RUGGIERO Ś BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE
Ruggiero took up his functions as WTO Director-General on
1 May 1995.
in Naples on 9 April 1930, he took a degree in law at
Naples University in 1953.
entered the Italian diplomatic service on 10 January
1955, and his first post abroad was at the
Consulate-General in Sao Paolo, where he dealt with the
problems that accompanied the final waves of Italian
emigration to Brazil. In January 1959, he was posted to
in Moscow, where he followed the developments that led
from the confrontation in Berlin to peaceful coexistence
and the normalization of cultural and trade relations
between the Soviet Union and Italy. These years saw
destalinization and the emerging Sino-Soviet conflict.
July 1962, he left Moscow for his new post at the Italian
Embassy in Washington.
there, he followed the Cuban crisis in October 1962 and
was then given responsibility for continuing to monitor
East-West relations and the crisis in Vietnam.
returned to Rome at the end of 1964 as Head of the
Political Affairs Secretariat and in 1966 went to the
Italian Embassy in Belgrade with the particular task of
following up developments in the communist world after
the events of the Prague spring and its tragic
a short interval in Rome, he embarked in 1969 on the
second phase of his diplomatic career, related to the
construction of Europe. Posted to the Italian Mission to
the European Community in Brussels, he negotiated and
concluded the first major agreement on social security
for migrant workers. In July 1970, he was appointed Chef
de Cabinet of the President of the European
Commission, Franco Malfatti, and followed in particular
the negotiations on the accession of the United Kingdom,
Denmark and Ireland, and the developments that led to the
first definition of the European Monetary Union and the
launching of the European Union project (Paris, European
Summit in 1972).
a brief period as Political Adviser to the new President
of the Commission, Sicco Mansholt of the Netherlands, he
was appointed Director-General for Regional Policy.
with the European Commissioner, George Thompson, he
negotiated and created the European Regional Development
1977, he became the spokesman for the President of the
Commission, Roy Jenkins, and helped to launch the concept
of the European monetary system and the subsequent
negotiations. In 1978, he returned to Rome as Coordinator
of Community Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
and in this post he personally helped to define and
negotiate Italian participation in the European monetary
was then appointed Chef de Cabinet of two ministers for
Foreign Affairs and during this period, in addition to
following European issues personally, he played an active
part in the Italian decision to install Euromissiles. As
the personal representative of the Prime Minister, he
took part in preparing three economic summits of the
seven most industrialized countries (G7).
1980, he was in charge of preparatory work for the
economic summit in Venice.
the same year he was appointed Ambassador and Permanent
Representative of Italy in Brussels and in 1984 returned
to Rome as Director-General of Economic Affairs and then
Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
During this period, he was also appointed
of the Executive Committee in Special Session of the OECD
and continued to act as the personal representative of
the Prime Minister for a further four economic summits,
the last in 1987 again under the Presidency of Italy.
1987, he was appointed Minister for Foreign Trade and
immediately became involved in trade and currency
liberalization, a task which he completed before leaving
the Government in 1991.
then joined the Board of Directors of FIAT, following
which he became Vice-Chairman of the International
Advisory Board of FIAT, member of the Board of Directors
of Kissinger Associated, member of the International
Advisory Board of Booz Allen and of a number of other
Italian and European companies.
the many high decorations conferred on him by foreign
governments, he holds an honorary KCMG (Knight Commander,
Order of St. Michael and St. George,) awarded to him by
H.M. Queen Elizabeth II, the Grand Cordon of the Order of
the Sacred Treasure bestowed by the Emperor of Japan, the
Knight of the Gran Croce, awarded by the President of the
Italian Republic and the Knight Grand Cross of the
equestrian order of St. Gregory the Great, awarded by H.
H. Pope John Paul II.