segmented domestic industry and (SG 4.2(a)) SG 1689

relationships within and between agreements

GATT XIX:1/SG 2 and 4 SG 84, 89, 90

GATT XIX:1(a)/SG 8 SG 243

GATT XIX/SG 1 SG 7

SG 2/SG 4 SG 21

SG 2.1, 4.1(c) and 4.2(b)/SG 2.2, 3.1, 5.1, 8, 11 and 12 SG 84, 89, 216, 231, 242, 243

SG 4.1(b)/SG 4.1(c) SG 129

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2), determination of serious injury or threat (SG 4), violation as violation of SG 2 SG 21

safeguard measures, object and purpose (preamble), balance between effective temporary protection and structural adjustment SG 2

safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX)

relationship between Safeguards Agreement and GATT XIX SG 2

continuing applicability of GATT XIX GATT 841

safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), characteristics, exceptional nature of remedy SG 2

 

US — Large Civil Aircraft (2nd Complaint) (Panel), WT/DS353/R

adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (DSU 13)

burden of proof and DSU 561

sufficiency of burden of proof rules DSU 563

arguendo assumptions

guidelines on the use of DSU 664

“to enhance simplicity” DSU 664

burden of proof (general rules)

adverse inferences (DSU 13) and, sufficiency of burden of proof rules DSU 563

onus probandi actori incumbit DSU 543, 1691

composition of panel (DSU 8), determination by Director-General (DSU 8.7), Deputy Director-General in place of DSU 441

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1628

DSB, statements by Members at DSB meetings, legal effect, “taking note” of, legal effect DSU 31

Government Procurement Agreement (GPA)

definitions

“government procurement” (GPA I:1) GPA 5

“purchases of services” (GPA I:1) GPA 4

service contracts, expansion to cover (preamble) GPA 2

government procurement (GATS XIII), “subsidy” (SCM 1) distinguished SCM 27, 48, GATS 72

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), discretion not to seek DSU 760

interim review (DSU 15)

changes to report in absence of request DSU 804

translation issues DSU 81819

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to omissions DSU 1616

same or closely related phrases in different agreements

caution in use of SCM 48

SCM 1/GATS XIII:2 and XV SCM 27, 48, GATS 72

loan guarantees, as direct transfer of funds (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) SCM 31

non-actionable subsidies (SCM 8), assistance for research activities (SCM 8.2(a)), government purchases of R&D services and SCM 343

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1628

“explicit” (SCM 2.1(a)) SCM 1078

“government practices” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(i)) SCM 27

“initiate” (SCM Annex V) SCM 675

“service” (GPA 1) GPA 4

preparatory work (VCLT 32)

SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 48

SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)/SCM 14(d) DSU 1643

provision of goods or services (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)), “general infrastructure”, limitations on access or use, relevance SCM 47

relationships within and between agreements

AIR 6/SCM AIR 24

GPA preamble/SCM 1 (“purchases of services”) GPA 2

SCM 2.3/SCM 3 SCM 123

request for establishment of panel, requirements (SCM 4.4)

initiation of Annex V procedure (SCM 7.4)

“decision” (DSU 2.4), whether DSU 33

“taking note” of statements at DSB meeting, whether DSU 31

SCM and AIR 24

“serious prejudice”, procedures for developing information concerning (SCM Annex 5), initiation, requirements SCM 675

subsidy, definition (SCM 1), “purchases of services” (GPA preamble), exclusion GPA 2

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

foregoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii)), “otherwise due” /basis of comparison (“but for” test) SCM 378

“government practice” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(i)), ordinary meaning SCM 27

potential direct transfer of funds (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

loan guarantees as SCM 31

may transfer funds, sufficiency SCM 31

“purchases of services” (GATS XIII), exclusion SCM 27, 48, GATS 72, 94

transactions qualifying as, exhaustive nature of SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 15

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), “benefit”, market test SCM 62

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2)

de facto specificity (SCM 2.1(c)), de facto/de jure distinction, relevance SCM 108

“explicitly limits” (SCM 2.1(a)) SCM 108

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6 DSU 485

translation

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), subsequent proceedings/continuance of recommendations DSU 947

interim review reports (DSU 15) DSU 81819

 

US — Lead and Bismuth II (AB), WT/DS138/AB/R, DSR 2001:V and DSR 2001:VI

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

adoption, AB authority DSU 885

replacement of member (ABWP 13), in case of death DSU 1373

amicus curiae briefs

AB and, right to accept (DSU 17.9) DSU 697, 7402

private individuals’ right to submit DSU 7412

countervailing duties (SCM Part V), review of need for continued imposition (SCM 21.2), burden/standard of proof SCM 4845

dispute settlement (SCM 30)

special or additional rules or procedures, whether SCM 578

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), applicability SCM 578

judicial economy, discretionary nature DSU 644

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), change of AB composition and DSU 1385

public observation of oral hearing / “passive participation” (ABWP

27(3)) DSU 743

relationships within and between agreements, AD 17.6/SCM 30 SCM 578, 703

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), SCM 30 as SCM 578

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

applicability to covered agreements other than AD Agreement AD 1013, 1016

non-applicability to covered agreements other than AD Agreement including the SCM and SPS Agreements SCM 703

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), “is conferred” SCM 70

 

US — Lead and Bismuth II (Panel), WT/DS138/R and Corr.2, DSR 2001:V and DSR 2001:VI

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

calculation of countervailing duty / “not in excess” (SCM 19.4), nexus, need for SCM 467

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) SCM 353

“countervailing duty” (SCM 10 footnote 36), “offsetting” requirement SCM 353

imposition and collection (SCM 19), ordinary meaning SCM 467

“subsidy found to exist” (SCM 19.4), ordinary meaning SCM 467

dispute settlement (SCM 30)

special or additional rules or procedures, whether SCM 578

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), applicability SCM 578

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 969

panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 957

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11), object and purpose (SCM Part V) SCM 4678

relationships within and between agreements, AD 17.6/SCM 30 SCM 578

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, SCM 30 SCM 578

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit)

“benefit”

passing the benefit through, changes in ownership/privatizations SCM 823

privatization, effect SCM 823

 

US — Line Pipe (AB), WT/DS202/AB/R, DSR 2002:IV

burden of proof (general rules)

impossible burden SG 71, DSU 564

onus probandi actori incumbit SG 71

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of)

reasoned and adequate explanation GATT 801, SG 702, 181, 20910

“serious injury” (SG 5.1) distinguished SG 226

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), SG 5.1 SG 227

determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1), “serious injury” (SG 4.1(a))/ “threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b)) SG 234

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a))

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)) SG 209

non-attribution requirement SG 210

determination of serious injury or threat of (SG 4), requirements, customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV) exception and GATT 1057

developing countries (SG 9)

exclusion of developing country exporting less than de minimis levels (SG 9.1) SG 2467

expected effect of measure, relevance SG 247

list of excluded countries, need for SG 246

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

object and purpose, SG/GATT XIX GATT 799, SG 227

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, AD 3.5/SG 4.2(b) SG 210, 219

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SG 4.2/SG 5.1 SG 226

notification and consultation (SG 12)

“adequate opportunity for prior consultations” (SG 12.3) SG 288

level of concessions (SG 8.1) and SG 240

as “sufficient time for meaningful exchange” SG 240

preparatory work (VCLT 32)

GATT XIX/SPS DSU 1641

SG SG 83

proportionality

countermeasures DSU 1697

safeguard measures (SG 5.1) (“to the extent necessary”) and SG 1314, 2247

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1), application of safeguard measures (SG 5.1), Members’ right to choose method and SG 97

quota modulation (SG 5.2(b)) SG 82, 234

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1), causation (SG 2.1/SG 4.2(b)) GATT 801, SG 20910

relationships within and between agreements, AD 3.5/SG 4.2(b) SG 210

RTAs (GATT XXIV:5), as affirmative defence to violation of GATT provisions including non-discrimination requirement SG 65, 73 n. 122

safeguard measures, application (SG 5)

“demonstration” of compliance (SG 3.1), relevance SG 97

imports, limitation to SG 227

quota modulation (SG 5.2(b))

determination of injury or threat of (SG 2.1), relevance to SG 82, 234

as exception to general rule SG 82, 234

“to the extent necessary” (proportionality) (SG 5.1) SG 1314, 2247

“clear justification” /requirement to explain SG 225

tariff measures and SG 225 n. 375, 232 n. 289

serious injury to increased imports, limitation to SG 2267

“serious injury” (SG 4.2(b)) distinguished SG 226

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2)

as extraordinary/emergency remedy GATT 799

parallelism between investigation (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c)) and application of measure (SG 2.2) GATT 1057, SG 703

burden of proof SG 71

“irrespective of source”, applicability to RTAs SG 703

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement SG 702

right to applymeasure and exercise of right distinguished SG 1314

“sufficient to cause serious injury or threat” (SG 2.1)

quota modulation and (SG 5.2(b)) and SG 82, 234

separate determinations of threat and injury, need for SG 803

“serious injury” and “threat” as alternatives SG 80

“threat” and “injury” as continuum SG 81

threshold for threat and injury distinguished SG 81

safeguard measures, maintenance of substantially equivalent level of concessions (SG 8), “equivalent”, “adequate opportunity for prior consultations” (SG 12.3) and SG 240

sovereignty, over non-WTO regulated matters DSU 1738

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), DSU 11, applicability GATT 801

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles)

countermeasures SG 227, DSU 1674 n. 2617

proportionality SG 227, DSU 1674 n. 2617, 1697

withdrawal of appeal (ABWP 30), withdrawal and re-filing of appeal, for scheduling reasons DSU 1471

 

US — Line Pipe (Panel), WT/DS202/R, DSR 2002:IV

determination of serious injury or threat of (SG 4), requirements, “such increased quantities”, trends SG 49, 161

executive summaries (panel working procedures)

non-summarized material, inclusion in panel report DSU 733

panel’s request for DSU 733

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 973

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII)

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions (GATT XIII:2 chapeau) GATT 6624

as general rule (Ad Article XIII:2) GATT 6624

historical trade patterns, relevance GATT 6634

“quotas representing the total amount … shall be fixed” (GATT XIII:2(a)) GATT 668

tariff quotas

applicability of GATT XIII:2(a) GATT 663, 668

applicability of, GATT XIII:5 GATT 679

tariff measures distinguished GATT 690 n. 968

relationships within and between agreements

GATT XIII/SG 5 GATT 657, 6901, SG 232

GATT XXIV/GATT I, XIII and XIX GATT 686

RTAs (GATT XXIV:5), as affirmative defence to violation of GATT provisions including non-discrimination requirement SG 73 n. 122

safeguard measures, application of measures (SG 5), non-discrimination

(GATT XIII) and GATT 6901, SG 232

safeguard measures, application (SG 5), non-discrimination (GATT XIII) and GATT 686

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2)

“such increased quantities”

methodology, panel’s right to examine SG 357

“recent” SG 334

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts”, methodology for evaluating increase in imports (SG 2.1/GATT XIX:1(a)) SG 357

 

US — Norwegian Salmon AD (GATT Panel), ADP/87, BISD 41S/229

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17), “matter”, referral to DSB (AD 17.4), “matter” AD 898

determination of injury (AD 3), evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4), examination of other known factors (AD 3.5), “known” to investigating authority, 8.279 n. 393

 

US — Offset Act (Byrd Amendment) (AB), WT/DS217/AB/R, WT/DS234/AB/R, DSR 2003:I and DSR 2003:II

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), replacement of member (ABWP 13), for serious personal reasons (ABWP 12) (Presiding Member) DSU 1374

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI), anti-dumping measure other than duty, applicability to GATT 450

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

anti-dumping measure other than duty, applicability to, “may levy” and (GATT VI:2) GATT 461

countervailable subsidy, permissible responses (GATT VI:3/SCM) GATT 469

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 1419

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with SCM Agreement (SCM 32.5) WTO 294, SCM 596

countervailing duties (SCM Part V), compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10), permissible responses to subsidization GATT 469

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)) DSU 368, 1416

evidence (panel) (DSU 12)

time–limits for submission

panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence DSU 625

information in the public domain DSU 625

relevance/significance of evidence and DSU 625

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

burden of proof/presumption of GATT 570 n. 805, DSU 1507

as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation/performance DSU 1507

good faith interpretation of treaty (VCLT 31(1)), as fundamental principle of DSU 1545

interim review (DSU 15), multiple complainants/separate reports DSU 810

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty AD 961

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

support for (AD 5.4/SCM 11.4)

“by or on behalf of the domestic industry”, quantitative test SCM 362

identity of provisions AD 379, 383, SCM 362

motivation for support, relevance AD 379, SCM 362

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts, General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) SCM 584

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

separate interim review reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 810

separate panel reports (DSU 9.2)

panel’s discretion DSU 449

timeliness of request DSU 448

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) and DSU 448, 810

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

due process and DSU 368

failure to meet

consequences

error relating to jurisdiction DSU 1419

omission of claim of error from scope of appeal DSU 1416

notification of challenge to the jurisdiction DSU 368, 1415

statement of allegation of error on issues of law/legal interpretations (ABWP 20(2)(d)), generic statement, sufficiency DSU 1427

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “specific action against dumping” GATT 451

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), multiple complainants (DSU 9) and, separate panel reports DSU 65

relationships within and between agreements, AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/WTO XVI:4 WTO 294, SCM 596

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement AD 9578

action under other relevant provisions of GATT 1994 distinguished (AD 18.1 footnote 24) GATT 451

clarificatory nature of footnotes AD 961

“against” AD 9578

“except in accordance with the provisions” SCM 584

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

excess of jurisdiction, in absence of claim by party DSU 1419

excess of jurisdiction, in absence of claim by party DSU 1419

new evidence DSU 852

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), timeliness of objections DSU 368, 1415

 

US — Offset Act (Byrd Amendment) (Panel), WT/DS217/R, WT/DS234/R, DSR 2003:I and DSR 2003:II

adverse effects (SCM 5)

existence of “benefit”, need for SCM 263

grounds for requesting consultations (SCM 7.1) as context SCM 262

nullification or impairment of benefits (SCM 5(b)) SCM 261

presumption under DSU 3.8 distinguished SCM 261, DSU 95

systematic offset as SCM 264

as required element for actionable subsidy SCM 255

“use” of subsidy SCM 262, DSU 95

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, dumping, constituent elements (AD 2/GATT VI:1), specific reference in legislation, relevance GATT 450

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with SCM Agreement (SCM 32.5) SCM 596

dispute settlement, special provisions relating to developing countries, requirement for specific indication of form in which account has been taken of special needs (DSU 12.11) DSU 717

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties, timing of submission of evidence (DS 12) and DSU 625

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 449

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 960

interim review (DSU 15), multiple complainants/separate reports DSU 809

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), limitation of jurisdiction to cited provisions (DSU 7.2), developing countries, special and differential provisions and (DSU 12.1) DSU 717

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), separate panel reports DSU 449

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

separate interim review reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 809

single panel, “whenever feasible” (DSU 9.1), separate panel reports (DSU 9.2), timeliness of request DSU 448

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement, adverse effects (SCM 5) distinguished SCM 261, DSU 95

price undertakings (AD 8)/undertakings (SCM 18), practicality, relevance (AD 8.3/SCM 18.3) AD 654, SCM 457

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), timeliness of request for separate panel reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 448, 809

relationships within and between agreements

AD 18.4/SCM 32.5/WTO XVI:4 SCM 596

DSU 3.3/DSU 9.2 DSU 448

special and differential treatment for developing countries (Doha), terms of reference of panels (DSU 7) and DSU 717

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement AD 9578

“against” AD 957

 

US — Offset Act (Byrd Amendment) (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS217/14

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings) DSU 1010

panel’s discretionary suggestions, legal effect DSU 986

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 986

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

15-month guideline DSU 1041

choice of methods, relevance DSU 1078

as legal criterion DSU 1059

contentiousness/political sensitivity, relevance DSU 1059

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1010

harm to economic operators, relevance DSU 1066

international obligations, relevance DSU 1059

legislative schedule and DSU 1072

limitation to cases of impracticality DSU 1015

“reasonable” DSU 1036

structural adjustment, relevance of need for DSU 1066

 

US — Offset Act (Byrd Amendment) (Brazil) (Article 22.6 — US), WT/DS217/ARB/BRA, DSR 2004:IX, suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), trade effect and DSU 1226

 

US — Offset Act (Byrd Amendment) (Canada) (Article 22.6 — US), WT/DS234/ARB/CAN, DS 2004:IX

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7), suspension of concessions or “other obligations”, limitations on role DSU 12202

working procedures DSU 1212

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

agreement to DSU 1272

“or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2) DSU 1194

“specific” DSU 1197

 

US — Offset Act (Byrd Amendment) (Mexico) (Article 22.6 — US), WT/DS234/ARB/MEX, DSR 2004:IX, suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), “or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2) DSU 1195

 

US — Offset Act (Byrd Amendment) (Article 22.6) (all), WT/DS217/ARB, DSR 2004:IX

arbitration (DSU 22.6), “specific”, product list DSU 1188

of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), reasoned estimates, need for DSU 1230

nature and purpose of counter measures DSU 11812

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement DSU 1225

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

agreement to DSU 1271, 1273

inducement of compliance as objective DSU 11812

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4) DSU 12056

disbursements operating as subsidies DSU 1238

 

US — Oil Country Tubular Goods Sunset Reviews (AB), WT/DS268/AB/R, DSR 2004:VII

determination of injury (AD 3)

cumulative assessment (AD 3.3), sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to AD 796

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1), sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to AD 768

due process (anti-dumping measures) (AD 6), as underlying principle AD 425

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

“ample opportunity to present in writing all evidence” (AD 6.1), obligation to take all submitted information into account SCM 390 n. 643

due process as underlying principle AD 425

balance of interests considerations AD 444

time–limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1), sunset reviews AD 4445

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), seriousness of claim/need for diligence in presentation DSU 279

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 340

legal status of adopted AB reports (DSU 17.14), as precedent DSU 902

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

claims “as such” vs claims “as applied”, relevance of distinction DSU 337

normative value as determining factor DSU 283

seriousness of claim/need for diligence in presentation DSU 279

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “practice” as DSU 269

relationships within and between agreements

AD 3/AD 11.3 AD 7678

AD 3.3/AD 11.3 AD 796

AD 3.7/AD 11.3 AD 787

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 340

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), law vs fact, panel as trier of facts DSU 611

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test)

cumulative assessment (AD 3.3), applicability AD 796

mandatory rule/exception AD 756

methodology

absence of specific provision AD 7678

“likelihood of injury” obligations (AD 3), applicability AD 7678

overall/separate factor determination AD 801

“positive evidence”, need for AD 761

time-frame AD 778

 

US — Oil Country Tubular Goods Sunset Reviews (Panel), WT/DS268/AB/R, DSR 2004:VIII

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement AD 610

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of normal value, factors to be taken into account (AD 2.1), sale “destined for consumption in exporting country” AD 25

determination of dumping (AD 2), calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), comparability of price AD 25

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance DSU 344

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6), notification to all interested parties of essential facts under consideration (AD 6.9), choice of means AD 610

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 979

oils, sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test), “positive evidence”, need for, presumptions, exclusion AD 7745

relationships within and between agreements

AD 3/AD 11.3 AD 7656

AD 11.2/AD 11.3 AD 749, 800

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 344

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, events during proceedings, exclusion from panel’s considerations DSU 942

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test)

methodology

absence of specific provision AD 7656, 786

“likelihood of injury” obligations (AD 3), applicability AD 7656

time-frame AD 786

 

US — Oil Country Tubular Goods Sunset Reviews (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS268/12, DSR 2005:XXIII

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings), “reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1067

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

administrative measures as means of implementation, relevance DSU 1048

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1067

 

US — Oil Country Tubular Goods Sunset Reviews (Article 21.5 — Argentina) (AB), WT/DS268/AB/RW, DSR 2007:IX

arguendo assumptions, “even assuming” DSU 6589

relationships within and between agreements, AD 11.3/DSU 11 816

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis, difficulty of, inadequacy of the record/arguendo assumptions DSU 6589

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test)

company-specific determination, need for AD 785

determination of likelihood

volume analysis

adequacy of analysis AD 781

analysis from previous review as part “measure taken to comply” AD 782

standard of review, objective assessment (DSU 11) and AD 804

waiver of right to participate AD 785

 

US — Oil Country Tubular Goods Sunset Reviews (Article 21.5 — Argentina) (Panel), WT/DS268/RW

anti-dumping duties, duration and review (AD 11), special rules and procedures (DSU 1.2), whether DSU 12

confidential information (AD 6.5), non-confidential summaries (AD 6.5.1), access to confidential information, relevance AD 516

due process (anti-dumping measures) (AD 6), as underlying principle AD 426

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

due process as underlying principle AD 426

questionnaires (AD 6.1.1), supplementary questionnaires, obligation/practice AD 435

sunset review procedures compared AD 792

timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4)

“information used by the authorities” AD 484

sunset reviews and AD 4845

pressure of time, relevance AD 485

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), subsequent proceedings/continuance of recommendations DSU 944

relationships within and between agreements,AD11/DSU 1.2 DSU 12

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, AD 17 DSU 12

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test)

company-specific determination, need for AD 7845

determination of likelihood

likely past dumping AD 777

volume analysis

adequacy of analysis AD 780

analysis from previous review as part “measure taken to comply” AD 7789

original investigation distinguished, new factual basis AD 7912, 819

“positive evidence”, need for AD 769

time-frame

new factual basis and AD 792

specification, relevance AD 788

waiver of right to participate AD 784

 

US — Orange Juice (Brazil) (Panel), WT/DS382/R

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17), legal basis for consultation/claim (AD 17.3/AD 17.4), “measure” (AD 17.4), continued zeroing AD 897

“dumping” (AD 2.1)

ambiguity/alternatives AD 9345

product specific requirement AD 19

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31 (1)), ordinary meaning as aid in establishing AD 934

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts AD 934

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), transaction-to-transaction method AD 136

as “measure” (AD 17.4) AD 897

 

US — Poultry (China) (Panel), WT/DS392/R

ALOPs (SPS 5.4–5.6 and Annex A(5))

consistency in application (SPS 5.5), “specific” SPS 221, 223

measures “not more trade restrictive than required to achieve their appropriate level of … protection” (SPS 5.6), “appropriate level”, determination, Member’s prerogative SPS 253

“any procedure to check and ensure”, applicability (Annex C(1)(a))

“any procedure to check and ensure” (Annex C(1)(a))

development of SPS measures SPS 552

title or characterization of measure, relevance SPS 554

“arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination”

“discrimination” in SPS 5.5 and TRIPs 3 and 4 compared SPS 243

ordinary meaning SPS 231

use in GATT XX, SPS 2.3 and SPS 5.5 compared SPS 2323, 242

arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions resulting in discrimination or disguised restriction on international trade (SPS 5.5), disguised restriction on international trade/warning signals SPS 239

consultations (DSU 4)

adequacy of consultations (DSU 4.5), Panel responsibilities in relation to DSU 163

conditional request DSU 148

confidentiality (DSU 4.6), determining adequacy of consultations and DSU 163

notification of request for (DSU 4.4), legal basis of the complaint, DSU 6.2 compared DSU 158

Equivalence, Decision on Implementation of SPS 4 (26 October 2001), SPS 4/SPS as a whole, status as non-binding instrument SPS 105

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), recommendations of panel/DSB (DSU 19.2), effect DSU 394

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), (DSU 6.2) and DSU 394

measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence DSU 937

interim review (DSU 15), reargument of case, exclusion DSU 785

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries SPS 231

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, SPS 5.5/TRIPS 3 and 4 SPS 243

same or closely related phrases in same agreement

DSU 4.4/DSU 6.2 (“legal basis of the complaint”) DSU 158

GATT XX chapeau/SPS 2.3/SPS 5.5 (“arbitrary or unjustifiable”) SPS 2323

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise WTO 22, DSU 158

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), request for consultations (DSU 4.4) compared DSU 158

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 1727

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, GATT XX(b)/SCM DSU 1727

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

“like product” analysis, nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 43

relevant factors

consumer preferences GATT 42

end-uses GATT 42

physical properties GATT 42

tariff classifications GATT 42

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”, differential treatment on the basis of origin of product and GATT 54

“advantage”, access to certification procedures GATT 37

“all rules and formalities”, “in connection with importation” GATT 30

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“arbitrary or unjustifiable” SPS 231

“elaborate” (SPS preamble) SPS 596

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI), “prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1), import prohibition GATT 610

relationships within and between agreements DSU 394

GATT XX(b)/SPS SPS 5968

SPS 2.2/SPS 5.1 and 5.2 SPS 49

SPS 4/SPS Annex C(1) SPS 586

SPS 4/SPS as a whole SPS 105, 11920

SPS 5.1/Annex A(4) SPS 527

SPS 5.1/SPS 5.5 SPS 233

SPS 8/Annex C(1) SPS 374

SPS Annex A(4), relationships within SPS 528

risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1–5.3)

measures “appropriate to the circumstances” (SPS 5.1) SPS 133

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), termination following agreement on terms of reference DSU 394

risk assessment (SPS Annex A(4)(4)), elements/three-pronged nature of test SPS 133

scientific evidence, need for sufficient (SPS 2.2), rational and objective relationship between SPS measure and scientific evidence, need for SPS 22

SPS Agreement

applicability (SPS 1.1), “measures which may directly or indirectly affect trade” SPS 13

basic rights and obligations (SPS 2), applicability to SPS as a whole SPS 20

GATT XX(b) and GATT 950

‘SPS control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8 and Annex C), “any procedure to check and ensure”, applicability (Annex C(1)(a)), comprehensive nature of provision SPS 553

SPS measure, definition/classification as (Annex A(1))

legal form and nature, relevance/distinguishability SPS 456

purpose as test SPS 457

substantive measures and procedural requirements distinguished SPS 459

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment, in absence of contested claims DSU 524

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6 DSU 486

WTO Agreement, as single undertaking (WTO II:2) WTO 22

 

US — Section 110(5) Copyright Act (Panel), WT/DS160/R, DSR 2000:VIII

Berne Convention DSU 101

Berne Convention/TRIPS

applicability to WTO members (TRIPS 9) TRIPS 856

broadcasting (Berne 11 bis)

compulsory licence, right to substitute (Berne 11 bis(2)) TRIPS 98

TRIPS 13 distinguished TRIPS 111

nature and scope of protection TRIPS 96

as specific application of Berne 11 rule TRIPS 95

control of circulation, presentation or exhibition (Berne 17), special agreements (Berne 20)/TRIPS 2.2, possibility of inconsistency with TRIPS 105

minor exceptions doctrine TRIPS 100–1, DSU 15601

agreement on as “agreement … made in connection with the conclusion of the treaty” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) TRIPS 101

Berne Convention acquis/context for interpreting (VCLT 31(2)) TRIPS 100–1, DSU 15601

incorporation into TRIPS TRIPS 101

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts and TRIPS 88

order of analysis TRIPS 1001

public performance (Berne 11)

scope TRIPS 92

types of communication TRIPS 93

relationship (TRIPS 9)

incorporation, effect TRIPS 856

limitations and exceptions (TRIPS 13), applicability to Berne 11/11 bis TRIPS 11012

Convention (1971)/TRIPS, relationship (TRIPS 9), successive treaties relating to the same subject matter (VCLT 30) and TRIPS 101

copyright and related rights (TRIPS Part II Section 1)

limitations and exceptions (TRIPS 13)

certain special cases” TRIPS 11416

cumulative nature TRIPS 109

legitimacy/legitimate public policy and TRIPS 11416

new TRIPS rights, whether limited to TRIPS 107, 110

public performance (Berne 11)/broadcasting (Berne 11 bis), applicability to TRIPS 11012

“which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work”

application to individual exclusive rights, need for TRIPS 119

criteria/test TRIPS 1201

“exploit” TRIPS 117

“normal” TRIPS 118

“which do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder”

equitable remuneration and TRIPS 118 n. 123

“interests” TRIPS 1223

“legitimate” TRIPS 123

ordinary meaning TRIPS 123

“prejudice”, criteria/test TRIPS 1246

“unreasonably” TRIPS 124

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2))

“any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) TRIPS 1001, DSU 15601

minor exceptions doctrine DSU 15601

“teachings of the most highly qualified publicists” (ICJ Statute 38 (1)(d)) TRIPS 115

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise TRIPS 88, 118

legitimate interests, TRIPS 13 TRIPS 109, 118 n. 123, 1226

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB

TRIPS/Berne Convention TRIPS 856, 88

TRIPS/WIPO Copyright Agreement (1967) TRIPS 89

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“exclusive right” (TRIPS 16.1) TRIPS 131

“exploit” (TRIPS 13) TRIPS 117

“interests” (TRIPS 13) TRIPS 123

“normal” (TRIPS 13) TRIPS 118

“prejudice” (TRIPS 13) TRIPS 123

“unreasonably prejudice” (TRIPS 13) TRIPS 124

preparatory work (VCLT 32), TRIPS 13 TRIPS 118 n. 123

relationships within and between agreements

Berne 11/Berne 11 bis TRIPS 95

Berne 13/Berne 20 and TRIPS 2.2 TRIPS 105

successive treaties relating to the same subject matter (VCLT 30)

“minor exceptions” doctrine and TRIPS 101

WIPO Copyright Agreement (1996) DSU 1533

trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2), “limited exceptions” (TRIPS 17), burden of proof TRIPS 144

WIPO Copyright Agreement (1996)

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts TRIPS 89

successive treaties relating to the same subject matter (VCLT 30) and DSU 1533

 

US — Section 110(5) Copyright Act (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS160/12, DSR 2001:II

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), prompt compliance (DSU 21.1), adoption of report, obligation to begin implementation following DSU 1004

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

contentiousness/political sensitivity, relevance DSU 1057

obligation to commence implementation in good time DSU 1044

 

US — Section 110(5) Copyright Act (Article 25.3), WT/DS160/ARB25/1, DSR 2001:II

arbitration (DSU 25)

advantages DSU 1330

as alternative to panel procedure DSU 1329, 1337, 1340

applicable law

AB practice DSU 1335

burden of proof (DSU 22.6) DSU 1328

DSU 21 and 22 (DSU 25.4) DSU 1329, 1336

DSU 22.6 DSU 1328, 1331

confidentiality of proceedings, applicability of AB practice DSU 1335

jurisdiction/arbitrators’ mandate

agreement of parties (DSU 25.1 and 25.2) as basis DSU 1330, 1340

compétence de la compétence DSU 1327

determination of level of nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8) and DSU 1327, 132930

determination of WTO-consistency of measure DSU 1336

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3) and DSU 1330, 1343

procedural requirements

Article 22.6 proceedings distinguished DSU 1333, 1342

consistency with WTO rules and principles, responsibility for ensuring DSU 1326

notification of arbitration to DSB, limitation to DSU 1326, 1338

Berne Convention/TRIPS

broadcasting (Berne 11 bis), Members’ obligations and rights holders’ exercise/exploitation of rights distinguished TRIPS 97

public performance (Berne 11), Members’ obligations and rights holders’ exercise/exploitation of rights distinguished TRIPS 94

burden of proof (general rules), arbitration (DSU 25) DSU 1328

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion], as general rule of international arbitration DSU 1327

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3)

acceptance of information or technical advice (DSU 13) and DSU 764, 1334

non-confidential summary of information (DSU 18.2) DSU 1335

DSU, “dispute settlement”, expeditious arbitration as alternative means (DSU 25.1) DSU 1329, 1337, 1341

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2)

confidential information (SG 3.2) and DSU 764

confidentiality considerations DSU 764, 1334

panel’s rights, to accept or reject requested information or advice DSU 1334

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3), arbitration (DSU 25) and DSU 1330, 1343

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 3.3/DSU 25 DSU 1343

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts”, facts available at time of establishment of panel, limitation to DSU 1333

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4)

Article 25.3 Arbitrator’s right to review DSU 1327, 132930

benefits foregone by right holders and Member distinguished DSU 1332

critical date DSU 1333

economic benefits as measure DSU 1331

TRIPS Agreement, implementation obligation (TRIPS 1.1) TRIPS 94 n. 95

 

US — Section 129(c)(1) URAA (Panel), WT/DS221/R, DSR 2002:VII

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), suspension of WTO-inconsistent measure during “reasonable period of time”, need for DSU 10956

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability AD 880

assessment of mandatory nature DSU 295

order of analysis

mandatory nature of legislation/consistency with WTO obligations AD 880

mandatory/discretionary nature of legislation/substance DSU 295

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), continued application of WTO-inconsistent measures during reasonable period DSU 10956

 

US — Section 211 Appropriations Act (AB), WT/DS176/AB/R, DSR 2002:II

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), written reponses (ABWP 28), requests for additional memoranda/submissions DSU 1463

domestic law

as evidence of

compliance with international obligations DSU 532, 847

determination as legal issue DSU 847

interpretation of legislation distinguished

as fact for purposes of international adjudication DSU 532

fair and equitable procedures (TRIPS 42)

international minimum standard (TRIPS 1.3) and TRIPS 223

as procedural requirement TRIPS 2234

“right holders” TRIPS 222

intellectual property conventions (TRIPS 2)

national treatment (PC 2(1))/TRIPS 3.1 TRIPS 20

trade names (PC 8) TRIPS 19, 30, DSU 870

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II), “intellectual property” (TRIPS 1.2), categories covered TRIPS 12

international minimum standard (TRIPS 1.3), procedural rights (TRIPS 42) and TRIPS 223

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) DSU 870

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/ discretionary legislation, distinguishability DSU 300 n. 483

MFN treatment (TRIPS 4), “protection of intellectual property” (chapeau), trade names, applicability of findings on trade marks TRIPS 67

national treatment (TRIPS 3)

“enjoy the advantages” (PC 2.1) distinguished TRIPS 20

“treatment no less favourable” (TRIPS 3.1)

GATT III:4 compared TRIPS 27, 39

GATT practice TRIPS 61

offset TRIPS 3943, 66

applicability to all trademark owners requirement TRIPS 401

discretionary administrative procedure as TRIPS 423

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “owner” (TRIPS 16.1) TRIPS 130

Paris Convention (PC)/TRIPS

applicability of Paris Convention, obligation to argue/make prima facie case TRIPS 22

national treatment (PC 2(1)) TRIPS 20

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal

interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 870

law vs fact, compliance/consistency with treaty obligations, assessment of domestic law for purpose of determining DSU 847

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment of domestic law DSU 532

trade names, obligation to comply with PC 8 as incorporated by TRIPS 2.1 TRIPS 19, 30

applicability of trademark findings TRIPS 55

MFN treatment (TRIPS 4), applicability of findings on trademarks TRIPS 67

ownership issues and TRIPS 31

trademarks (Paris Convention (PC))

protection in other countries of the Union (PC 6quinquies), “as is” / “telle quelle” TRIPS 29

registration conditions (PC 6), Members’ discretion (PC 6(1)) TRIPS 25

trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2)

denial of protection on “other grounds” (TRIPS 15.2) TRIPS 128

“other grounds” for denial of registration (TRIPS 15.2) TRIPS 128

“protectable subject-matter” (TRIPS 15) TRIPS 1278

“distinctiveness” requirements, restrictions on legislative conditions and TRIPS 127

rights conferred (TRIPS 16)

“making rights available on the basis of use” TRIPS 135

“the owner” (TRIPS 16.1) TRIPS 130

usage and registration as basis of ownership distinguished TRIPS 130

 

US — Section 211 Appropriations Act (Panel), WT/DS176/R, DSR 2002:II

abuse of rights/abus de droit, pacta sunt servanda/performance in

good faith (VCLT 26) and TRIPS 77

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

abuse of rights/abus de droit and TRIPS 77

balance of rights and obligations as objective (TRIPS 7) TRIPS 77

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, “any subsequent agreement … regarding its interpretation or application” (VCLT 31(3) (a)) DSU 1577

national treatment (TRIPS 3), “treatment no less favourable” (TRIPS 3.1), difference of treatment between EU and non-EU members TRIPS 48

relationships within and between agreements, GATT III:4/TRIPS 3.1 GATT 416

trade names, obligation to comply with PC 8 as incorporated by TRIPS 2.1 TRIPS 19

trademarks (Paris Convention (PC)), well-known trademarks, prohibition on use (PC 6 bis) TRIPS 26

TRIPS Agreement

implementation obligation (TRIPS 1.1), good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)) TRIPS 77

object and purpose (preamble/TRIPS 7), balance of rights and obligations TRIPS 77

 

US — Section 301 Trade Act (Panel), WT/DS152/R, DSR 2000:II

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement, inconclusive outcome / “equipoise” DSU 545

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), general rule of interpretation (VCLT 31) as DSU 1537

domestic law

as evidence of

compliance with international obligations DSU 527

interpretation of legislation distinguished, DSU 527

as fact for purposes of international adjudication DSU 527

DSU dispute settlement

obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1)

as “exclusive jurisdiction” clause DSU 1310

“recourse to, and abide by” DSU 1310

time-frame (DSU 12.8, 12.9, 17.5 and 20), indicative nature DSU 995

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6), on-the-spot verification (AD 6.7), participation of non-governmental experts (Annex I, para. 2), notification of participation, burden of proof AD 530

good faith interpretation of treaty (VCLT 31(1))

avoidance of legislation threatening prohibited conduct DSU 1544

ordinary meaning of the text and DSU 1543

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), legislation as such and DSU 339

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4) WTO 286

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability

assessment of mandatory nature DSU 295

DSU 23 and WTO 286, DSU 296, 1312

rejection/non-endorsement of doctrine DSU 296

relevance DSU 296

State responsibility and DSU 339

unilateral action (DSU 23) and DSU 339, 1312

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), determination by WTO or parties jointly DSU 1314

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 23/WTO XVI:4 WTO 286

DSU 23.1/DSU 23.2 DSU 1298

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) DSU 988

as WTO objective DSU 44

sovereignty, unilateral statements and DSU 1685

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment of domestic law DSU 527

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), legislation as such and DSU 339

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), WTO authorization, need for (DSU 3.7, 22.6 and 23.2(c)), cumulative nature of DSU 23.2(c) obligations DSU 1316

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1)

legislation [as such] in breach of unilateral undertaking DSU 132, 339

relationship between DSU 23.1 and 23.2 DSU 1298

unilateral statements, legal effect DSU 1685

WTO Agreement, preamble, “secure and predictable” WTO 10

 

US — Section 337 (GATT Panel), BISD 365/345, national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “less favourable treatment”, equality of competitive conditions as test GATT 370, 371

 

US — Shrimp (Viet Nam) (Panel)

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), applicability (AD 18.3), pre-/post-WTO reviews AD 967

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

assessment (AD 9.3), “product as a whole” (AD 2.1) and AD 685

calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4), margins established under circumstances referred to in AD 6.8, exclusion, lacuna situation AD 71116

determination of dumping (AD 2), fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4), NMEs and (Note 2 Ad Article VI:1) GATT 458, AD 167, 715

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), independent tribunals (GATT X:3(b)) GATT 586

relationships within and between agreements, AD 2.1/AD 9.4 AD 711

sampling (AD 6.10)

choice of sample AD 635

voluntary responses (AD 6.10.2) AD 638

 

US — Shrimp dispute (WT/DS58), “sequencing” (interrelationship between Article 21.5 and Article 22.6 arbitration, ad hoc procedural agreements), recourse to Article 21.5 before Article 22 DSU 1159

 

US — Shrimp (AB), WT/DS58/AB/R, DSR 1998:VII

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

appellant’s submission (ABWP 21), materials attached to as integral part DSU 1431

written reponses (ABWP 28), requests for additional memoranda/submissions DSU 1461

abuse of rights/abus de droit, pacta sunt servanda/performance in good faith (VCLT 26) TRIPS 77, DSU 1501

access to dispute settlement process, limitation to WTO Members DSU 516

amicus curiae briefs

AB and, right to accept (DSU 17.9) DSU 516

panel’s authority/discretion to accept or reject DSU 516, 685, 697, 7389

rejection as error of law DSU 739

third party rights distinguished DSU 516, 685

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, GATT XX measure as (GATT XX chapeau)

“between countries where the same conditions prevail” GATT 242, 859

between importing and exporting countries GATT 861

constituent elements GATT 859, 862, 864

discrimination in substantive GATT obligations distinguished GATT 858, 864

failure to consider appropriateness of regulatory programme and GATT 8657

DSB

access to, limitation to WTO Members DSU 516

proper parties DSU 516

environment, protection as legitimate goal of national and international policy WTO 2

GATT 1947, WTO continuity with WTO 3

General Exceptions (GATT XX) (general)

obligation to comply with domestic legislation, relevance GATT 845

limited and conditional nature of exceptions GATT 856

two-step analysis (justification under paras. (a)-(j)/compliance with chapeau) GATT 849, 856

General Exceptions (GATT XX), preamble/chapeau

as balance between competing rights GATT 846, 8567

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)) and GATT 857, DSU 1501

preparatory work (VCLT 32) GATT 856

prevention of abuses of exceptions as objective GATT 856

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements, “necessary” to secure compliance, balancing of factors GATT 919

General Exceptions (GATT XX(g)), measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources

“exhaustible natural resources”

as evolutionary concept/intertemporal law WTO 2, GATT 935, GATS 5 n. 7, DSU 1596, 1618

living natural resources, whether WTO 2, GATT 935

sustainable development as objective WTO 2, 3

“full use of the resources of the world” distinguishedWTO3

WTO Preamble as aid to interpretation WTO 2, GATT 858

jurisdictional limitation, whether GATT 934

“made effective in conjunction with”, as balance between conservation and domestic production/consumption GATT 947

“relating to”, “primarily aimed at” distinguished GATT 942

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

abuse of rights/abus de droit and GATT 857, TRIPS 77, DSU 1501

as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation/performances 1501

GATT XX and GATT 857

as general principle of international law DSU 1594

as general principle of law DSU 1594

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), definition DSU 1501

treaty performance and

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2)

comprehensive nature of panel’s authority DSU 736, 738

discretion not to seek DSU 736, 7389, 754 n. 1216, 757 n. 1220

discretion to accept or reject unrequested information or advice DSU 7389

panel’s right to evaluate source of information or advice DSU 736

panel’s rights

to accept or reject requested information or advice DSU 7389

to evaluate information or advice DSU 736

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)) DSU 1587

good faith as GATT 857

as supplementary means / “taken into account” DSU 1596

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

evolutionary approach/intertemporal law WTO 2, GATT 935, DSU 1596, 1618

object and purpose, caution in use of DSU 1568

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)), preamble as reflection of GATT 858

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2))

statement of allegation of error on issues of law/legal interpretations (ABWP 20(2)(d))

identification of facts requiring panel to draw inferences DSU 1411

indication of appropriate factual or legal inferences DSU 1411

legal argument in support of claim distinguished DSU 1411

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP))

access to dispute settlement process (DSU 12.6) DSU 516, 697

submission, right of (DSU 12.6 and WP 4) DSU 516, 697

panel reports, high quality/flexibility of panel procedures balance (DSU 12.2) DSU 685

preparatory work (VCLT 32), GATT XX GATT 856

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

transparency and due process, GATT X:3 and GATT 548

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a))

due process requirement GATT 552 n. 774

“uniform”, “impartial” and “reasonable” as independent elements GATT 550

relationships within and between agreements, GATT XX chapeau/GATT XX paras. (a)-(i) exceptions GATT 849

special or additional procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1), margin of discretion DSU 685

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

opportunity to be heard (DSU 10.2) DSU 516, 697

“substantial interest” (DSU 10.2) DSU 469

WTO Agreement

GATT 1947, continuity with WTO 3

preamble

applicability

all covered agreements WTO 3

GATT XX WTO 2

 

US — Shrimp (Panel), WT/DS58/R and Corr.1, DSR 1998:VII

amicus curiae briefs, panel’s authority/discretion to accept or reject DSU 738

expert evidence (DSU 13.2/SPS 11.2), independence and impartiality, Rules of Conduct (RoC I and III:2) DSU 1477

General Exceptions (GATT XX), obligation to comply with domestic legislation, relevance GATT 845

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

GATT XIII and GATT 685 n. 960

“prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1), import prohibition GATT 608

relationships within and between agreements

GATT I/GATT XI GATT 113

GATT XI/GATT XIII GATT 685 n. 960

Rules of Conduct, independence and impartiality (RoC I and III:2), scientific experts DSU 1477

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1) DSU 1294

 

US — Shrimp (Article 21.5 — Malaysia) (AB), WT/DS58/AB/RW, DSR 2001:XIII

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

oral hearings (ABWP 27), change of date DSU 1394

timetable, modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16 (2)) DSU 1394

timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)), modification of date of oral hearing (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1394

domestic law

as fact for purposes of international adjudication DSU 531

decisions of domestic courts, applicability, unfinished proceedings, relevance DSU 531

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation DSU 1505, 1507

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)) DSU 1589

treaties concluded by parties as DSU 1589

legal status of adopted AB reports (DSU 17.14) DSU 899

as final resolution of dispute DSU 826, 899, 1137

legal status of panel reports, unappealed finding in adopted report DSU 826, 1130, 1137

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5) DSU 1101

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel

determination of consistency of measure with WTO obligations DSU 1101

deviation from original panel report DSU 1105 n. 1709

limitation to claims at time of referral to review panel DSU 1101

“measures taken to comply”

examination on basis of facts proved during panel proceedings DSU 1101

measure found to be consistent in original proceedings DSU 1137

measure subject of original dispute distinguished DSU 1101

unappealed finding and DSU 826, 1130, 1137

sovereignty, unilateral environmental protection measures as breach DSU 1737

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment of domestic law DSU 531

 

US — Shrimp (Ecuador) (Panel), WT/DS335/R, DSR 2007:II

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), assessment (AD 9.3), “product as a whole” (AD 2.1) and AD 120

mutually agreed/acceptable solution to matters raised formally (DSU 3.6), characterization as such by parties, need for DSU 522

panel reports, rationale/reasons, need for (DSU 12.7), in case of mutually agreed solution DSU 706

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it”

all arguments DSU 522

independent assessment, in absence of contested claims DSU 522

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), “comparable” AD 120

 

US — Shrimp (Thailand)/US — Customs Bond Directive (AB), WT/ DS343/AB/R / WT/DS345/AB/R, DSR 2008:VII, / DSR 2008:VIII

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1392

transition (ABWP 15) DSU 1377

arguendo assumptions, judicial economy and DSU 660

burden of proof

prima facie case requirement

establishment of party’s case by panel, exclusion DSU 557

evidence other than that submitted by parties, panel’s right to consider DSU 550

consultations (DSU 4)

identity of specific measures in the consultations and the request for establishment of a panel, relevance DSU 145

as prerequisite to establishment of panel/requirement to indicate whether held (DSU 6.2) DSU 145

purpose/importance, definition of dispute DSU 145

written request (DSU 4.4) as basis DSU 147

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

identity with specific measure the subject of consultations, relevance DSU 145

“scope” of consultations and DSU 147

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), US Customs Bond Directive AD 964

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 1726

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, AD 18.1/GATT VI DSU 1726

precedence/hierarchy in case of conflict DSU 1726

multiple appeals (special procedure for consolidation (ABWP 16 (1))) DSU 1383

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate AB reports DSU 458

multiple panels/different parties/measure in common DSU 183

multiple panels/same parties/same dispute (DSU 9.3), harmonization of timetables DSU 463

provisional measures (AD 7), specific action against dumping (Note Ad Article VI:2–3) AD 653

relationships within and between agreements, AD 7/GATT VI AD 653

special or additional procedures (AB) (ABWP 16(1)), multiple appeals DSU 1383

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement

“against” GATT 473, AD 963

reasonable security/bonding (Note 1 Ad Article VI:2–3) GATT 473, 4747, AD 697, 964

provisional measures (AD 7) and AD 653

US Customs Bond Directive “as such” AD 964

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, all arguments DSU 517, 557

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6, participation in proceedings initiated by another complainant (DSU 9) DSU 493

 

US — Shrimp (Thailand) (Panel), WT/DS343/R

burden of proof, prima facie case requirement AD 121

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), “comparable” AD 121

 

US — Softwood Lumber II (GATT Panel), SCM/162, BISD 40S/358

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11), sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.3), determination of sufficiency standard of review (DSU 17.6) AD 367

relationships within and between agreements, AD 5.3/AD 17.6 AD 367

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), AD 5.3 (sufficiency of evidence), applicability to AD 367

 

US — Softwood Lumber III (Panel), WT/DS236/R, DSR 2002:IX

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

expedited review, right to (SCM 19.3), entitled SCM 464

review of need for continued imposition (SCM 21.2)

in absence of request SCM 483

administrative review SCM 482

expedited review, right to (SCM 19.3), aggregated investigations SCM 465

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) SCM 475

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise SCM 475

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), future application distinguished SCM 483

provisional measures (SCM 17)

date of commencement (SCM 17.3) SCM 455

duration (SCM 17.4) SCM 456

retroactivity (SCM 20) and SCM 455, 466, 4735, 477

relationships within and between agreements, SCM 17.3/SCM 20 SCM 475

retroactivity (SCM 20), exceptions SCM 455, 4735, 475

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), passing the benefit through, subsidized inputs SCM 856

 

US — Softwood Lumber IV (AB), WT/DS257/AB/R, DSR 2004:II

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), replacement of member (ABWP 13), for serious personal reasons (AWP 12) DSU 1375

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

calculation of subsidies (GATT VI:3/SCM 19.4), “pass-through” analysis (GATT 6:3/SCM 10 and 32) GATT 472

countervailing duties, compliance with both GATT VI:3 and SCM GATT 472

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), characterization of transaction under domestic law, relevance DSU 1625

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) GATT 472, SCM 358

“countervailing duty” (SCM 10 footnote 36), “any subsidy bestowed directly or indirectly” SCM 354

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1665 n. 2604

domestic law

characterization of transactions, appropriateness as applicable law DSU 1625

interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1625

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

object and purpose

caution in use of DSU 1571

SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 6

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, caution in use of SCM 40

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 1723

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, GATT VI/SCM Part V DSU 1723

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33)

customary international law rules of interpretation, applicability DSU 1665 n. 2604

English, French and Spanish texts compared SCM 43

ILC Commentary on DSU 1665 n. 2604

“ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and SCM 43, DSU 1662

presumption of identity of meaning (VCLT 33(3)) SCM 43, DSU 1662

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1625

“provides” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)) SCM 40

SCM Agreement

object and purpose (SCM 1) SCM 6

strengthening and improvement of GATT disciplines on subsidies and countervailing measures SCM 8, 44, 493

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), interpretation contradictory to object and purpose of agreement and SCM 6, 44

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement, calculation of amount of subsidy (SCM 14 (d)) and SCM 589

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/ insufficiency of facts DSU 872

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

“any” method (chapeau) SCM 403

“adequately explained” SCM 403

provision of goods or services (SCM 14(d))

benchmarks SCM 412

“prevailing market conditions” /benchmarks SCM 41618

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) as parallel requirement SCM 11

cumulative nature of SCM 1.1(a)(1) requirements SCM 87

preparatory work (VCLT 32), SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 14

“private body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)), government entrustment or direction, effect SCM 50

provision of goods or services (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii))

“goods” SCM 434

“provides” SCM 401

range of transactions qualifying as SCM 13

transactions not qualifying as SCM 14

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit)

passing the benefit through

“countervailing duty” (SCM 10 footnote 36) and SCM 355, 358

subsidized inputs SCM 87

withdrawal of appeal (ABWP 30), withdrawal and re-filing of appeal, for scheduling reasons DSU 1472

“world market share” (SCM 6(3)(d)) SCM 326

 

US — Softwood Lumber IV (Panel), WT/DS257/R, DSR 2004:II

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

calculation of subsidies (GATT VI:3/SCM 19.4), “pass-through” analysis (GATT 6:3/SCM 10 and 32) GATT 472

countervailing udties, compliance with both GATT VI:3 and SCM GATT 472

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) GATT 472

calculation of subsidies GATT 472

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, dictionaries, cautious approach to SCM 43

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

provision of goods or services (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii))

“provision” and “purchase” distinghuised SCM 39

“provision” and “purchase” distinguished SCM 6

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), “benefit”, recipient, need for SCM 87

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2)

de facto specificity (SCM 2.1(c)), deliberate limitation SCM 109

relevant factors other than those listed under SCM 2.1(a) and (b) (SCM 2.1(c)) SCM 111

 

US — Softwood Lumber IV (Article 21.5 — Canada) (AB), WT/DS264/AB/R, DSR 2004:V

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), written reponses (ABWP 28), requests for additional memoranda/submissions DSU 1465

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, dictionaries DSU 1114

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts AD 83

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel, determination of consistency of measure with WTO obligations DSU 1117

measures other than measures taken to comply DSU 1128

“measures taken to comply”

measure taken “to comply” /measure subject of original dispute distinguished DSU 1114

measures close to measure taken to comply DSU 1118, 1120

 

US — Softwood Lumber IV (Article 21.5 — Canada) (Panel), WT/DS264/R

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), subsequent proceedings/continuance of recommendations DSU 946

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel, limitations on DSU 1104

composition of panel, as close as possible to original panel DSU 1104

DSU 6.2 procedures, applicability

procedures distinguished DSU 1104

time-limits distinguished DSU 1104

measures other than measures taken to comply DSU 1128

“measures taken to comply”, considered in context DSU 1103

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), passing the benefit through, benefit to recipient test SCM 87

 

US — Softwood Lumber V (AB), WT/DS264/AB/R, DSR 2004:V

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), reports, as precedent DSU 900

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), assessment (AD 9.3), “product as a whole” (AD 2.1) and AD 120

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), zeroing and AD 114

cost data (AD 2.2.1.1)

“negative” nature of obligations (“what is not prohibited…”) AD 49

“shall consider all available evidence” AD 50

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2) AD 117

product types/product as a whole (AD 2.4.2) AD 125 “margins” of dumping AD 114

GATT 1947/WTO continuity, decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1) (GATT acquis), AB reports DSU 900

legal status of adopted AB reports (DSU 17.14) DSU 900

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), law vs fact, alleged failure of panel to make objective assessment (DSU 11) DSU 848

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2) AD 114, 117

non-comparable types AD 125

 

US — Softwood Lumber V (Panel), WT/DS264/R, DSR 2004:V

determination of dumping (AD 2)

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4), “due allowance”, “differences which affect price comparability” AD 923

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1), calculation of administrative, selling and general costs and profits (AD 2.2.2), actual data “pertaining to” AD 56

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 949

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

rejection of application (AD 5.8), applicability prior to initiation of investigation AD 399

sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.3), “such evidence is reasonably available to the applicant” (AD 5.2) AD 341

“like product” (AD 2.6), “another product” AD 151

 

US — Softwood Lumber V (Article 21.5 — Canada) (AB)

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), object and purpose, absence of specific provision/preamble AD 3

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), zeroing and AD 688

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4), “fair comparison”, zeroing (AD 9.3) and AD 83

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, multiple permissible interpretations AD 929

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii)), “admits of more than one permissible interpretation” AD 929

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2)

mathematical equivalence AD 140

transaction-to-transaction method AD 83, 1325, 688, 929

“fair comparison” (AD 2.4) and AD 83

prospective normal value system (AD 9.3.2) and AD 688

 

US — Softwood Lumber IV (Article 21.5 — Canada) (Panel), WT/DS264/RW, review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), “measures taken to comply”, measure taken “to comply” /measure subject of original dispute distinguished DSU 1113

 

US — Softwood Lumber V (Article 21.5 — Canada) (Panel)

composition of panel (DSU 8), replacement of panelist DSU 442

determination of dumping (AD 2), calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), zeroing and AD 688

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), mathematical equivalence AD 1378

prospective normal value system (AD 9.3.2) and AD 688

 

US — Softwood Lumber VI (Panel), WT/DS277/R, DSR 2004:VI

countervailing duties (SCM Part V), public notice and explanation of determinations (SCM 22), AD 12.2.2, SCM 22.4 and SCM 22.5, close similarity SCM 504

determination of injury (AD 3)

threat of material injury (AD 3.7)

AD 3.2 and SCM 15.2 factors and AD 301

AD 3.4 factors and AD 3001

“facts, not merely allegation, conjecture or remote possibility”

a “clearly foreseen and imminent” change of circumstances, need for AD 292

“consideration” of facts AD 2935

“special care” requirement (AD 3.8/SCM 15.8) AD 3056, SCM 4512

underlying principles (AD 3.1) and AD 178

determination of injury (SCM 15), threat of injury (SCM 15.8), “special care” requirement (AD 3.8/SCM 15.8) AD 3056, SCM 4512

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries AD 305

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, AD 12.2.2/SCM 22.4 and 22.5 SCM 504

order of analysis, AD-consistent measure/compliance with public notice (AD 12.2) requirements AD 835

public notice of preliminary or final determination (AD 12.2)

AD 12.2.2, SCM 22.4 and SCM 22.5, close similarity SCM 504

compliance with other obligations, dependence on AD 839

explanations for initiation of investigations (AD 12.2.2), relevance/sufficiency AD 835

relationships within and between agreements, AD 17.6/DSU 11 AD 912

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6)

assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), de novo review, exclusion AD 912

interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii))

“admits of more than one permissible interpretation” AD 963

DSU 11 compared AD 936, 963

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, AD 17.6(ii) compared AD 936

 

US — Softwood Lumber VI (Article 21.5 — Canada) (AB), WT/DS277/RW

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

submission, correction of clerical error (ABWP 18(5)), requests for DSU 1407

timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)), modification of date of oral hearing (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1395

burden of proof, impossible burden, proving a negative DSU 569

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel, deviation from original panel report DSU 11056

 

US — Sonar Mapping (GATT Panel), GPR.DS1/R, Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), definitions (GPA I:1), “government procurement” GPA 5

 

US — Spring Assemblies (GATT Panel), BISD 30S/107

General Exceptions (GATT XX) (general)

applicability to GATT as a whole (chapeau) GATT 860 n. 1180

“countries” GATT 860 n. 1180

General Exceptions (GATT XX), preamble/chapeau, applicability of GATT XX to GATT as a whole GATT 860 n. 1180

 

US — Stainless Steel (Korea) (Panel), WT/DS179/R, DSR 2001:IV

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), principles (AD 1), “initiated and conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement”, violation of other AD provisions as evidence of breach of AD 1 AD 10

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

competence of domestic courts, need to avoid trespassing on GATT 562

preservation of rights and obligations of Members under covered agreements GATT 562

determination of dumping (AD 2)

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

“due allowance”

“costs … incurred between importation and resale” AD102

differences in “terms and conditions of sale” AD 98100

legal effect / “should also be made” AD 101

object and purpose AD 102

risk of bankruptcy, relevance AD 98100

for unforeseeable costs AD 102

exchange rates and (AD 2.4.1) AD 107

determination of relevant currency AD 109

general “fair comparison” requirement and AD 110

when “required” AD 1089

“sales made at as nearly as possible the same time” AD 87

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4)

averaging periods AD 1301

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2)

“comparable” AD 129

multiple averaging (AD 2.4.2) AD 1289

relationship between, AD 2.1, 2.3 and 2.4 AD 37

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

dictionaries AD 102

panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 971

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) AD 99, 107 n. 143

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) AD 101

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII), publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X:3(a)) GATT 596

order of analysis, specific/general provision AD 86

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

Anti-Dumping Agreement and GATT 596

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3 (a))

consistency of administration with Member’s domestic law, relevance GATT 562

“uniform” GATT 562

relationships within and between agreements

AD 1, 9 and 18/GATT VI/AD 3, 5, 7, 12 and Annex I, para. 2 AD 10

AD 2/AD 6 AD 641

AD 2.4.1/GATT X:3(a) GATT 596

AD 2.1, 2.3 and 2.4 AD 37

AD 2.4, sentences within AD 86

AD 2.4/AD 2.4.2 AD 129

AD 2.4.1/AD 2.4 AD 110

AD 6.8/AD Annex II AD 535

assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), “unbiased and objective” AD 919

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), “facts made available” (AD 17.5(ii)), evidence before authority at time of determination, limitation to AD 916

 

US — Stainless Steel (Mexico) (AB), WT/DS344/AB/R, DSR 2008:II

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

compliance obligation DSU 1366

documents (ABWP 18), failure to file by deadline (ABWP 18(1)) DSU 1398

due process and DSU 1366

AD 9.3/GATT VI:2 requirements GATT 465

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement

dumping, constituent elements (AD 2/GATT VI:1), consistency of definition throughout AD and GATT GATT 453

dumping, constituent elements/definition (AD 2/GATT VI:1), “margin of dumping” (GATT VI:2) / “margins of dumping” (AD 2.1), equivalence GATT 453

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), assessment (AD 9.3), “product as a whole” (AD 2.1) and AD 6814

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law, AD 17.6(ii) AD 930

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), “margins” of dumping (AD 2.4.2), “margin of dumping” (GATT VI:2), equivalence GATT 453

relationships within and between agreements, AD 2.1/GATT VI:1 GATT 453

DSB, “accordingly the DSB shall have authority” (DSU 2.1), “accordingly the DSB shall have authority” (DSU 2.1) DSU 32

DSU dispute settlement, hierarchical structure DSU 835

“dumping” / “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1)

as exporter-specific concepts 691–4, GATT 453

AD 9.3 and AD 6914

“for purposes of this agreement” /identity of meaning throughout AD Agreement AD 16

identity of meaning throughout AD Agreement AD 16

interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for authoritative (WTO IX:2), “clarify the existing provisions” (DSU 3.2) and DSU 53

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

multiple permissible interpretations AD 930

same or closely related phrases in same agreement

DSU 2.1/DSU 11 (“accordingly”) DSU 32

identity of meaning throughout agreement AD 16

legal status of adopted AB reports (DSU 17.14), as precedent DSU 903

precedent

AB jurisprudence, importance of following DSU 53, 68, 835, 903, 1701

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 53, 835, 903, 1701

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) as aid to DSU 68

relationships within and between agreements AD 6914

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) DSU 46

certainty of the law DSU 24

“clarify the existing provisions” and DSU 53

precedent/AB jurisprudence, need to follow DSU 53, 835, 903, 1701

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) and DSU 68

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii)), “admits of more than one permissible interpretation” AD 930

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), mathematical equivalence AD 141

margin of dumping as ceiling GATT 465

 

US — Stainless Steel (Mexico) (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS344/15

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

administrative measures as means of implementation, relevance DSU 1051

complexity of implementation process DSU 1054

 

US — Steel Plate dispute

consultations (DSU 21.5), ad hoc procedural agreement DSU 1168

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

ad hoc procedural agreements

consultations DSU 1168

non-prejudice to parties’ other rights DSU 1174

 

US — Steel Plate (Panel), WT/DS206/R and Corr.1, DSR 2002:VI

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), lesser duty, possibility of (AD 9.1) AD 861

determination of dumping (AD 2), relationship between, AD 2.2 and AD 2.4/AD 6.8 AD 161

developing countries (AD 15)

“constructive remedy”

decision not to impose anti-dumping duties AD 857 n. 1156

lesser duty or price undertaking AD 861

“shall be explored” AD 861

obligations (first sentence) AD 854

“special regard” AD 856

domestic law, as fact for purposes of international adjudication AD 602 n. 836

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

“facts available”, right to use (AD 6.8/Annex II), “less favourable result” as possible consequence of failure to cooperate (AD Annex VII para. 7), cooperation “to the best of its ability” AD 575

resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II)

Annex II, mandatory nature AD 537

in case of partial lack of necessary information AD 5512

in case of verifiable information, “verifiable” (Annex II para. 3) AD 557

conditions for (Annex II) AD 5502

“information appropriately submitted …” (Annex II para. 3) AD 560

information in medium or computer language required (Annex II para. 1) AD 572

information provided within reasonable period, investigating authorities’ obligation to use AD 5502

obligation to submit information “as soon as possible” (Annex II para. 1) AD 537

“shall” AD 537

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), “practice” as measure DSU 268

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings, surveillance (DSU 21), choice of means at authorities’ discretion (DSU 21.3) DSU 983

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

choice of means at authorities’ discretion (DSU 21.3) DSU 528

panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 974

panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 948, 974

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), good faith as AD 575

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries AD 557, 560

object and purpose, AD as a whole AD 551

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability, resort to facts available (AD 6.8/Annex II) and AD 602

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

independent operational status test AD 885, DSU 268, 290 n. 463

“practice” as AD 885

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “all” AD 550

relationships within and between agreements

AD 6.8/AD 9.3 AD 719

AD 9.1/AD 15 AD 857, 861

AD 17.6/DSU 11 AD 926

right of panel or AB to make suggestions DSU 948

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), DSU 11 compared AD 926

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), abandoned claim, right to resurrect AD 902, DSU 413

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6, abandoned claims and DSU 413

 

US — Steel Safeguards (AB), WT/DS248/AB/R, WT/DS249/AB/R, WT/DS251/AB/R, WT/DS252/AB/R, WT/DS258/AB/ R, WT/DS259/AB/R, DSR 2003:VIII

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of)

“demonstrates” SG 77, 1801

“on the basis of objective data” SG 179, 181, 189

determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1), “serious injury” (SG 4.1(a)), as “significant overall impairment” / “very high standard of injury” SG 180

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a))

factors other than increased imports causing injury, non-attribution requirement, order of analysis, relevance SG 214

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)), imports from excluded sources as SG 778

emergency action (GATT XIX)

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a))

“as a result of” GATT 804 n. 1087, 81820

“demonstration”, need for, in respect of each measure GATT 81213

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1) and SG 95, 99

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1) GATT 8012, 811, 814

standard of review GATT 8012

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries GATT 819

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, GATT XIX:1(a)/SG 2.1 SG 48

judicial economy, discretionary nature, reasons for not exercising SG 181

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

separate panel reports (DSU 9.2)

structure DSU 452

timeliness of request DSU 450, 811

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d)), clear allegation of panel’s failure to make objective assessment (DSU 11) DSU 1430

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “result” (GATT XIX:1(a)) GATT 819

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7), sufficiency DSU 705

“product being imported” (SG 2.1), as sudden and recent increase SG 435

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1)GATT 814

application of safeguard measures (SG 5.1), Members’ right to choose method and SG 99

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)) SG 99, 109

multiple findings SG 95

non-compliance with SG 3.1 as violation of SG 2.1/SG 4 SG 99

“reasoned conclusions”. SG 1012

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1) and SG 95, 99

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1)

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)) GATT 8012, 811, 814

“demonstration”, need for GATT 81213

panel’s obligation to confirm SG 109

publication as authorities’ obligation GATT 814

relationships within and between agreements

GATT XIX/SG 3.1 and SG 4.2(c) SG 108

SG 2 and 4/SG 3 SG 99

SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c) SG 107

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2)

parallelism between investigation (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c)) and application of measure (SG 2.2) SG 749

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)), imports from excluded sources as SG 778

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement SG 45, 769

“such increased quantities” (SG 2.1)

absolute increase SG 50

“recent” SG 405

trends SG 425

“under such conditions” SG 59

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/ insufficiency of facts DSU 871

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

applicability to SG/GATT XIX SG 109

DSU 11, applicability GATT 801

DSU 11 (function of panel) claims and claims relating to substantive provisions distinguished DSU 1430

error of law, error not rising to a breach of DSU 11 DSU 596

“objective assessment of matter before it”, reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) and SG 99

“sufficient to cause serious injury or threat” (SG 2.1) SG 48

 

US — Steel Safeguards (Panel), WT/DS248/R and Corr.1, WT/ DS249/R and Corr.1, WT/DS251/R and Corr.1, WT/ DS252/R and Corr.1, WT/DS253/R and Corr.1, WT/ DS254/R and Corr.1, WT/DS258/R and Corr.1, DS259/R and Corr.1

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury threat of)

analysis of conditions of competition SG 1935

price analysis and SG 194

relevant factors SG 1935

coincidence of trends in imports and in injury factors SG 185

“demonstrates” SG 1878, 193

quantification, relevance SG 21113

reasoned and adequate explanation SG 95, 99

confidential information (SG 3.2), publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1) and SG 112

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP

interim review reports DSU 815

non-confidential summary of information (DSU 18.2) DSU

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature 4.2(a))

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)) SG 74

imports from excluded sources as SG 74

DSU dispute settlement, time-frame (DSU 20), separate panel reports (DSU 9.2) and DSU 994

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties, timing of submission of evidence (DS 12) and DSU

emergency action (GATT XIX)

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a))

“as a result of” GATT 818

confluence of developments as basis GATT 817

“demonstration”, need for

prior to application of measure GATT 810

in respect of each measure GATT 81213

objective/subjective nature of legal standard GATT 816

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1) SG 95, 99

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1) GATT 800, SG 95

standard of review GATT 8002

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time–limits for submission, “rebuttal submissions” DSU 628

executive summaries (panel working procedures)

length/structure DSU 735

preliminary ruling on DSU 735

interim review (DSU 15)

confidentiality of reports DSU 815

multiple complainants/separate reports DSU 811

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise SG 112

investigation of conditions for safeguard measures, requirements (SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c))

interested parties, obligation to consult SG 96

internal decision-making process, relevance SG 98

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), separate panel reports DSU 452

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate interim review reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 811

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP))

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP)), timetable (panel) (DSU 12.3), flexibility DSU 696

“rebuttal submissions” DSU 628, 698

time–limits for filing of written submissions (DSU 12.5 and WP), modification by agreement DSU 721

preliminary rulings on

confidentiality issues DSU 912

executive summaries DSU 735

timetable for panel proceedings DSU 696

timing of submission of evidence DSU 628

proportionality, safeguard measures (SG 5.1) (“to the extent necessary”) and SG 15

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1)

application of safeguard measures (SG 5.1), Members’ right to choose method and SG 98

format of report, relevance SG 104

multiple findings SG 95

timing of report, relevance SG 105

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1), “as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)), “demonstration”, need for GATT 81213

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG), causation (SG 2.1/SG 4.2(b)) SG 74

relationships within and between agreements

GATT XIX:1/SG 11.1 SG 10

GATT XIX/SG 1 SG 10

GATT XIX/SG 3.1 and SG 4.2(c) SG 108

SG 3.1/SG 3.2 SG 112

SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c) SG 107

safeguard measures, application (SG 5), “to the extent necessary” (proportionality) (SG 5.1) SG 15

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2)

parallelism between investigation (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c)) and application of measure (SG 2.2), “factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)), imports from excluded sources as SG 74

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement GATT 800, SG 45, 74, 95

right to apply measure and exercise of right distinguished SG 15

“such increased quantities”, as sudden and recent increase SG 402

“such increased quantities” (SG 2.1), trends SG 42, 45

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

applicability to SG/GATT XIX GATT 800

de novo review, exclusion GATT 800, SG 310

“objective assessment of matter before it”, reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) and GATT 800, SG 310

“under such conditions”, safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2), price analysis, relevance SG 623

WTO Agreement, cumulative nature of obligations SG 10

 

US — Sugar Waiver (GATT Panel), BISD 37S/228

Lomé waiver WTO 209

relationships within and between agreements, GATT II/GATT XIII GATT 169

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

diminishment of obligations, exclusion GATT 138

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII) and GATT 169

“subject to the terms, conditions or qualifications in the schedule” (GATT II:1(b)), additional concession GATT 140 n. 204

VCLT as applicable law GATT 169

 

US — Superfund (GATT Panel) BISD 34S/136

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/ discretionary legislation, distinguishability, assessment of mandatory nature DSU 294 n. 467

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement DSU 90

 

US — Textiles Rules of Origin (Panel), WT/DS243/R and Corr.1, DSR 2003:VI

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, dictionaries RO 12

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), “unduly strict requirements” (RO 2(c)) RO 12 n. 20

preparatory work (VCLT 32), RO 2(c) RO 12 n. 22

Rules of Origin Agreement (RO)

design and application, Members’ discretion RO 2

documentation requirements RO 12 n. 21

“fulfilment of a certain condition not related to manufacturing or processing” (RO 2(c)) RO 13

“negative” nature RO 2

non-discrimination (RO 2(d)), closely related goods RO 14

restrictive, distorting or disruptive effects on international trade, exclusion (RO 2(c))

adverse effects on trade in different goods RO 11

“create” RO 9

“effects on international trade” RO 11

individual “rules” and system distinguished RO 11 n. 18

“themselves” RO 8

trade objectives, exclusion as instrument of (RO 2(b)) RO 37

design and structure of measure as evidence of protective application RO 5

GATT III:2 obligations compared RO 5

incidental trade effect distinguished RO 7

intention, relevance RO 5

“trade objectives” RO 4, 6

“unduly strict requirements” (RO 2(c)) RO 12

French and Spanish versions RO 12 n. 20

preparatory work (VCLT 32) RO 12 n. 22

RO 2(a) as context RO 12

“strict” RO 12

“unduly” RO 12

rules of origin disciplines (RO 2) (transition period), “shall not themselves create” (RO 2(c)), “restrictive, distorting or disruptive effects” RO 10

 

US — Tobacco (GATT Panel), BISD 41S/I/131, legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/ discretionary legislation, distinguishability DSU 290, 294

 

US — Tuna (GATT Panel), DS29/R

GATT 1947/WTO continuity

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1) / “other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (GATT 1994 1(b)(iv)), panel reports (unadopted) GATT 608 n. 868

“decisions” (WTO XVI:1/GATT 1(b)(iv)), classification as, panel reports (adopted) GATT 608 n. 868

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), nullification or impairment, need for, measures in force, limitation to GATT 973

 

US — Tuna II (Mexico) (Panel), WT/DS381/R

amicus curiae briefs, due process and DSU 682, 744

burden of proof (general rules), onus probandi actori incumbit TBT 53

composition of panel (DSU 8), replacement of panellist DSU 442

due process, amicus curiae briefs and DSU 682, 744

interim review (DSU 15), reconsideration of evidence, arguments and findings DSU 798

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex 1)

burden of proof

effectiveness of standard TBT 53

onus probandi actori incumbit TBT 53

“in fulfilment of legitimate objective” (TBT 2.4), “ineffective or inappropriate means” (including distinction between) TBT 69

“international standard”

elements TBT 54

ISO/IEC Guide 2 TBT 545, 154

“standard” (Annex 1.2) distinguished TBT 545, 167

ISO/IEC Guide/Annex 1, relationship TBT 154

“relevant” TBT 66

use “as a basis for” GATT 48, 66

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex), “as a basis for” TBT 66

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TBT 7

judicial economy, irrelevant considerations DSU 656

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 1729

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, GATT/TBT DSU 1729

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), several instruments as single measure DSU 2756

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1) TBT 17

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III:4/TBT 2.1 TBT 20

GATT XX/TBT 2.2 TBT 38

SPS 5.6 and footnote 3/TBT 2.2 TBT 40

SPS/TBT SPS 286

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), responsibility for act or omission of, judicial authorities DSU 1684

TBT Agreement

definitions (TBT 1.1 and Annex 1), international standards definitions and (TBT 1.1) TBT 9

object and purpose (preamble), as aid to interpreting TBT Agreement TBT 7

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1)

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1) TBT 17

“not more trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfil a legitimate objective” (TBT 2.2)

availability of less trade-restrictive alternative TBT 27

burden of proof TBT 29

“for this purpose” /interrelationship between first and second sentences TBT 35

“legitimate objective”

multiple objectives TBT 43

qualification as TBT 27, 45

“necessary”

GATT XX and TBT 38

SPS 5.6 footnote 3 and TBT 40

“taking account of risks” of non-fulfilment TBT 46

“trade-restrictive” TBT 36

two-step analysis TBT 31

order of analysis (TBT 2.4) TBT 48

“technical regulation” (Annex 1.1), mandatory compliance TBT 164

three-tier test/order of analysis (TBT 2.4) TBT 48

 

US — Tyres (China) (AB), WT/DS399/AB/R

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of), reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) SG 330

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a)), “factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2 (b)), non-attribution requirement SG 3312

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG), causation (SG 2.1/SG 4.2(b)) SG 330

safeguard measures, maintenance of substantially equivalent level of concessions (SG 8), “absolute” increase in imports (SG 8.3) SG 322

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review, exclusion SG 153

“objective assessment of matter before it”, reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) and SG 153

transitional safeguard measures (SG) (China) (Accession Protocol 16)

causation analysis (Protocol 16.4)

cumulative impact SG 329

non-attribution requirement SG 3312

“significant cause” SG 3268

compliance, standard of review (DSU 11) SG 313

consultations (Protocol 16.1)

significance of consultations provision SG 315

determination of market disruption (Protocol 16.4) as context SG 315

duration of remedy (Protocol 16.6) SG 333

market disruption (Protocol 16.4)

“absolute” increase SG 322

investigation period SG 321

“material injury” vs “serious injury” SG 320

rate of increase, relevance SG 324

 

US — Tyres (China) (Panel), WT/DS399/R

burden of proof (general rules), onus probandi actori incumbit SG 314, 317, 333

safeguard measures, duration and review (SG 7), burden of proof SG 333

transitional safeguard measures (SG) (China) (Accession Protocol 16)

compliance, burden of proof SG 314

“to the extent necessary” (Protocol 16.3) SG 31718

 

US — Underwear (AB), WT/DS24/AB/R, DSR 1997:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), written reponses (ABWP 28) DSU 1459

consultations (ATC 6.7)

due process and ATC 76

obligatory nature ATC 79

retroactivity (trade measures) (ATC 6.10) and ATC 76

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), consultations (ATC 6.10) ATC 76

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

other treaties, MFA ATC 778

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, GATT X:2/ATC 6.10 ATC 74, 80, 87

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “suppress” (SCM 6.2(c)) SCM 290

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

measures of general application (GATT X:1), “of general application” GATT 518

transparency and due process, GATT X:2 and GATT 540

relationships within and between agreements

ATC 6.10/ATC 6 as a whole ATC 76

ATC 6.10/GATT X:2 ATC 74, 80, 87

retroactivity (trade measures) (ATC 6.10) ATC 7480

ATC 6.10 measure as measure of general application (GATT X:2) ATC 74, 80, 87

consultations, request for and notification to TMB (ATC 6.10) and ATC 76

MFA provision, omission from ATC ATC 778

provisional application of restraint measures authorized under ATC 10 (ATC 11) and ATC 79

transitional safeguards (ATC 6), as balance of rights and obligations ATC 76

 

US — Underwear (Panel), WT/DS24/R, DSR 1997:I

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3), interim review reports DSU 814

consultations (DSU 4)

confidentiality (DSU 4.6), offers of settlement during consultations and DSU 168

legal status of offers made in course of unsuccessful consultations ATC 26, DSU 168

“without prejudice” nature of obligation (DSU 4.6), offers made during consultations and DSU 168

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 952

interim review (DSU 15), confidentiality of reports DSU 814, 81814

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), retroactivity (trade measures) (ATC 6.10) GATT 541

quantitative restrictions (ATC 2) (integration process), conformity with ATC provisions, need for (ATC 2.4), transitional safeguards (ATC 6) and ATC 84

retroactivity (trade measures) (ATC 6.10), prior publication (GATT X:2), relevance GATT 541

standard/powers of review (ATC 8.3) ATC 99

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review of facts, exclusion ATC 99

serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2)/SG 4, Member’s determination of, statement to TMB, admissibility ATC 234

Textiles and Clothing Agreement (ATC), object and purpose, full integration of textiles into GATT WTO 3

Textiles and Clothing Agreement (ATC), administration of restrictions (ATC 4), statements during review proceedings, admissibility in panel proceedings (DSU 11) ATC 412

Textiles Monitoring Body (TMB)

review proceedings, statements during, admissibility in panel proceedings (DSU 11) ATC 234

standard/powers of review (ATC 8.3) ATC 99

transitional safeguards (ATC 6)

attribution of damage from “sharp and substantial increase in imports” /criteria (ATC 6.4), comparative analysis, methodology ATC 66

attribution of damage from “sharp and substantial increase in imports” (ATC 6.4)/criteria, comparative analysis ATC 61 n. 91, 66

burden of proof ATC 28, 66

“more favourable treatment” for re-imports (ATC 6.6(d))

“in the application of” (ATC 6, chapeau) ATC 67

options for ATC 68

object and purpose (ATC 1.1) and ATC 3

relevant facts (ATC 6.3), obligation to examine all ATC 54

serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2)

“demonstrably” ATC 51

“or actual threat of” ATC 35

 

US — Upland Coton (AB), WT/DS267/AB/R, DSR 2005:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), documents (ABWP 18), failure to file by deadline (ABWP 18(1)) DSU 1397

Agriculture Agreement (AG), relationship with other WTO agreements (AG 21.1), SCM Agreement, AG 6.3/SCM 3.1 (b) AG 79, 1934, SCM 1867

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), “shall address the relevant provisions/each issue” (DSU 7.2/ 17.12) DSU 891

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27), Article 22.6 proceedings DSU 927

consultations (DSU 4)

identity of specific measures in the consultations and the request for establishment of a panel, relevance DSU 143

measure at issue (DSU 4.4)

“affecting” DSU 152

discretion in identifying (DSU 4.2), desirability DSU 152, 200 n. 267

expired measures (DSU 4.2) DSU 152

as prerequisite to establishment of panel/requirement to indicate whether held (DSU 6.2) DSU 141

purpose/importance, definition and clarification of dispute DSU 152

written request (DSU 4.4) as basis DSU 146

consultations (SCM 4.1–4)

object and purpose, clarification and development of the facts of the situation (SCM 4.3) SCM 199

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2)

“available” SCM 199

role and purpose SCM 199

domestic support commitments (AG 6)

“considered to be in compliance” (AG 6.3) AG 79

SMC 3.1(b) and AG 79, 1934

due restraint (AG 13) (“peace clause”)

domestic support measures conforming with AG 6 (AG 13(b))

“grant” (AG 13(b)(ii)) AG 140

“measures … not grant[ing] support to a specific commodity” (AG 13(b)(ii)) AG 1413

green box measures (AG Annex 2) (AG 13(a))

Annex 2, para. 6(b) and 6(e) distinguished AG 198

Annex 2, para. 11 and AG 199

measures not qualifying as (Annex 2, para. 6(b)) AG 1967

export subsidy commitments (AG 9), “direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a)), “contingent on export performance” AG 86

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10)

export credit guarantees (AG 10.2)

“development” AG 1245

exclusion from AG 10.1, whether AG 1245

“export subsidies” (AG 9.1) and AG 125

“export subsidies … applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to, circumvention …” (AG 10.1)

“circumvention”

threat of circumvention AG 115

threat of circumvention, obligation to take action AG 113

tax exemption, discretionary nature/legal right AG 115

“export subsidy” (AG 1(3)/SCM 1.1 and 3.1) AG 17

international food aid (AG 10.4), relationship with AG 10.1 AG 129

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent in law …” (SCM 3.1(a)) SCM 131

“except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture” (SCM 3.1 chapeau) SCM 124

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

identity with specific measure the subject of consultations, relevance DSU 143

recommendations of panel/DSB (DSU 19.2), effect DSU 353

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j)), assessment of adequacy to cover SCM 624

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

choice of means at authorities’ discretion (DSU 21.3) DSU 11089

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2) DSU 353

international food aid (AG 10.4), relationship with AG 10.1 AG 129

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, AG Annex 2, para. 6(b)/para. 11 AG 199

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise DSU 1555 n. 2388

judicial economy

explicit reference to, relevance DSU 650

limitation of consideration to claims essential to resolution of dispute (DSU 3.2) DSU 891

prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose SCM 326

“shall address the relevant provisions/each issue” (DSU 7.2/DSU 17.12) DSU 891

least-developed countries (LDCs)

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c)) DSU 1323

special procedures (DSU 24) DSU 1323

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 152

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), expired measure with continuing effects DSU 255, 257, 380

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), “ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 1664

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

failure to meet, consequences DSU 1426

statement of allegation of error on issues of law/legal interpretations (ABWP 20(2)(d)), “for example”, sufficiency DSU 1426

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“affecting” (DSU 4.2) DSU 152

“market” (SCM 6.3(c)) SCM 319 n. 531, 321

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1664

“related to” (AG Annex 2, para. 6(b)) AG 196

“world market share” (SCM 6(3)(d)) SCM 326

panel reports, rationale/reasons, need for (DSU 12.7), sufficiency SCM 310

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3), “Member considers” DSU 69

relationships within and between agreements

AG 1(e)/AG 9.1/AG 10/2 AG 125

AG 6.3 and Annex 3 para. 7/SCM 3.1(b) SCM 1867

AG 6.3/SCM 3.1(b) AG 79, 1934

AG 10.1/AG 10.4 AG 129

AG 21.1/SCM 3.1 as determinants of AG/SCM relationship SCM 1845

AG3.1/SCM SCM 124

DSU 6.2/DSU 19.1 DSU 353

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), “measures taken to comply”, identification of DSU 1119

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c)), LDCs and (DSU 24.1) DSU 1323

“serious prejudice” (SCM 6)

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c))

“effect of the subsidy”, continuing effect SCM 299

“in the same market” SCM 319, 3212, 325

“price suppression” SCM 278, 316

quantification, relevance SCM 297

“significant” SCM 310

unitary vs two-step approach SCM 290

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU1.2 and Appendix 2), “shall prevail” in case of a difference with DSU DSU 21

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of, agreement with panel DSU 1323

law vs fact, compliance/consistency with treaty obligations DSU 843 n. 1331

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), error of law, incorrect interpretation of covered agreement SCM 326

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 143

us — upland cotton (AB), ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “related to” (AG Annex 2, para. 6(b)) AG 196

WTO Agreement, as single undertaking (WTO II:2) WTO 21

 

US — Upland Cotton (Panel), WT/DS267/R, Corr.1 and Add.1 to Add.3

adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (DSU 13), “serious prejudice” (SCM 5()), “significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c)) as SCM 265

Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) (AG 1(a)/Annex 3)

“support” (Annex 3, para. 1) AG 9

calculation for purposes of AG 13(b)(ii) AG 144

GATT XVI:1 compared AG 9

“agricultural products” (AG 2/Annex 1)

applicability of jurisprudence relating to non-agricultural products AG 24

“commodity” (AG 13(b)(ii)), as context for AG 23

scheduled and unscheduled products distinguished AG 23

Agriculture Agreement (AG)

relationship with other WTO agreements (AG 21.1)

GATT XVI (subsidies) GATT 715, 717

SCM Agreement, AG 6.3/SCM 3.1(b) AG 79, 1934, SCM 1867

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27)

interim review reports DSU 918

private counsel/advisers not part of delegation and DSU 918

consultations (DSU 4)

measure at issue (DSU 4.4)

“affecting” DSU 152

expired measures (DSU 4.2) DSU 152

consultations (SCM 4.1–4)

object and purpose SCM 198

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2)

“available” SCM 198

role and purpose SCM 198

domestic support commitments (AG 6)

“considered to be in compliance” (AG 6.3) AG 79

SMC 3.1(b) and AG 79, 1934

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance DSU 467, 749

due restraint (AG 13) (“peace clause”)

domestic support measures conforming with AG 6 (AG 13(b)) AG 133

calculation of AMS (AG 1(a)/Annex 3) AG 144

“exempt from actions” (AG 13(b)(ii)) AG 139

“measures … not grant[ing] support to a specific commodity” (AG 13(b)(ii)) AG 143

“that decided during the 1992 marketing year” AG 1457

green box measures (AG Annex 2) (AG 13(a)) AG 133

exemption from GATT XVI and SCM Part III AG 134

measures not qualifying as (Annex 2, para. 6(b)) AG 196

structure AG 133

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10)

burden of proof (AG 10.3), scheduled products, limitation to AG 128

export credit guarantees (AG 10.2), exclusion from AG 10.1, whether AG 124

export subsidy, definition (AG 1(e)), “contingent upon export performance”, SCM 3.1(a) compared AG 17

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), prompt challenge to deficient procedures DSU 114

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j))

assessment of adequacy to cover SCM 623

as contextual guidance SCM 617

“export credit guarantee … programmes” SCM 618

“inadequate to cover” SCM 620

“long-term” SCM 620

“operating costs and losses” SCM 622

“premiums” SCM 619

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), “from any individual or body”, parties DSU 749

interim review (DSU 15)

confidentiality of reports DSU 918

multiple complainants/separate reports, on a particular issue DSU 812

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2)), other articles in same agreement AG 23

dictionaries SCM 622

different language in same agreement, SCM 5(c) and 6.3(c)/SCM 15.2 and 15.5 SCM 303

same or closely related phrases in different agreements

AG 1(e)/SCM 3.1(a) AG 17

AG Annex 3, para. 1/GATT XVI:1 AG 9

GATT XVI:1/SCM 5(c)/6.3(c) GATT 714

least-developed countries (LDCs)

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c)) DSU 13212

special procedures (DSU 24) DSU 13212

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/

discretionary legislation, distinguishability, assessment of

mandatory nature DSU 291

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 1724

precedence/hierarchy in case of conflict DSU 1724

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate interim review reports (DSU 9.2), on a particular issue DSU 812

order of analysis

AD 13/SCM 3, 5 and 6/GATT XVI DSU 693

GATT/SCM DSU 1724

order of analysis of AD 13/SCM 3, 5 and 6/GATT XVI DSU 693

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“affecting” (DSU 4.2) DSU 152

“inadequate to cover” (Illustrative List item (j)) SCM 620

“inadequate to cover” (SCM footnote 9) SCM 620

“long-term” (Illustrative List item (j)) SCM 620

“long-term” (SCM Illustrative list item (k)) SCM 621

“operating costs and losses” (SCM Illustrative List item (j)) SCM 622

“premium” (SCM footnote 59) SCM 619

“price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c)) SCM 316

“serious” (SCM 5(c)) SCM 265

“significant” (SCM 6.3(c)) SCM 310

preliminary rulings (procedural aspects), third parties’ rights relating to DSU 502

relationships within and between agreements

AG 2/AG 13(b)(ii) AG 23

AG 6.3/SCM 3.1(b) AG 79, 1934, SCM 1867

AG 13/DSU 1.2 DSU 11

AG 13(a)/GATT XVI/SCM Part III AG 134

DSU 3.7, 3.10 and 24.1 DSU 1324

GATT XVI:3/AG 1(3), 3.3, 8, 9 and 10 GATT 715

SCM 2.3/SCM 3 SCM 121

“serious prejudice” (GATT XVI:1), “serious prejudice” (SMC 5(c)/6.3(c)), identity of meaning GATT 714

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c))

aggregated analysis SCM 304

LDCs and (DSU 24.1) DSU 13212

aggregated analysis SCM 304

“price suppression” SCM 278, 31516

unitary vs two-step approach SCM 290

“serious prejudice” (SCM 6)

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c))

“in the same market” SCM 321

“significant” SCM 310

“subsidized product” vs “effect of the subsidy” SCM 303

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, AG 13 DSU 11

special procedures involving LDCs (DSU 24)

due restraint obligation DSU 1324

“particular consideration shall be given” (DSU 24.1) DSU 13212

subsidies (GATT XVI)

AG 3.3, 8, 9 and 10 and GATT 715

SCM 5(c)/6.3(c) and GATT 714

“serious prejudice” (GATT XVI:2) GATT 714

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2)

“certain enterprises” (SCM 2 chapeau) SCM 102

subsidy “contingent upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 2.3/SCM 3.1) SCM 121

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6 DSU 483

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3)

obligation of panels to take “fully” into account (DSU 10.1) DSU 467

panel’s right to draw on third party submissions DSU 498

 

US — Upland Cotton (Article 21.5 — Brazil) (AB), WT/DS267/AB/RW, DSR 2008:III

adverse effects (SCM 5)

obligation to remove adverse threats or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.8)

adverse effects arising subsequent to original proceedings, applicability to SCM 329

affirmative action requirement SCM 329

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and DSU 21

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7) compared SCM 329

burden of proof, prima facie case requirement, “more likely than not” test DSU 555

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j))

assessment of adequacy to cover SCM 626

as contextual guidance SCM 617

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “suppress” (SCM 6.2(c)) SCM 281

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), multiple proceedings, avoidance of DSU 67

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), WTO-consistent measures, limitation to DSU 1129

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

“measures taken to comply”

identification of DSU 1119

new measures DSU 1136

relitigation of original dispute, exclusion DSU 1132

“serious prejudice” (SCM 6)

genuine causal link requirement SCM 282 n. 462, 289

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c))

“but for” test SCM 281, 289

“effect of the subsidy”, continuing effect SCM 300

non-attribution of adverse effects caused by other factors SCM 282, 2856, 289

“price depression” and “price suppression” distinguished SCM 309

“price suppression”, “price depression” distinguished SCM 317

“significant” SCM 311

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c)), counterfactual analysis SCM 2934

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), law vs fact, mixed fact and law DSU 849

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), withdrawal of subsidy as SCM 7.8 remedy compared SCM 329

 

US — Upland Cotton (Article 21.5 — Brazil) (Panel), WT/DS267/RW and Corr.1

adverse effects (SCM 5)

obligation to remove adverse threats or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.8)

adverse effects arising subsequent to original proceedings, applicability to SCM 328

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7) compared SCM 328

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 438

finding on issue not raised by parties DSU 438

composition of panel (DSU 8)

determination by Director-General (DSU 8.7), challenge to DSU 438

determination by panel DSU 438 n. 721

DSU dispute settlement, “positive solution to a dispute” as aim (DSU 3.7) DSU 438

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10), “export subsidy” (AG 1(3)/SCM 1.1 and 3.1) AG 18

export subsidy, definition (AG 1(e)), “contingent upon export performance”, SCM 3.1(a) compared AG 18

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j)), assessment of adequacy to cover SCM 625

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in different agreements, AG 1(e)/SCM 3.1(a) AG 18

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c))

“but for” test SCM 281

“of another Member” SCM 266

“serious prejudice” (SCM 6)

elements listed in SCM 6.3, sufficiency to establish, “where one or several … apply” SCM 278

genuine causal link requirement, burden of proof SCM 283

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c))

“but for” test SCM 281, 288

“effect of the subsidy”, period of review SCM 301

non-attribution of adverse effects caused by other factors SCM 288

unitary vs two-step approach SCM 291

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, SCM 7.8 DSU 21

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), panel’s right to draw on third party submissions DSU 499

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), withdrawal of subsidy as SCM 7.8 remedy compared SCM 328

 

US — Upland Cotton (Article 22.6 — United States I), WT/DS267/ARB/1

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7)

determination of appropriateness of countermeasure (SCM 4.11) SCM 233

determination of “appropriateness/appropriate” countermeasure (SCM 4.11) SCM 245

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (SCM 4.11), burden of proof, allocation SCM 249

burden of proof (general rules)

Article 22.6 arbitrations, allocation by arbitrator SCM 249

onus probandi actori incumbit SCM 249

countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10)

“appropriate”

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and (SCM 4.11) SCM 245

proportionality (footnote 9) SCM 227, 230

SCM 4.10/4.11, identity of meaning SCM 231

calculation of countermeasure, possible bases/relevant factors

adverse trade effects SCM 233

amount of subsidy SCM 233

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) distinguished SCM 233, 254

“countermeasure” SCM 223

as retaliatory act SCM 223, 232

temporary nature SCM 223

inducement of compliance as objective SCM 232

State responsibility and SCM 223, 227

countermeasures in case of failure to take measures to remove adverse effects of or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.9), “countermeasures”, SCM 4.10 and 4.11 compared SCM 223

countermeasures (general principles), proportionality SCM 227, 230

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries SCM 227

cautious approach to SCM 223, 277

different language in same agreement, SCM 4.10 and 4.11/SCM 7.9 SCM 252

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty SCM 230

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SCM 4.10/SCM 4.11 SCM 231

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts, possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, ILC Articles on State Responsibility SCM 223 n. 356

proportionality, countermeasures SCM 227, 230

relationship between and within agreements, SCM 4.11/SCM 7.9 SCM 252

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), countermeasures SCM 223, 227

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), “appropriate” (SCM 4.10) distinguished SCM 233, 254

 

US — Upland Cotton (Article 22.6 — United States II), WT/DS267/ARB/2 and Corr.1

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7), determination of “appropriateness/appropriate” countermeasure (SCM 7.10) SCM 336

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (SCM 7.10), burden of proof, allocation SCM 337

burden of proof (general rules)

Article 22.6 arbitrations, allocation by arbitrator SCM 337

onus probandi actori incumbit SCM 337

countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10), State responsibility and SCM 331

countermeasures in case of failure to take measures to remove adverse effects of or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.9)

“adverse effects determined to exist” SCM 334

arbitrators’ mandate/task (SCM 7.10) SCM 336

“commensurate” SCM 332

SCM 4.10 and 4.11 compared SCM 252, 331

“countermeasures”

as retaliatory act SCM 331, 335

SCM 4.10 and 4.11 compared SCM 340

“degree and nature” SCM 333

inducement of compliance as objective, SCM 4.10 and DSU 22.4 compared SCM 335

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and SCM 338, DSU 24

countermeasures (general principles)

“countermeasure”, as retaliatory act SCM 331, 335

temporary nature SCM 331

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries, cautious approach to SCM 331

different language in same agreement SCM 340

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts, possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, ILC Articles on State Responsibility SCM 331 n. 557

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “appropriate” (SCM 4.10) SCM 277

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 22.3/SCM 7.9 and 7.10 DSU 24

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2)

arrangements considered for classification as, SCM 7.9 and 7.10 SCM 338, DSU 24

“shall prevail” in case of a difference with DSU DSU 24

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), countermeasures SCM 331

 

US — Wheat Gluten (AB), WT/DS166/AB/R, DSR 2001:III

adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw, obligation to respond promptly to panel’s requests for information and (DSU 13.1), confidential information (SG 3.2) and SG 115

adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (DSU 13)

discretionary nature DSU 562

judicial economy and DSU 562

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of)

“demonstrates” SG 1778, 208

“on the basis of objective data” SG 181

order of analysis SG 202

relationships within and between agreements SG 58, 178

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), competence of panel and AB compared DSU 605, 846

confidential information (SG 3.2), DSU 13.1 confidentiality requirements and SG 114

customs unions (GATT XXIV:5(a)), safeguard measures (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 1056

customs value determination (VAL), transaction value, examination of circumstances of sale in related-party transaction (VAL 1.2(a)), responsibility for providing information VAL 18

determination of injury (AD 3)

causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5), non-attribution to dumped imports of injury caused by other factors (AD 3.5), SG 4.2(b) compared AD 251, 285, 323

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4), all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on, SG 4.2(a) factors and AD 247 n. 343

determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1), “serious injury” (SG 4.1(a))/ “threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b)), as “significant overall impairment” / “very high standard of injury” (SG 4.1(a)) SG 120

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a)) SG 120, 207

consistency of interpretation between SG 4.2(a) and SG 4.2(b), need for SG 142, 207

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4) and AD 247 n. 343

factors not listed in SG 4.2(a), right/obligation to examine SG 1645

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)) SG 74 n. 128, 177, 207, 2078

non-attribution requirement SG 199202, 209

factors relating to imports and domestic industry SG 1412, 207

obligation of competent authorities to seek information additional to that supplied by interested parties / “investigate” AD 914 n. 1246, SG 924, 165, 309

developing countries (SG 9), exclusion of developing country exporting less than de minimis levels (SG 9.1), as exception to general SG rules SG 68 n. 114

dispute settlement (SG 14), standard of review (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts”, reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) and SG 309

emergency action (GATT XIX), free trade agreements/customs unions and (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 1056

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2)

confidential information (SG 3.2) and SG 115

prompt and full response requirement DSU 763

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

evaluation of all factors

obligation of competent authorities to seek information additional to that supplied by interested parties SG 924

opportunity to respond to presentations of other parties SG 92

opportunity to submit evidence and views SG 92

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SG 2.1/SPG 2.2 SG 68

investigation of conditions for safeguard measures, requirements (SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c)), interested parties, notification to SG 92

judicial economy

adverse inferences and DSU 562

prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose GATT 825, SG 230

notification and consultation (SG 12)

“adequate opportunity for prior consultations” (SG 12.3) SG 286

level of concessions (SG 8.1) and SG 239

“all pertinent information” (SG 12.2), precise description of proposed measure sufficient for prior consultation under SG 12.3 SG 287

“immediately”

SG 12.1 SG 264

SG 12.1(a) SG 267, 270

SG 12.1(b) SG 270

SG 12.1(c) SG 2735

translation delays SG 264

timing (SG 12.1)/content (SG 12.2) distinguished SG 2734

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“immediately”, SG 12.1 SG 263

“investigation” (SG 3.1) SG 92

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 4.2(a)) SG 68

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG), causation (SG 2.1/SG 4.2(b)) GATT 801, SG 181, 209

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 11 and 13/SG 3.2 SG 114

GATT XIX:1/SG 2 and 4 GATT 825

SG 2.1/SG 4.2(b) SG 58, 178, 209

SG 3.1/SG 4.2(a) SG 924

SG 4.2(a)/SG 4.2(b) SG 142, 207

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2)

free trade agreements/customs unions and (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 1056

parallelism between investigation (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c)) and application of measure (SG 2.2) SG 689

“irrespective of source”, applicability to RTAs SG 689

separate investigation into RTA member, relevance SG 69

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement SG 69

“under such conditions” SG 51, 58, 178

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)) and SG 58

safeguard measures, maintenance of substantially equivalent level of concessions (SG 8)

“equivalent” SG 239

“adequate opportunity for prior consultations” (SG 12.3) and SG 239

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

law vs fact

alleged failure of panel to make objective assessment (DSU 11) DSU 605, 846

panel as trier of facts DSU 562, 605

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts” DSU 605, 846

translation, delays caused by (SG 12) SG 264

 

US — Wheat Gluten (Panel), WT/DS166/R, DSR 2001:III

business confidential information (BCI), ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1) and DSU 906

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of)

coincidence of trends in imports and in injury factors SG 184, 187

“demonstrates” SG 176

relationships within and between agreements SG 58

relevance in absence of serious injury SG 74 n. 128, 177

confidential information (SG 3.2) SG 11011

non-confidential summaries SG 111

panel’s right to seek information or technical advice (DSU 13/ SPS 11.2), relevance SG 11314

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3), panel’s right to seek information or technical advice (DSU 13/SPS 11.2), relevance SG 11314

customs unions (GATT XXIV:5(a)), safeguard measures (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 1056

determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1)

“serious injury” (SG 4.1(a)), current serious injury SG 122

“serious injury” (SG 4.1(a))/ “threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1 (b)), as “significant overall impairment” / “very high standard of injury” (SG 4.1(a)) SG 119

determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a)) SG 146

all factors listed in SG 4.2(a) SG 146

factors not listed in SG 4.2(a), right/obligation to examine SG 1645

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)) SG 58, 176

non-attribution requirement SG 199

“productivity” SG 163

emergency action (GATT XIX), free trade agreements/customs unions and (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 1056

ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1), BCI (DSU 18.2) and DSU 906

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), confidential information (SG 3.2) and SG 11314

investigation of conditions for safeguard measures, requirements (SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c))

data of an objective and quantifiable nature

methodology, absence of provision SG 171

representativeness SG 135

published report, confidential information (SG 3.2) and SG 11011

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose SG 230

“like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c))

“domestic industry” (SG 4.1(c)) and, “collective output … constitutes a major proportion”, representative data and SG 135

“immediately”

SG 12.1 SG 263

SG 12.1(a) SG 266, 269

SG 12.1(b) SG 269

notification and consultation (SG 12), timeliness (SG 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3) SG 287

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, SG 12.1 SG 263

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), failure to provide confidential information (SG 3.2) and SG 115

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 11 and 13/SG 3.2 SG 113

SG 2 and 4/SG 5 SG 230

SG 2/SG 4 SG 20

SG 2.1/SG 4.2(b) SG 20, 58

SG 3.2/SG 4.2(c) SG 222

safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2)

determination of serious injury or threat (SG 4), violation as violation of SG 2 SG 20

free trade agreements/customs unions and (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 1056

“such increased quantities” (SG 2.1)

absolute increase SG 50

as sudden and recent increase SG 32

“sufficient to cause serious injury or threat” (SG 2.1) SG 32

“under such conditions” SG 51, 56, 58

price analysis, relevance SG 61

 

US — Wool Shirts and Blouses (AB), WT/DS33/AB/R and Corr.1, DSR1997:I

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1386

burden of proof (general rules)

onus probandi actori incumbit GATT 768, 853, SPS 33, SCM 653, DSU 539

prima facie case requirement GATT 598, 853

evidence necessary to establish, determination case-by-case approach SPS 35, DSU 548

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), “clarification of existing provisions” DSU 52, 386, 639

DSU, “positive solution to a dispute” as aim (DSU 3.7) DSU 78

General Council (WTO IV:2), functions, interpretation of WTO Agreement WTO 198

General Exceptions (GATT XX), burden of proof GATT 853

interim review (DSU 15), termination of measures following, effect DSU 384 n. 623

interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for (WTO IX:2), Ministerial Conference/General Council (WTO IV:2) WTO 198

interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for authoritative (WTO IX:2), “clarify the existing provisions” (DSU 3.2) and DSU 52, 639

judicial economy

legal basis (DSU 11) DSU 6389

limitation of consideration to claims essential to resolution of dispute (DSU 3.2) DSU 52, 6389

“make such other findings” (DSU 11) and DSU 6378

“positive solution to dispute” requirement (DSU 3.7)/false judicial economy and DSU 638

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 52

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), terminated measures, termination following interim review DSU 384 n. 623

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), burden of proof GATT 326

quantitative restrictions (ATC 2) (integration process), conformity with ATC provisions, need for (ATC 2.4), transitional safeguards (ATC 6) and ATC 84

relationships within and between agreements, GATT I/GATT XI GATT 113

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2)

“clarify the existing provisions” and DSU 52

judicial economy and DSU 52

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), legal findings or developed interpretations, limitation to (DSU 17.13) SPS 345, DSU 896

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it”

all legal claims, need to consider under DSU 3.2 DSU 598 n. 955, 639, 644

“positive solution” requirement (DSU 3.7) and DSU 78

 

US — Wool Shirts and Blouses (Panel), WT/DS33/R, DSR1997:I

composition of panel (DSU 8), citizens of parties (DSU 8.3), TMB distinguished DSU 433

interim review (DSU 15), termination of measures following, effect DSU 384 n. 623

judicial economy, “make such other findings as will assist …” (DSU 11) and DSU 637

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

terminated measures

termination following agreement on terms of reference DSU 391

termination following interim review DSU 384 n. 623

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), nullification or impairment, need for, measures in force, limitation to GATT 973

quantitative restrictions (ATC 2) (integration process), conformity with ATC provisions, need for (ATC 2.4), transitional safeguards (ATC 6) and ATC 85

standard/powers of review (ATC 8.3) ATC 100

Textiles Monitoring Body (TMB)

composition (ATC 8.1), DSU 8.3 distinguished DSU 433

recommendations, legal status (ATC 8.9) ATC 102

role (ATC 8), dispute settlement panels distinguished ATC 90

transitional safeguards (ATC 6)

as balance of rights and obligations ATC 28

burden of proof ATC 28

criteria/relevant factors (ATC 6.3), obligation to examine all ATC 55, SG 144

serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2)

“demonstrably” ATC 52

“not by other factors” ATC 52

 

US — Zeroing (EC) (AB), WT/DS294/AB/R and Corr.1, DSR 2006: II

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), transmittal of records (ABWP 25), inclusion of correspondence not in the record of the panel proceedings DSU 1446

AB procedures (DU 17.9 and ABWP), transmittal of records (ABWP 25), inclusion of correspondence not in the record of the panel proceedings DSU 1446

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), assessment (AD 9.3), retrospective assessment (AD 9.3.1), zeroing and AD 6867

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4), legislation “as such” and, zeroing procedures and AD 144

determination of dumping (AD 2)

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

“due allowance”, “differences which affect price comparability” AD 95

“fair comparison” AD 82

zeroing (AD 9.3) and AD 82

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability, rejection/non-endorsement of doctrine DSU 301

normative value as determining factor DSU 2856

relationships within and between agreements, AD 2.4/AD 9.3 AD 82

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2) AD 686

administrative reviews and GATT 464, AD 6867

as an allowance or adjustment (AD 2.4) AD 1467

legislation “as such” (AD 18.4) and AD 144, DSU 286

retrospective assessment and AD 6867

 

US — Zeroing (EC) (Panel), WT/DS294/R

interim review (DSU 15), additional comments following relevant AB report DSU 817

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), as an allowance or adjustment (AD 2.4) AD 146

 

US — Zeroing (EC) (Article 21.5 — EC) (AB), WT/DS294/AB/RW and Corr.1

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4), margins established under circumstances referred to in AD 6.8, exclusion, lacuna situation AD 710

determination of dumping (AD 2), fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4), “fair comparison”, as independent obligation AD 81

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 951

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), new evidence DSU 854

 

US — Zeroing (EC) (Article 21.5 — EC) (Panel), WT/DS294/RW

composition of panel (DSU 8)

citizens of parties (DSU 8.3) DSU 439

determination by Director-General (DSU 8.7)

challenge to DSU 43940

discretionary nature DSU 440

interim review (DSU 15), new arguments DSU 803

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), “matter referred to the DSB” (DSU 7.1) DSU 221

 

US — Zeroing (Japan) (AB), WT/DS322/AB/R

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), object and purpose, absence of specific provision/preamble AD 4

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, dumping, constituent elements (AD 2/GATT VI:1), consistency of definition throughout AD and GATT GATT 452

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

assessment (AD 9.3)

“product as a whole” (AD 2.1) and AD 18, 680

retrospective assessment (AD 9.3.1) AD 678, 680

zeroing and AD 680

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), judicial decisions WTO 288

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law, AD 17.6(ii) AD 929

determination of dumping (AD 2), definitions, “product” AD 18

“dumping” / “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1)

as exporter-specific concepts AD 690

AD 9.3 and AD 690

“dumping” (AD 2.1), product specific requirement AD 18

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including

VCLT provisions, multiple permissible interpretations AD 929

judicial decisions, conformity with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4) WTO 288

judicial review (AD 13), special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and DSU 16

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), normative value as determining factor DSU 287

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), evaluation of evidence (DSU 11) and DSU 612

order of analysis

covered agreements/DSU DSU 16

“substantive” agreements/DSU DSU 16

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.1/AD 9.3 AD 690

AD 2.1/GATT VI:1 GATT 452

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 190

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as, AD 13 DSU 16

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), law vs fact, panel as trier of facts DSU 612

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii)), “admits of more than one permissible interpretation” AD 929

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2) GATT 464

administrative reviews and GATT 464

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), mathematical equivalence AD 139

retrospective assessment and AD 680

 

US — Zeroing (Japan) (Panel), WT/DS322/R

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

assessment (AD 9.3)

“product as a whole” (AD 2.1) and AD 679

retrospective assessment (AD 9.3.1) AD 679

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4), legislation “as such” and, zeroing procedures and AD 143

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), zeroing and AD 115, 689

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4), “fair comparison”, zeroing (AD 9.3) and AD 845

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose AD 84

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

normative value as determining factor DSU 287, 2878

unwritten instrument and DSU 288

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test), zeroing and AD 770

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), transaction-to-transaction method AD 112, 135, 828

“fair comparison” (AD 2.4) and AD 845

legislation “as such” (AD 18.4) and AD 143, DSU 2878

“model zeroing” vs “simple zeroing” AD 112

sunset reviews (AD 13.3) and AD 770

 

US — Zeroing (Japan) (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS322/21, DSR 2007:X, “reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), conclusion following appointment of Arbitrator DSU 1018

 

US — Zeroing (Japan) (Article 21.5 — Japan) (AB), WT/DS322/AB/RW

burden of proof (general rules), on WTO law DSU 577

domestic law, as justification for failure to fulfil international obligations, exclusion (VCLT 27) DSU 1520

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise DSU 16

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to DSU 257

prospective measure, “subsequent closely related measures” DSU 262 n. 395, 382 n. 618

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), multiple proceedings, avoidance of DSU 66

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), anti-dumping duties applied consistently with GATT II:2(b), “safe harbour” GATT 161

 

US — Zeroing (Korea) (Panel), WT/DS402/R

burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement AD 123

panel reports, rationale/reasons, need for (DSU 12.7), in case of mutually agreed solution DSU 7078

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), “comparable” AD 123

 

US/Canada — Continued Suspension (AB), WT/DS320/AB/R and WT/DS321/AB/R, DSR 2008:X

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

documents (ABWP 18), failure to file by deadline (ABWP 18(1)) DSU 1399

failure to appear (AB 29) DSU 1467

oral hearings (ABWP 27), AB authority to organize and conduct DSU 1449

transition (ABWP 15) DSU 1378

ALOPs (SPS 5.4–5.6 and Annex A(5)), measures “not more trade restrictive than required to achieve their appropriate level of … protection” (SPS 5.6), “appropriate level”, determination, “acceptable level of risk” test (SPS 5.1/ Annex A(4)) and SPS 530

arbitration (DSU 25), as alternative to panel procedure DSU 1339

burden of proof (general rules)

difficulty in collecting information and DSU 572

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)) DSU 1512

good faith presumptions, relevance DSU 1276

post-suspension cases (DSU 22.8/SPS 5.7) DSU 12746

procedural fairness and DSU 572

Codex Alimentarius Commission, cooperation with, food safety standards and SPS 70

consultations (DSU 4), good faith and (DSU 4.3) DSU 105, 132, 155

DSB, statements by Members at DSB meetings, legal effect, as prohibited unilateral action (DSU 23.1) DSU 29, 1313, 1689

DSU, “dispute settlement”, expeditious arbitration as alternative means (DSU 25.1) DSU 1339

DSU dispute settlement

compulsory (panel proceedings) vs consensual (consultations, mediation, good offices and arbitration) DSU 1339

obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1)

“seeking redress of WTO violation” DSU 13089

suspension of concessions (DSU 22) as DSU 13089

temporary nature of suspension of concessions (DSU 22) and DSU 1319

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

expert evidence and DSU 1478

objective assessment obligations (DSU 11) and DSU 61920

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 29

expert evidence (DSU 13.2/SPS 11.2)

disclosure requirement SPS 40910

independence and impartiality

affiliations raising doubts SPS 41415, DSU 61920, 147880

panel’s obligation to ensure SPS 41113, DSU 620, 1480

Rules of Conduct (RoC I and III:2) SPS 418, DSU 147880

self-disclosure (RoC VI) SPS 410, DSU 14912

selection process

consultation with parties SPS 401

importance SPS 399400

significant investigative authority, panel’s ‘broad discretion’ SPS 28, 419

Working Procedures applicable to SPS 417

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

burden of proof and DSU 1276

consultations and (DSU 4.3) DSU 105, 132, 155

implementation of DSB recommendation and rulings and DSU 105, 1276

presumption of DSU 105, 1276

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation DSU 1512

good offices, conciliation and mediation (DSU 5), compulsory adjudication distinguished DSU 178

harmonization of SPS measures (SPS 3)

measures based on international standards (SPS 3.1)

Codex Alimentarius and SPS 70

presumption of consistency with SPS/GATT (burden of proof) (SPS 3.2) SPS 79

measures which conform to international standards (SPS 3.2), burden of proof SPS 84, 88, 3002, 338

measures which result in a higher level of protection (SPS 3.3)

as autonomous right SPS 94

presumption of consistency with SPS/GATT (burden of proof) (SPS 3.2) and SPS 79, 84, 94

risk assessment obligation (SPS 5) and SPS 17880, 530

as SPS object and purpose (preamble) SPS 69

as SPS object and purpose (SPS 3.1/preamble) SPS 3

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), good faith obligation, whether DSU 105

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), subsequent proceedings/continuance of recommendations DSU 945

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2)

applicability of SPS 11(2) SPS 394

comprehensive nature of panel’s authority DSU 737

role/value SPS 395

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate AB reports DSU 459

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “determination” (DSU 23.2) DSU 1313

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP)), experts, applicability to SPS 417

provisional adoption of SPS measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7)

assessment period SPS 307

“available pertinent information” SPS 309

burden of proof, limitation of Article 21.5 review to insufficiencies identified by Member adopting measure DSU 1278 n. 2005

impossibility of reaching objective conclusion and SPS 292

“insufficient” SPS 2989

international standard as evidence of sufficiency SPS 3002

precautionary principle and SPS 330

as qualified exemption/autonomous right SPS 290

rational and objective relationship between SPS measure and scientific evidence, need for SPS 309

review within “a reasonable period of time” SPS 319

evolution of scientific evidence subsequent to adoption of provisional measure and SPS 3223

risk assessment (SPS 1) and SPS 308

scientific uncertainty/controversy, relevance SPS 299

“seek to obtain additional information” for more objective assessment of risk SPS 31315

standard of insufficiency SPS 304

public hearings, AB (ABWP 27), third participants (ABWP 24) DSU 1442

public observation of oral hearing / “passive participation” (ABWP 27(3)) DSU 1442

AB authority to agree to DSU 1442, 1449

amendment of ABWP 24 and 27(3) (2003) DSU 1449

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 22.8/DSU 23 DSU 1319

DSU 23.1/DSU 23.2 DSU 1302

SPS 2.2/SPS 5.1 and 5.7 SPS 57

SPS 3.2 and 3.3/Annex A(3) SPS 501

SPS 3.2/SPS 5.7 SPS 88, 300, 338

SPS 5.1/SPS 5.7 SPS 308

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

ascertainable and theoretical risk distinguished (SPS 5.1), quantitative threshold, relevance SPS 162

burden of proof DSU 12746

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel

limitations on, insufficiencies in scientific evidence identified by Member adopting measure DSU 1278

panel performing functions similar to Article 21.5 panel DSU 1277

factors to be taken into account including “available scientific evidence” (SPS 2)

non-scientific/non-quantifiable factors SPS 198, 530

open vs closed list SPS 1989

Member’s obligation to determine [in accordance with SPS obligations] SPS 208, 272

Member’s prerogative SPS 269

potential abuse of controlled substance SPS 1989

risks arising from difficulties of control, inspection and approval/assessment (SPS 8 and Annex C) SPS 376

measures “appropriate to the circumstances” (SPS 5.1)

direct causality between substance and possible adverse health effects SPS 174

discretion not to take measures and SPS 169, 512

flexibility SPS 1689

interdependence of level of protection and risk assessment SPS 17880, 530

risk management distinguished (SPS 5.1 and Annex A(4)) SPS 131, 5224

standard of review, “objective assessment of matter before it” (DSU 11) DSU 1277

types of risk (“likelihood” vs “potential”), “likelihood”, “according to SPS measures which might be applied” SPS 512

risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1–5.3), minimization of negative trade effects obligation (SPS 5.4) and SPS 208

risk assessment (SPS Annex A(4)(4))

ALOPs (SPS 5.4–5.6 and Annex A(5)) and SPS 530

quantification, relevance (including SPS 5.2 requirements) SPS 51718

types of risk (“likelihood” vs “potential”), “potential”, “likelihood” distinguished SPS 517

Rules of Conduct (RoC)

material violations (RoC VIII) DSU 1495

self-disclosure (RoC VI) SPS 410, DSU 1491

scientific evidence, need for sufficient (SPS 2.2)

burden of proof, SPS 5.7 and DSU 1278 n. 2005

rational and objective relationship between SPS measure and scientific evidence, need for, provisional measures (SPS 5.7) and SPS 309

standard/powers of review (panel), own assessment, exclusion SPS 1245, 1267

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) and DSU 478

SPS Agreement

object and purpose (preamble)

consistency of measures with SPS obligations SPS 1

harmonization of international standards SPS 3

SPS control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8 and Annex C), risk assessment (SPS 5.2) and SPS 195, 376

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/ insufficiency of facts DSU 878

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

error of law, failure to apply proper standard of review SPS 1245

“objective assessment of matter before it”

Article 21.5-type proceedings and DSU 12778

due process and DSU 61920

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

authorization, need for (DSU 3.7, 22.6 and 23.2(c)), security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 2) and DSU 478

burden of proof in post-suspension position (DSU 22.8/SPS 5.7) DSU 12746

inducement of compliance as objective DSU 47

as “seeking redress” (DSU 23.1) DSU 13089

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) DSU 1319

obligation to engage actively in dispute settlement proceedings DSU 1319

third party participants (AB proceedings) (ABWP 24/ABWP 27), role DSU 1442

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1)

“chilling” effect DSU 29, 1313, 1689

“determination” DSU 1313

examples of excluded actions (DSU 23.2) DSU 1302

relationship between DSU 23.1 and 23.2 DSU 1302

statements at DSB meetings as DSU 29, 1313, 1689

unilateral statements, legal effect DSU 1689

 

US/Canada — Continued Suspension (Panel), WT/DS320/R and WT/DS321/R

burden of proof (general rules), good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)) DSU 1511

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3)

“deliberations” (DSU 14.1) DSU 770

international tribunal practice DSU 770 n. 1233

confidentiality of proceedings (RoC VII:1), public hearings and DSU 1483

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), customary international law other than customary rules of interpretation DSU 1597

DSB, statements by Members at DSB meetings, legal effect, as prohibited unilateral action (DSU 23.1) DSU 29, 1313, 1689

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation DSU 151011, 1513

as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation/performance DSU 1597

as general principle of international law DSU 1597

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 959

interim review (DSU 15)

additional meeting DSU 807

failure to inform panel of errors DSU 788

inclusion of discussion of arguments (DSU 15.3) DSU 808

“precise aspects of the interim report”, limitation to (DSU 15.2) DSU 781

reconsideration of evidence, arguments and findings DSU 796

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)) DSU 1597

good faith as DSU 1597

provisional adoption of SPS measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7), burden of proof, limitation of Article 21.5 review to insufficiencies identified by Member adopting measure DSU 1278 n. 2005

public hearings

AB (ABWP 27) DSU 1449

panel DSU 68990, 924

Rules of Conduct (RoC)

independence and impartiality (RoC I and III:2), panellists DSU 1482

“shall in no way modify the rights and obligations” (RoC II), confidentiality (RoC VII) and DSU 1483

scientific evidence, need for sufficient (SPS 2.2), burden of proof, SPS 5.7 and DSU 1278 n. 2005

special or additional procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1)

margin of discretion DSU 686

open panel hearings DSU 68990

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1)

“chilling” effect DSU 29, 1313, 1689

statements at DSB meetings as DSU 29, 1313

 

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