Networks or facilities The ensemble of
equipment, sites, switches, lines, circuits, software, and other transmission
apparatus used to provide telecommunications services.
A country's telephone system,
including local loops, exchanges, trunks, and international links for providing telephone
service to the general public.
Non-public (private) network
Any network used to
communicate within an organization (as distinct from providing service to the public) or
to supply such communications to organizations, based on a configuration of own or leased
facilities. The term includes networks used by private companies, state enterprises, or
government entities. Self-use of private networks and services is addressed by the
GATS Annex on Telecommunications, whereas the ability of competitive providers to sell use
of such networks and services to organizations is addressed through commitments taken in
Facilities-based service supplier (or operator)
telecommunications service provider owning, as opposed to leasing, networks used to
provide telecommunications services.
Resale-based service supplier
The subsequent sale
or lease on a commercial basis, with or without adding value, of a service provided by a
facilities-based telecommunications operator. A resale service supplier or reseller is a
company that leases bulk-rated plant (e.g. transmission) capacity from facilities-based
carriers and uses that capacity to provide services to individual customers or groups of
customers at prices high enough to make a profit yet sufficiently below the equivalent
rates of the facilities-based carriers to attract customers.
Arrangements or facilities whereby a
customer can access long-distance, international, or other services without using the
local operating company's switched network, thus avoiding payment of access charges. More
generally, any means whereby customers avoid usage of a monopoly service or
levied by network operators on other service providers to recover the costs of the
interconnection facilities (including the hardware and software for routing, signalling,
and other basic service functions) provided by the network operators.
Tariffs are the schedule
of rates and regulations governing the provision of telecommunications services.
Unbundling of tariffs is where each component of a communications service or product is
priced separately, so that customers may select only those components needed and be
The general principle of
charging for services in relation to the cost of providing these services.
The practice of using profits
generated from one product or service to support another provided by the same operating
The concept that every
individual within a country should have basic telephone service available at an affordable
price. The concept varies, among countries, from having a telephone in every home and
business in the wealthier countries to most inhabitants' being within a certain distance
or time away from a public telephone in developing countries.
Frequency, spectrum/spectrum management
spectrum or range of radio frequencies available for communication, industrial, and other
uses. Frequency bands or segments are assigned to various categories of users for specific
purposes, such as commercial radio and television, terrestrial microwave links,
satellites, and police. At the international level this is done by the International
Frequency Registration Board (IFRB) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Individual national regulatory agencies monitor the occupancy of the radio spectrum and
allocate frequencies to individual users or a groups of users so as to enable a large
number of services to operate within specified limits of interference.
Packet-switched data transmission
communications service in which a data stream is divided into units called packets that
are separately routed to a destination where the original message is then
Private leased circuit service
The service of
providing permanent transmission connection between two customer premises for the
exclusive use by a customer. This service may be provided over facilities owned or
operated by an operator or over transmission capacity sold or leased by a
non-facilities-based telecommunications provider, or reseller, and may use terrestrial or
satellite facilities. It generally does not involve central office switching operations.
Also called a private leased lines.
between ships, aircraft, road vehicles, or hand-held terminal stations for use while in
motion or between such stations and fixed points on land.
A terrestrial radio-based service
providing two-way communications by dividing the serving area into a regular pattern of
sub-areas or cells, each with a base station having a low-power transmitter and receiver.
Although cellular radio is primarily a means of providing mobile telephone service, it is
also used to provide data services and private voice services, and as an alternative to
fixed wired telephone service where this is scarce, such as in developing countries.
A service that allows transmitting
a signal, usually only an alarm tone, via radio from any telephone in the public-switched
network to a personal, portable receiving device in a defined operating area. More
sophisticated systems provide audible or visual display messages.
Trunked radio system
A method of operation in
which a number of radio frequency channel pairs are assigned to mobile and base stations
in the system for use as a trunk group.
Personal communications systems or services
service that enables access to telecommunications services by allowing personal mobility.
It enables each user to participate in a user-defined set of subscribed services as well
as to initiate and receive calls on the basis of a unique, personal, network-independent
number. It can be used across multiple networks at any fixed, movable, or mobile terminal
regardless of geographical location.
telecommunications service that allows live video images and speech of participants in a
conference to be transmitted between two or more locations. Videoconferencing services
generally require digital transmission.