Fast and smooth cross-border movement of vaccines, vaccine inputs and related supplies is essential for the world to achieve its vaccination targets without delay.

The WTO-IMF Vaccine Trade Tracker provides data on the trade and supply of COVID-19 vaccines by product, economy and arrangement type. The tracker builds on the work of the WTO Secretariat information notes on COVID-19 and world trade and the IMF Staff Discussion Note – A Proposal to End the COVID-19 Pandemic (Agarwal and Gopinath, 2021).

This Tracker shows the supply of vaccine doses from facilities where the final vaccines are made (where “fill and finish” is completed) to the economies where they are administered; cases where production facilities are located within destination economies are referred to as “domestic supply”. For vaccines that only require one dose (J&J and CanSino), volumes are doubled to make them comparable with two-shot vaccines. This should be considered when comparing these numbers to other sources.

1. Summary

As of 31 March 2022

Total supply to date: 14.4 billion doses

   Domestic supply: 8.6 billion doses

   Implicit trade (exports or imports): 5.7 billion doses

2. Exports

Exports are defined as the number of doses delivered across borders from producing economies to economies where vaccines are administered.

By producing economy

This Tracker defines a “producing economy” as a country or territory where final vaccines are made or where “fill and finish” is completed. This definition does not take into account exports of vaccine substances in bulk form shipped to “fill and finish” sites located in other countries or territories.

    Total number of doses exported by producing economy
Producing economy Number of doses (million) Share of world exports Cumulative share Exports as share of total supply
European Union 2,276.2 39.7% 39.7% 64.8%
China 1,869.1 32.6% 72.2% 32.1%
United States of America 859.1 15% 87.2% 58.4%
Korea, Republic of 235.8 4.1% 91.3% 91.1%
India 134.7 2.3% 93.7% 5.7%
Russian Federation 100.2 1.7% 95.4% 35.8%
South Africa 91.2 1.6% 97.0% 87.0%
Japan 67.0 1.2% 98.2% 99.8%
Other 105.9 1.8% 100.0%
Note: as of 31 March 2022

By supply arrangement type

This Tracker identifies five different arrangements through which the vaccines can reach the destination economies (not including domestic supply). These arrangements are 1) contracted supply via COVAX; 2) donations via COVAX; 3) supply via bilateral deals; 4) direct donations; and 5) supply via AVAT (African Vaccine Acquisition Trust).