The United States has also initiated a dispute challenging the same measures. At the panel stage, all three disputes were heard by a single panel. On 8 April 2014, the United States filed an appeal of the panel report in its dispute with China (DS431). On 17 April, China also filed a notice of appeal in that dispute.
Parties to a dispute can appeal a panel's ruling. Appeals have to be based on points of law, such as legal interpretation — they cannot re-open factual findings made by the panel. Each appeal is heard by three members of a permanent seven-member Appellate Body comprising persons of recognized authority and unaffiliated with any government. The Appellate Body membership broadly represents the geographic range of WTO membership, with each member appointed for a fixed term. Generally, the Appellate Body has up to 3 months to conclude its report.