Last updated: July 2016



SERVICES

I-TIP Services: User Guide

1. What is I-TIP services?

I-TIP Services, the services component of the Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP), consists of a set of linked databases providing information on Members' commitments under the WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), services commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs), applied measures in services, and services statistics.

The main objective of the integrated database is to make it easier for Members and other stakeholders to access the various types of information relevant for services trade policy-making. It is the only database providing such scope of information on trade in services. 

In its four modules (GATS, RTA Commitments, Applied Regimes, and Statistics), the integrated database permits searches by Member, sector, agreement, or source of information.  Search results are presented in summary form, as well as in more detail.  Search results can be filtered across a number of additional criteria.  Further, users can easily switch from one module to another, for example from looking at a particular Member's commitments in a given sector, to relevant commitments in RTAs, and then to related services statistics.

I-TIP Services was publicly launched on 23 July 2013

Before the launch, a prototype of the database had been presented on Data Day on 16 January 2013

 

1.1 Module on GATS back to top

The module on GATS contains all the specific commitments and exemptions to the obligation of most-favoured-nation treatment (MFN) undertaken by WTO Members under the GATS.  Additional information on the GATS, in particular as regards the scheduling of commitments and related concepts, can be found here.

 

1.2 Module on RTA Commitments back to top

The RTA module allows to access and search for information on Members' commitments in regional trade agreements notified under Article V of the GATS.  Currently, the database covers a majority of services RTAs; additional notified agreements will be added over time (1). The list of RTAs covered is available from the I-TIP Services portal.

 

1.3 Module on Applied Regimes back to top

The module organizes available information from WTO sources (e.g. TPR reports, Trade Monitoring Reports, GATS notifications), as well as publicly available information from the World Bank, APEC, and UNCTAD. The database provides links to the original sources. 

Two display features are available. The 'Standard Report' presents the information in text form. The titles used to identify the types of measures ('measures titles') correspond to the ones used in the original source. The 'Report by Measure', introduced in July 2016, displays the  information according to a classification of measures jointly developed by the World Bank and the WTO ('Measure categories'). This new classification draws and improves upon previous work by the World Bank in the context of the Services Trade Restrictions Database (for more information see http://iresearch.worldbank.org/servicetrade/home.htm).  The universe of measures has been divided into five categories, namely conditions on market entry, conditions on operations, measures affecting competition, regulatory environment and administrative procedures, and miscellaneous. This feature and the underlying classification system are still under development. Consequently only part of the information in the database has been classified by type of measure thus far. Further updates are foreseen in the coming months.

The module does not pretend to be exhaustive. There is no presumption that the information coming from the different sources fully and accurately reflects the present situation. Members are invited to provide feedback and identify any inaccuracies.  This module makes no attempt to rank or quantify levels of openness of Members' services policies

 

1.4 Module on Statistics back to top

The module on services statistics accompanies the GATS, RTA and Applied Regimes modules by providing relevant trade data. It presents available information on WTO Members' resident and non-resident services trade flows (for selected service sectors and, when possible, by partner), statistics on foreign establishment of firms (activities of foreign affiliates and foreign direct investment in service industries), as well as market information of Members (production, employment and sector-specific monetary and non-monetary indicators). This information is provided in a standardized format for each Member and provides an extensive set of services statistics for users of I-TIP Services.

 

1.5 Module on Reports back to top

This module provides access to summary information and statistics on specific commitments and MFN exemptions under the GATS, commitments under services RTAs, and changes in applied policies. The different reports permit, for example, to see which — and how many — Members have undertaken commitments in selected sectors. It also facilitates comparison between commitments undertaken at the WTO and in RTAs. Further, reports provide summary information on the evolution of applied policies, by sector, by Member, as well as over time.

 

 

2. How to use the application back to top

2.1 General points back to top

2.1.1 Entry page

The entry page, or portal, contains four icons, one for each of the four modules. By clicking on the relevant icon, the user accedes to the corresponding search page for the type of information required.

After having acceded to a module, the user can easily move to another one without having to go back to the entry page. This can be done by clicking on the relevant module from the 'menu banner'. Clicking on the I-TIP services icon at the top right-hand side of the website permits, from anywhere in the application, to go back to the entry page. 

The portal also provides links to some important documents (Services Sectoral Classification List(2), Guidelines to the scheduling of commitments under the GATS(3)), as well as links to relevant websites.

A disclaimer also appears at the bottom of the page. Among other things, it stresses that the information contained in the database has no legal value.

An e-mail address is provided to allow users to ask questions and provide comments. Users who wish to be informed of future developments of the application can register by sending an e-mail.

 

2.1.2 Sectoral Classification

All modules permit searches by service sector. The common sector classification used is that of the Services Sectoral Classification List, which was developed by the Secretariat during the Uruguay Round. Although not mandatory, it has been used by most Members for scheduling their GATS commitments. 

The Classification List groups together 12 main service sectors which, in turn, are sub-divided into a total of some 160 sub‑sectors.  The sub-sectors are identified by a corresponding number from the UN Provisional Central Product Classification (CPC), which contain definitions of the type of services covered. CPC codes can be consulted through the following link.

In I-TIP Services, sector search can be performed by selecting one of the 12 sector or sub-groups at the subsequent level of disaggregation (see Figure 1). Accordingly, sector search is possible for a total of 56 sector groups, but not at the most disaggregated level possible (i.e., the 160 sub-sectors). This approach is consistent with that taken in the former GATS database.

Figure 1: Sector search criteria available in I-TIP Services

  • All sectors
    • Horizontal commitments
    • 1 — BUSINESS SERVICES
      • 1.A — Professional Services
        • 1.A.a – Legal services
        • 1.A.b – Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services
      • 1.B — Computer and Related Services
      • 1.C — Research and Development Services
      • 1.D — Real Estate Services
      • 1.E — Rental/Leasing Services without Operators
      • 1.F — Other Business Services
    • 2 — COMMUNICATION SERVICES
      • 2.A — Postal services
      • 2.B — Courier services
      • 2.C — Telecommunication services
      • 2.D — Audiovisual services
      • 2.E — Other
    • 3 — CONSTRUCTION AND RELATED ENGINEERING SERVICES
      • 3.A — General construction work for buildings
      • 3.B — General construction work for civil engineering
      • 3.C — Installation and assembly work
      • 3.D — Building completion and finishing work
      • 3.E — Other
    • 4 — DISTRIBUTION SERVICES
      • 4.A — Commission agents' services
      • 4.B — Wholesale trade services
      • 4.C — Retailing services
      • 4.D — Franchising
      • 4.E — Other
    • 5 — EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
      • 5.A — Primary education services
      • 5.B — Secondary education services
      • 5.C — Higher education services
      • 5.D — Adult education
      • 5.E — Other education services
    • 6 — ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES
      • 6.A — Sewage services
      • 6.B — Refuse disposal services
      • 6.C — Sanitation and similar services
      • 6.D — Other
    • 7 — FINANCIAL SERVICES
      • 7.A — All insurance and insurance-related services
      • 7.B — Banking and other financial services (excl. insurance)
      • 7.C — Other
    • 8 — HEALTH RELATED AND SOCIAL SERVICES (other than those listed under 1.A.h-j.)
      • 8.A — Hospital services
      • 8.B — Other Human Health Services
      • 8.C — Social Services
      • 8.D — Other
    • 9 — TOURISM AND TRAVEL RELATED SERVICES
      • 9.A — Hotels and restaurants (incl. catering)
      • 9.B — Travel agencies and tour operators services
      • 9.C — Tourist guides services
      • 9.D — Other
    • 10 — RECREATIONAL, CULTURAL AND SPORTING SERVICES (other than audiovisual services)
      • 10.A — Entertainment services (including theatre, live bands and circus services)
      • 10.B — News agency services
      • 10.C — Libraries, archives, museums and other cultural services
      • 10.D — Sporting and other recreational services
      • 10.E — Other
    • 11 — TRANSPORT SERVICES
      • 11.A — Maritime Transport Services
      • 11.B — Internal Waterways Transport
      • 11.C — Air Transport Services
      • 11.D — Space Transport
      • 11.E — Rail Transport Services
      • 11.F — Road Transport Services
      • 11.G — Pipeline Transport
      • 11.H — Services auxiliary to all modes of transport
      • 11.I — Other Transport Services
    • 12 — OTHER SERVICES NOT INCLUDED ELSEWHERE

 

2.1.3 Language

The interface of I-TIP Services, as well as the information it contains, is available in English. The only exception relates to data on services commitments in regional trade agreements, where information in Spanish is included for RTAs whose texts are only available in that language. 

 

2.2 GATS Module back to top

This module contains all currently applicable GATS commitments and MFN exemptions undertaken by WTO Members.

The commitments appear in schedules that list the sectors concerned, the extent of market access being given (e.g. whether there are any restrictions on foreign ownership), and any limitations on national treatment (measures discriminating against foreign services/suppliers in comparison with like domestic ones). Members' exemptions from the obligation of most-favoured-nation treatment (Article II) appear in Lists of MFN Exemptions. 

In this module, like in the previous GATS database that had been established almost 15 years ago, the electronic versions of the specific commitments and MFN exemptions are consolidated. The information is more easily accessible than in the paper/treaty copies, where the commitments and MFN exemptions of individual Members are contained in different documents. For more information on the GATS, please go to these two links:

As was the case in the former GATS database, the electronic version of the commitments and exemptions contained in this module have no legal value. Only the treaty copies are authentic and in case of disputes they would be the basis on which a panel would assess scope, depth, and dates of the commitments.

 

2.2.1 Guide to reading the GATS schedules of specific commitments and the list of Article II (MFN) exemptions

It is only by reference to the relevant schedule and, where applicable, MFN exemption list, that a Member's GATS obligations per sector and mode of supply can be assessed. The schedules are complex documents in which each Member identifies the service sectors and the extent to which it applies the market access and national treatment obligations of the GATS. The level of commitments is specified with respect to four modes of supply as in Article I of the GATS: cross-border supply (mode 1); consumption abroad (mode 2); commercial presence (mode 3); and presence of natural persons (mode 4):

  • Cross-border supply — the possibility for non-resident service suppliers to supply services cross-border into the Member's territory.
  • Consumption abroad — the scope for a Member's residents to purchase services in the territory of another Member.
  • Commercial presence — the opportunities for foreign service suppliers to establish, operate or expand a commercial presence in the Member's territory, e.g., in the form of a branch, agency, or wholly-owned subsidiary.
  • Presence of natural persons — the possibilities offered for the entry and temporary stay in the Member's territory of foreign individuals in order to supply a service.

In order to determine the level of market access guaranteed in a given schedule it is necessary to consider examine the range of activities falling under the sectors concerned and the limitations on market access and national treatment pertaining to the different modes of supply. In addition, where lists of MFN exemptions have been submitted, these indicate the areas where the Member concerned has reserved the right to operate preferential or discriminatory measures against one or more fellow WTO Members.

 

2.2.1.1 Schedules of specific commitments

Specific commitments in services are comparable to a tariff binding in merchandise trade — they guarantee to economic operators abroad a specified level of access. Commitments can only be withdrawn or modified after agreement of compensatory adjustments with affected trading partners. Commitments can however be added or improved at any time.

All schedules conform to a standard format facilitates comparative analysis. For the service sectors or sub-sectors that contained, the schedule must indicate, with respect to each of the four modes of supply, any limitations on market access or national treatment which may be maintained. A commitment therefore consists of at least eight entries per sector. Moreover, there is a possibility to undertake additional commitments with regard to measures not subject to scheduling under market access or national treatment.

In nearly all schedules, commitments are split into two sections: a first section of “horizontal” commitments stipulates limitations that apply to all of the sectors included in the schedule; these often refer to a particular mode of supply, notably commercial presence and the presence of natural persons. Any evaluation of sector-specific commitments must therefore take the horizontal entries into account. In the second section of the schedule, commitments which apply to a particular sector or sub-sector are listed.

The terminology used in schedules has also been standardized wherever possible. What follows is a description of the information which has to be inscribed in each column of the schedules and a summary of the terminology used.

 

2.2.1.2 The information entered in four columns

Sector or sub-sector column: this column is expected to contain a clear definition of the sector, sub-sector or activity that is the subject of the specific commitment. Members are free, based on negotiations with other participants or autonomously, to identify the sectors, sub-sectors or activities they will list in their schedules. Definitions of committed sectors are sometimes very broad, as in “banking and other financial services” and sometimes very narrow, as in “noise abatement services”.

In the great majority of schedules the order in which the sectors are listed corresponds to the GATT Sectoral Classification List which distinguishes twelve broad sectors as follows:

1. Business;
2. Communication;
3. Construction and Engineering;
4. Distribution;
5. Education;
6. Environment;
7. Financial;
8. Health;
9. Tourism and Travel;
10. Recreation, Cultural, and Sporting;
11. Transport;
12. “Other”.

Furthermore, in most cases, the sectoral entries are accompanied by numerical references to the Central Product Classification system of the United Nations which gives a more detailed explanation of the services activities covered. Otherwise, the sector references are expected to provide a sufficiently detailed definition to avoid any ambiguity as to the scope of the commitment.

Market access column: When a Member undertakes a commitment, it must indicate for each mode of supply what limitations, if any, it maintains on market access. Article XVI:2 of the GATS lists six categories of restrictions which may not be adopted or maintained unless they are specified in the schedule. They comprise four types of quantitative restrictions plus limitations on types of legal entity and on foreign equity participation. The entry “unbound” reserves the right to maintain or introduce any of these six types of measures.

National treatment column: The national treatment obligation under Article XVII of the GATS requires Members to extend to the services and service suppliers of any other Member treatment no less favourable than is accorded to domestic services and service suppliers. A Member wishing to maintain the right to depart from national treatment — that is any measures which result in less-favourable treatment of foreign services or service suppliers — must indicate these limitations in the third column of its schedule. The entry “unbound” reserves the right to maintain or introduce any measure inconsistent with national treatment.  

Additional commitments column: Entries in this column are not obligatory but a Member may decide in a given sector to make commitments relating to measures other than those subject to scheduling under Articles XVI and XVII, for example qualifications, standards and licensing matters. This column is to be used to indicate positive undertakings, not the listing of additional limitations or restrictions.

 

How commitments are recorded in schedules

In essence, the entries which constitute a legally binding commitment in a Member's schedule indicate the presence or absence of limitations on market access and national treatment in relation to each of the four modes of supply for a listed sector, sub-sector or activity. In the following cases the entries use uniform terminology:

  • Where there are no limitations on market access or national treatment in a given sector and mode of supply, the entry reads NONE. However, it should be noted that when the term NONE is used in the second or sector-specific part of the schedule it means that there are no limitations specific to this sector: it must be borne in mind that, as noted above, there may be relevant horizontal limitations in the first part of the schedule.
  • All commitments in a schedule are bound unless otherwise specified. In such a case, where a Member wishes to remain free in a given sector and mode of supply to introduce or maintain measures inconsistent with market access or national treatment, the Member has entered in the appropriate space the term UNBOUND.
  • In some situations a particular mode of supply — such as the cross-border supply of bridge-building services — may not be technically possible or feasible. In such cases the term UNBOUND* has been used, usually in conjunction with an explanatory footnote stating “Unbound due to lack of technical feasibility”.

 

2.2.1.3 Lists of Article II (MFN) Exemptions

Most-favoured-nation treatment is a general obligation that applies to all measures affecting trade in services. However, there is a possibility under the Agreement to maintain particular measures inconsistent with the MFN obligation — in principle for not more than ten years. Such measures must have been specified in a List of MFN Exemptions submitted by the end of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, or by the conclusion of extended negotiations on certain sectors, for which the delayed submission of related exceptions was expressly authorized.(4) Acceding Members are still afforded this possibility at the time of acceptance. Subsequently, requests for exemptions from Article II (MFN) can only be granted under the waiver procedures of the Marrakesh Agreement.

In contrast to the complex nature of schedules of commitments, these lists are largely self-explanatory. In order to ensure a complete and precise listing of a Member's MFN exemptions, each Member is required to provide five types of information for each exemption:

(i) Description of the sector or sectors in which the exemption applies;
(ii) Description of the measure, indicating why it is inconsistent with Article II;
(iii) The county or countries to which the measure applies;
(iv) The intended duration of the exemption;
(v) The conditions creating the need for the exemption.

It is a basic principle of the Agreement that specific commitments are applied on an MFN basis. Where commitments are entered, therefore, the effect of an MFN exemption can only be to permit more favourable treatment to be given to the Member to which the exemption applies than is given to all other Members. Where there are no commitments, however, an MFN exemption may also permit less favourable treatment to be given. It is not necessary to list measures providing for preferential liberalization of trade in services among Members of Economic Integration Agreements; such preferential treatment is permitted under Article V of the GATS and must meet the criteria laid down in that Article.

 

2.2.2 Differences between the treaty copies and the electronic version of the schedules and lists of MFN exemptions

In order to allow structured searches to be performed, and as a result of database software limitations, a number of adjustments have been made to the presentation of the original schedules in I-TIP. For one, the text of the sector column in the original schedule is presented in a row above the columns containing entries for market access, national treatment, and additional commitments.  Also, italics and underlines could not be reproduced and had to be dropped.  Further, the alignment of text had to be modified in some cases. 

 

2.2.3 Schedules of the European Union

In this database, the schedule of specific commitments of the European Union covers the commitments of the 12 original members States, except for commitments in the sectors of telecommunication and financial services, as well as for mode 4, which cover 15 member States (i.e., the original 12 Members plus Sweden, Finland and Austria). A consolidated schedule that covers 25 member States was certified on 18 December 2006. This consolidated schedule can be accessed through the WTO's 'documents online' page; it is contained in documents S/C/W/273 and S/C/W/273/Suppl.1. However, this schedule has not yet entered into force and is therefore not included into the database.

 

2.2.4 How to use the GATS module of I-TIP Services

2.2.4.1 Search page

After clicking on the GATS icon on the I-TIP Services portal, the “search criteria” page appears, and offers the possibility to search across schedules of commitments by selecting WTO Member(s) and service sectors. The possibility to search directly across Members' MFN exemptions is also offered.

The drop-down list for the “Member” search criteria permits to select one or many Members by checking the box next to the name of the Member. To facilitate the selection, the name of a Member can also be typed in the corresponding space.   

By clicking on “show groups”, the user also has the option to select Members by region, sub-region, or trading group. 

Once the Members have been selected, click on “close”. The search criteria entered appears at the bottom of the screen (in yellow). To delete these criteria, click on the red “X” next to the drop-down list. 

It is also possible to limit the search to one or more service sectors. The drop-down list for the “sector” search criteria permits to select one or many of the 12 sector groups, as well as horizontal commitments. Sector selection can also take place at a more disaggregated level: clicking on the arrow next to a sector group displays the components of the sector group. For example, expanding sector 4 — Distribution Services  reveals sectors 4.A Commission agents' services, 4.B Wholesale trade services, 4.C Retailing services, 4.D Franchising, and 4.E Other. The user can then select one or many of these sub-groups. The sector classification employed here is further described in section 2.12 above, and is based on the W/120, as was the case in the former GATS database. 

To see the search results, press the “search” button. To erase the search criteria entered and start over, press the “clear” button. 

Link to WTO documents

A direct link to the official WTO documents containing schedules of specific commitments and lists of MFN exemptions is provided from the search page by clicking on “WTO Documents for GATS”. This will open a new window. Select the document type in the case of specific commitments ('original' or 'consolidated'), select a Member from the drop down list, and then click on “Go to Documents”.

A link to WTO documents is also offered from the 'overview of search results'.

 

2.2.4.2 Overview of search results

Main features

The results of the search defined by the user are first presented in an overview page. The purpose of this page, in a similar way as for the RTA and Applied Regimes modules, is to provide a general picture of the selected commitments. Below is an example with Albania (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Overview of search results (GATS module) — example of Albania

At the top of the page a menu bar consists of the four different modules in the database. The module being used is highlighted. Clicking on the I-TIP services logo on the top right or on “home” in the menu bar leads back to the portal.

Below the menu bar, the search criterion is presented. Clicking on “modify search” sends the user back to the search page, where new criteria can be entered to perform another search.

The search results are presented in the table. At first, only the specific commitments, as opposed to MFN exemptions, are presented. By default, the results are ordered by Member, then by sector and sub-sector. 

The text in the commitment column is the text that appears in the sector column of Members' GATS schedule of commitments.  Accordingly, the table indicates the services in which specific commitments have been made under each sector group of the classification.  If a sector group or sub-group does not appear in the “overview of search results” page, it means that the Member has not undertaken commitments in that sector or sub-sector.(5) 

The user can move to different pages by using the relevant icons at the bottom of the table. The possibility to show more or all results on a single page is also available.  To print the search results, the print function of the browser can be used. 

 

Sorting

When search results are presented for more than one Member, the user has the possibility to modify the lay-out of the results. As indicated above, the results will be ordered by Member, and then by sector.  Selecting “group by sector” above the table will sort the results by sector, e.g., showing the selected Members' commitments for sector 1, then their commitments for sector 2, and so on. The default option (group by Member) presents the results for Member A in sectors 1, 2, 3, etc., then the commitments of Member B for sectors 1, 2, 3, etc. 

 

Filters and word search

The database offers the possibility to filter the search results by Member and sector. This makes it possible to view the results for only one of the Members selected and/or one of the sectors at a time. To do so, click on “show filters” (above the table), and then limit the display of the results to one Member or sector using the respective drop-down list. 

This feature also allows the user to perform a word search. To do so, type the word or exact sequence of words in the empty row appearing below the “commitment” column heading. Note that the scope of the word search is the text appearing in that column (and not, for example, the full text of the commitment appearing in a schedule). 

To return to a full view of the search results, click on “clear filters”. 

 

MFN exemptions

From the 'detailed view of search results', you can switch from looking at the specific commitments of selected Members and sectors to see exemptions from Article II (MFN) of the GATS. To do so, select “MFN exemptions”, on the right above the results table.  MFN exemptions (if any) of the selected Members and sectors through the search page will then appear in the results table.  

The results table shows the Member, and then the sector groups (e.g., communication services and transport services in the case of Albania in Figure 3). The services concerned by the MFN exemption (corresponding to the entry in the sector column of the List of MFN exemptions) are then listed, followed by a description of the measures and their inconsistency with Article II (corresponding to the entry in the second column of the List of MFN exemptions). 

 

Figure 3: Overview of search results for MFN exemptions — example of Albania

 

Filters can also be used for MFN exemptions.  The word search option covers the text appearing in smaller print, namely the description of the measure and its inconsistency with Article II.

 

Export in Excel or PDF format

Results shown in the table can be exported in Excel or PDF format by clicking on the relevant icon on the top right of the table. 

 

Links to other modules

From the overview of search results, the user can move to another module, where results will be presented according to the same search criteria (Member and sector). 

Clicking on the “bar chart” icon that appears next to each sector header of the results table permits switching to the statistics module, where relevant statistics and indicators for the selected sector and Member are presented. 

One can also move between modules by selecting a different module from the menu bar.  In doing so, the Members and sectors selected are retained.  This means, for example, that the user can easily switch from looking at Albania's GATS commitments on Communication Services, to this Member's applied measures in the previously selected sector. 

Note that switching to the RTA module will send you to the “search criteria” page, as the relevant RTAs of the Members need to be specified.

 

2.2.4.3 Detailed view of the search results

While the search results are initially presented in an abbreviated and succinct manner so as to provide the user with a general picture of specific commitments and MFN exemptions, the database naturally allows seeing the full details of selected commitments and exemptions. 

 

Figure 4: Detailed view of GATS commitments — example of Armenia

The detailed view of a particular specific commitment is accessed by clicking on the underlined text of the sectoral entry in the “commitment” column (see Figure 4). A new window then opens and presents the full text of the commitment for that particular service sector. The sector in which the specific commitment is undertaken (the first column in original GATS schedules), is first presented in a row. Below, the levels of commitments granted under market access and national treatment, as well as any additional commitments are presented in columns. The same approach is used to see all details of a particular MFN exemption.

 

Detailed view of all commitments/exemptions for several Members or Sectors

To see the detailed information for many commitments/exemptions at the same time, click on either the Member's name or on a sector heading in the 'search results overview table'.  Member name and sector heading are underlined and in bold.  

A new window then opens and presents the full text of all the commitments/exemptions related to the Member or sector selected one after the other.

For example, if the overview of results reports information on all specific commitments of Argentina, clicking on “Argentina” in the results table will produce the detailed view, in database format, of all of Argentina's specific commitments. 

You can also see this “detailed view” of commitments or MFN exemptions for several Members at the same time by sorting your search results by sector in the overview screen, and then clicking on the relevant sector heading.

 

Export in Excel or PDF format

The detailed view of commitments/exemptions, like the overview results, can be exported to Excel or PDF by clicking on the relevant icons on the right hand side of the new window. 

 

2.2.4.4 Summary analytical reports

From the search page of the GATS module, the user can access two summary analytical reports: one on specific commitments and the other on MFN exemptions. This feature permits to quickly see which (and how many) Members have made commitments or undertaken MFN exemptions in relevant sectors.

To access the report on specific commitments, click on “See which Members have made commitments in a specific sector” from the search page. This will open a new window. Select a sector group from the drop down list, or select to see all sector groups. Click on the “show results” icon, and a table will be produced (see Figure 5 below). The table indicates, for each sector within the sector group selected (in this case 2- Communication Services), which Members have commitments (marked with an 'X'). Members that have no commitments in the selected sector do not appear in the table.

The last row at the bottom of the table indicates the total number of WTO Members with specific commitments in the relevant sector. 

Clicking on the underlined Member name permits to see the detailed view of the commitments in the sector group.

The “HC text” column allows seeing the detailed view of the relevant Member's horizontal commitments.

The tables can be exported in Excel or PDF formats.

 

Figure 5 — Summary analytical report on commitments (example of 'sector 2. Communication services”)

To access the report on MFN exemptions, select “MFN exemptions” from the search page, and then click on “See which Members have undertaken MFN exemptions in a specific sector”. This will open a new window. Select a sector group from the drop down list, or select to see all sector groups. Click on the “show results” icon, and a table will be produced (see Figure 6 below). The table indicates, for each sector within the sector group selected (in this case 9- Tourism and travel related services), the number of MFN exemptions undertaken by each Member.  Members that have no MFN exemptions in the selected sector do not appear in the table.

The last two columns on the right of the table indicate, respectively, the number of sub-sectors in which each Member has MFN exemptions, and the total number of MFN exemptions in the sector group.

The last two rows at the bottom of the table indicate, respectively, the total number of Members with MFN exemptions per subsector, and the total number of MFN exemptions of all Members per subsector.

Clicking on the underlined Member name permits to see the detailed view of the exemptions in the sector group.

The tables can be exported in Excel or PDF formats.

 

Figure 6 — Summary analytical report on MFN exemptions (example of “sector 9. Tourism and travel related services”)

 

2.3 RTA Commitments module back to top

This module contains services commitments and MFN exemptions undertaken by WTO Members in their regional trade agreements (RTAs). It is the only searchable database on RTA commitments on trade in services. Its purpose is to make it easier to handle the numerous commitments on services in the growing number of RTAs covering such aspect of trade. Among other things, the module permits to search by Member, by RTA, by sector/sub-sector, and to compare commitments undertaken by one or several Members across different agreements.     

The database currently covers a majority of the RTAs notified under Article V (Economic Integration) of the GATS. The list of RTAs covered in the database can be accessed from the I-TIP Services portal. Additional agreements will be added over time.

 

2.3.1 Different types of services RTAs

The disciplines on services contained in RTAs, including their scope and liberalization modalities, often differ from relevant GATS provisions and may also vary between RTAs. Users need to keep this in mind when consulting the information. For this reason, the module provides, among other things, direct links to the relevant text of the obligations, chapters and commitments of the RTAs, as well as a succinct description of the main features of each services RTA (see here).

A key difference between many RTAs relates to their liberalization modalities, namely the way guarantees of 'access' to foreign suppliers are recorded. The approach used in conventional GATS schedules to the listing of specific commitments on market access and national treatment is often described as a “positive-list” approach, because market access and national treatment are granted only in the sectors expressly listed by each WTO Member in its schedule. As explained in the section on the GATS module, Members then indicate the level of commitment granted for each mode of supply, for both the obligations of 'market access' and 'national treatment'. A similar approach has been used in a good number of services RTAs. 

In contrast, several services RTAs use the so-called “negative-list” or “top-down” approach, whereby market access and national treatment, among other obligations,(6)  apply fully to service sectors covered, except to the extent that non-conforming measures (commonly referred to as “reservations”) providing otherwise have been listed in annexes. In other words, under this approach, everything is in principle liberalized unless specified otherwise in the annexes. In negative-list agreements, reservations are typically of two main types, each recorded in separate annexes. An Annex I usually contains reservations for existing non-conforming measures (i.e., those that are applied at the time of entry into force), while an Annex II contains reservations for non-conforming measures that can be maintained or introduced in the future.

The RTA module is constructed so as to permit handling and searching commitments/reservations and MFN exemptions from these different types of RTAs. At the same time, there are some differences in the way the commitments/reservations of different types of RTAs are presented, both in the overview of results, as in the detailed view.

While the differences in the structure, scope, and set of obligations of RTAs naturally have to be kept in mind when assessing or comparing commitments, the module facilitates access and comparison by drawing on the common features of these agreements, namely indicating whether liberalization guarantees are undertaken and, if so, of what kind.

Indeed, the database indicates the guarantees of access for each mode of supply and sector: whether 'unrestricted' (i.e., 'full commitments' in a positive-list agreement or, in a negative-list RTA, absence of reservations), subject to limitations (or reservations in negative-list agreements), or uncommitted.

 

2.3.2 Language

This module is the only one that contains information in a language other than English. Indeed, the text of commitments/exemptions from a number of RTAs involving Latin American Members is only available in Spanish. Accordingly, the text of the relevant reservations/commitments/exemptions appears in that language in the database.

 

2.3.3 How to use the RTA Commitments module of I-TIP Services

2.3.3.1 Search page

After clicking on the 'RTA commitments' icon on the I-TIP Services portal, the “search criteria” page appears, and offers the possibility to search RTA commitments by selecting WTO Member(s), RTAs, and services sectors. 

The drop-down list for the “Member” search criterion, permits to select one or more Members by checking the box next to the name of the Member. To facilitate the selection, the name of a Member can also be typed in the corresponding space.   

By clicking on “show groups”, the user has the option to define the search criteria by region, sub-regions, or trading groups. 

Once the Members have been selected, click on “close”. The search criteria entered appears at the bottom of the screen (in yellow).  To delete the search criteria entered, click on the red “X” next to the drop-down list. 

To proceed with the search, it is necessary to also identify the relevant Members' RTAs. Once Member(s) have been selected, the RTA to which they are party and which are covered in the database will appear in the RTA drop-down list.  This allows the user to select “all RTAs”, or to limit the search to one of many of the Members' regional trade agreements.

Clicking on “select all parties”, next to the RTA drop-down list means that the commitments of all the parties to the RTAs selected will be included in the search. 

The user has the possibility to enter its search criteria by first selecting the name of the RTAs.  If no Members are selected, the search results will show the commitments for all parties to that RTA.

It is also possible to limit the search to one or many service sectors. The drop-down list for the “sector” search criterion permits to select one or many of the 12 sector groups, as well as horizontal commitments. Sector selection can take place at a more disaggregated level: clicking on the arrow next to a sector group will expand that group into the next level of groups.  For example, expanding sector 4 — Distribution Services  reveals sectors 4.A Commission agents' services, 4.B Wholesale trade services, 4.C Retailing services, 4.D Franchising, and 4.E Other.  The user can then select one or many of these sub-groups.  The sector classification employed here is further described in section 2.1.2.

To see the search results, press the 'search' icon.  To erase the search criteria entered and start over, press the “clear” button. 

 

2.3.3.2 Overview of search results

The results of the search defined by the user are first presented in an overview page. Its purpose is to present a general picture of the selected commitments. Below are two examples.  The first one (Figure 7) results from the following selection criteria:

Member: Australia
RTA: Australia-Chile
Sector: 1 — Business services

It therefore shows the commitments of Australia on business services in the Australia-Chile RTA, which is based on a negative-list approach.

The second example (Figure 8) results from the following selection criteria:

Member: Chile
RTA: Chile-China
Sector: 1 — Business services

That particular RTA follows a positive-list approach. 

At the top of this “overview of search results” page is a menu bar which consists of the four different modules in the database. The module currently used is highlighted. Clicking on the I-TIP Services logo or on “home” in the menu bar takes the user back to the portal.

Below the menu bar, highlighted in yellow, the search criteria entered are presented. Clicking on “modify search” sends the user back to the “selection criteria” page, where criteria can be entered to conduct a new search.

The search results are presented in the table. As seen in the example below, by default, the results are ordered by Member, then by RTA, and then sector/sub-sector. 

 

Figure 7: Overview of search results (RTA module) — example of a negative-list RTA

When the amount of information presented is important, the user can move to different pages of results by using the relevant icons at the bottom of the table. The possibility to show more or all results on a single page is also available. The print function of the browser can be used to print the search results. 

The following sub-sections explain the different components of the table presenting the overview of search results for the RTA module.

 

Overview of results for positive- and negative-list RTAs

As noted above, while commitments of all types of RTAs can be searched and are shown together in the “overview of search results” page, there are some differences in the way they are presented.  One such difference can be seen in Figures 7 and 8.  In negative-list agreements (e.g., Australia-Chile), what are listed are reservations, while in positive-list agreements (e.g., Chile-China), specific commitments are listed. 

Accordingly, in Figure 7, the table indicates “sector-specific reservations on:”, before listing the relevant reservations undertaken in relation to the sector. In contrast, in the positive-list RTA in Figure 8, the table indicates “sector-specific commitments on:”, before listing the relevant commitments undertaken in relation to the sector. In the latter case, as mentioned before, the table displays the services sectors where guarantees of treatment have been undertaken.  Services not listed are therefore not subject to such guarantees. In the case of negative-list agreements, like in Figure 7, what is listed are the services sectors where reservations have been undertaken for non-conforming measures (i.e., where the parties reserve the right  to maintain or adopt measures inconsistent with the agreements' liberalization obligations). Services not listed are therefore not subject to measures inconsistent with the agreement's liberalization obligations (i.e., there are no restrictions).

Similarly, when a sector/sub-sector from the classification used in the database is not listed in a positive-list RTA, meaning that it is not subject to any guarantees of access, the table will indicate “No sector-specific commitments”. See the example of sector “4.A — Commission agents' services” in Figure 7. In the case of negative-list RTAs, when a sector/sub-sector from the classification used in the database is not subject to sector-specific reservations, the table indicates “No sector-specific reservations”. See the example of sector “4.A — Commission agents' services” in Figure 8. In other words, the indications “no sector-specific reservations” and “no sector-specific commitments” essentially have opposite meanings.

Again, the indication that there are a limited number of reservations or no reservations at all for a given sector/sub-sector has to be understood in the context of the particular RTA at issue, e.g., its scope in terms of modes of supply or types of measures covered, exceptions, etc. Further, for both positive-list and negative-list type RTAs, it is always important to take into account the horizontal limitations/reservations, which can be accessed through the “sector” criterion in the “search criteria” page.

 

Limited coverage of MFN exemptions

This module currently does not contain MFN exemptions listed in positive-list RTAs. These will added over the coming months. In the case of the negative-list RTAs, reservations in relation to the MFN obligation are included, just as reservations to any other obligation for which reservations are undertaken. It should be borne in mind that some RTAs do not contain MFN exemptions; this would be indicated in the “RTA overview”.

 

“Sector” column

The text in the “sector” column of the table indicates the services in which specific commitments have been made (for positive-list RTAs) or where reservations have been listed (for negative-list RTAs) under each sector group of the classification. 

 

“Reservation/commitment” column

The information presented in this column differs for positive- and negative-list RTAs. In both cases, the purpose is to provide an overview of the commitments or reservations undertaken. The full details of each commitment/reservation can be seen by clicking on the underlined text.

For negative-list RTAs (see Figure 7), the column provides a preview of the reservations by listing the first words of the description of the non-conforming measure.  Additional text can be seen by hovering over the abbreviated text. 

For positive-list RTAs (see Figure 8), the column provides an overview of the commitment for each mode of supply for both “market access” (MA) and “national treatment” (NT). When the commitment provides for the absence of limitations for a given mode of supply, the annotation “none” appears. “Unbound” indicates that no guarantees of access are undertaken. So as not to overburden this overview table, the modes of supply where limitations are scheduled are signalled as “partial”, meaning that the level of treatment undertaken for the relevant mode and obligation in that specific sector is neither a full commitment (i.e., “none”) nor unbound. When a sector-specific commitment refers back to the horizontal section (e.g., “Unbound, except as indicated in the horizontal section”), as is often the case for commitments on mode 4, this is indicated in the column.

 

“Obligations” column

This column is used for negative-list RTAs. It indicates the type of obligations for which the reservations for non-conforming measures are taken. Note that the exact name of the obligation concerned figures in the detailed view of reservations, along with a link to the text of that obligation, as found in the RTA. 

The categories of obligations are the following (in parentheses are the abbreviations used in the table):

  • Market access (MA): obligation similar to that of Article XVI of the GATS, which prohibits a limited number of limitations, mostly quantitative restrictions, whether discriminatory or not.
  • National treatment (NT): obligation providing for non-discrimination between foreign and domestic services/suppliers/investments.
  • Most-favoured-nation treatment (MFN): obligation providing for non-discrimination between different foreign services/suppliers/investments.
  • Local presence requirement (Local Pres.): obligation typically prohibiting a Party from requiring suppliers of the other Party to establish a commercial presence in its territory or to be resident as a condition for the provision of a service across borders (ex: NAFTA article 1205).
  • Senior management and board of directors (Senior mgmt.): obligation typically providing that no party may require an enterprise of the other Party to appoint to senior management positions individuals of any particular nationality (ex: NAFTA article 1107).
  • Performance requirements (Perf. Req't.): obligation prohibiting parties from imposing a defined set of requirements in relation to the establishment or operation of an investment of another party (ex: NAFTA article 1106).
  • Quantitative restrictions (Quant. restr'ns): obligation generally providing that parties list in an annex the quantitative restrictions that they maintain (ex: NAFTA article 1207) 
  • New financial services: obligation where parties commit to permitting a financial institution of another party to supply 'new' financial services, and to transfer information into and out of the party's territory for data processing (ex: NAFTA article 1407).

In some cases, the “obligations concerned” column will contain the annotation “Mode 4 chapter”.  This indicates that the scope of commitments on mode 4 is defined through a dedicated chapter of the RTA. Clicking on the underlined text permits access to the chapter.

For positive-list RTAs, no indication is provided in that column since the “reservation/limitation” column already indicates whether the commitments undertaken relate to market access (MA) and/or national treatment (NT).

 

“Modes covered” column

This column lists the modes of supply that are covered by the obligations for which the reservation is taken. Again, it is only used for negative-list type RTAs.

For example, if a reservation is taken on an obligation that covers solely mode 3 (e.g., the national treatment obligation of the investment chapter), the column will list only mode 3. Similarly, if a reservation is taken for an obligation that covers all modes of supply, the four modes will be listed in the column; this would be the case even if a particular non-conforming measure seems, on the basis of its description, to concern only one particular mode of supply. Accordingly, this column does not pass judgement on the mode of supply that a particular reservation may specifically relate to.  

 

“Applied measure” column

This column indicates (through an “X”) those reservations that are undertaken for existing non-conforming measures (see here). This column is only used for negative-list agreements. 

Note that, typically, reservations for existing non-conforming measures were taken for restrictions applied at the RTA's entry into force. However, this cannot be taken to mean that these measures have not been liberalized since.

 

RTA overviews

The “overview of search results” page permits to access summary information on each RTA by clicking on the “RTA overview”, which appears on the right of each RTA listed in the table. A PDF file then opens.

While not substituting for a more detailed reading of the agreement, the overviews provide basic information to help consult the commitments made under an RTA. Each overview contains a link to the consideration process of this RTA in the WTO (including any Factual Report). It summarizes the main features of the agreement as regards services, indicates the relevant chapters and their general coverage, enumerates the main obligations, and briefly describes the liberalization modalities and the content of related annexes. 

 

Sector-specific provisions

Aside from liberalization commitments/reservations, RTAs often contain provisions that are specific to particular service sectors. Examples of such sector-specific provisions would be an RTA's chapter on telecommunication (containing a set of regulatory disciplines) or a dedicated annex on professional services.  The 'search results overview' page permits to access the text of such provisions by clicking on “Sector-specific provision”, which appears in the table next to relevant sector headings. 

 

Sorting

When search results are presented for more than one Member or more than one RTA, the user has the possibility to modify the sorting of the results. By default, the results are ordered by Member, then by RTA, and then by sector. For example, if the user selects to see all commitments and reservations of Chile and Australia in all their RTAs, the table first presents Australia's commitments in RTA no. 1 for all sectors, then Australia's commitments in RTA no. 2, etc.   

Using the “Group by” options above the table allows modifying the presentation, for example by sorting all selected commitments/reservations by sector first. In this case, the user would see Australia's and Chile's commitments for sector 1, and then sector 2, etc.  

 

Filters and word search

The database offers the possibility to filter the search results by Member, RTA, and sector. This permits seeing the results for only one of the Members selected and/or one of the sectors or RTAs at a time. To do so, click on “show filters” (above the results table), and then limit the display of the results to one Member or sector using the respective drop-down list. 

This feature also allows performing a word search. To do so, type the exact word or sequence of words in the empty row appearing below the 'Member' and 'sector' column headings. Note that the scope of the word search is the text appearing in the relevant column of the table − and not, for example, the full content of commitments or reservations.   

Filters can also be used for the “obligations”, “modes covered”, and “applied measure” columns. For example, by typing “MFN” in the text box of the obligations column, only those reservations undertaken in relation to the most-favoured-nation treatment obligation would be displayed.  Similar options are available for the “modes covered” and “applied measures” columns through a drop-down list.

To return to a full view of the search results, click on 'clear filters'. 

 

Export in Excel and PDF formats

Results shown in the table can be exported in Excel or PDF format by clicking on the relevant icon on the top right of the table. 

 

Links to other modules

From the overview of search results, the user can move to another module, where results will be presented according to the same search criteria (Member and sector). 

This can be done by selecting a different module from the menu bar.  In doing so, the Members and sectors selected are retained in the new module.  This means, for example, that the user can easily switch from looking at Chile's RTA commitments on Communication Services, to this Members' applied measures, GATS commitments, or statistics for the same sector. 

 

2.3.3.3 Detailed view of the search results

While the search results are initially presented in an abbreviated and succinct manner so as to provide the user with a general picture of RTA commitments/reservations, the database can also, of course, display the full details of selected commitments and exemptions. 

The detailed view of a particular commitment/reservation is accessed by clicking on the underlined text of the sectoral entry in the 'commitment/reservation' column.  A new window then opens and presents the full text of the commitment for that particular service sector.

For positive-list RTAs, the presentation is similar to the one used for GATS. The sector in which the commitment is undertaken (the first column in original GATS schedules) is presented in a row. Below, the levels of commitments granted under market access and national treatment, as well as any additional commitments are presented in columns.

For negative-list RTAs, the presentation is somewhat different. It contains the following fields, which all contain information lifted from the text of the RTA:

  • Sector description: text from the RTA that indicates the sector and/or sub-sector in which the reservation is taken, along with any reference to classification systems.
  • Measure title: summarizes the measure as presented in the overview of search results. This corresponds, as indicated above, to the first few lines of the description of the non-conforming measure.
  • Description: text from the RTA providing information on the non-conforming measure(s).
  • Relevant laws: indicates any laws/regulations relating to the non-conforming measure(s), as listed in the RTA.
  • Level of government: this field appears when the RTA specifies that the non-conforming measure relates to a level of government other than the central one (e.g., regional, local, provincial). The name of the sub-central entity is displayed when mentioned in the agreement.
  • Phase-out: this field appears when the RTA specifies that a non-conforming measure is subject to a partial or complete phase-out over time. The date of complete phase-out is provided.
  • Obligations concerned: indicates the obligation(s) for which the reservation is taken, i.e., the obligation(s) that do not apply to the measure listed.  The database allows consulting the text of the obligation (e.g., “Article XYZ: National treatment”) by clicking on it. Next to each obligation appears the name of the chapter in which the obligation is contained (e.g., “Chapter A: Cross-border trade in services”).  Again, clicking on the name of the chapter allows consulting the original text (normally in PDF format).
  • Source: indicates the section of the RTA where the text of the non-conforming measure is found, typically an annex. Clicking on the name of the annex permits consulting the original text (normally in PDF format).
  • Entry into force of the agreement: date of entry into force of the RTA, as notified to the WTO.

At the top right of the screen displaying reservations, a link to horizontal commitments/reservations is provided. The link sends the user to the table providing an overview of horizontal commitments/reservations for the selected Member and RTA. Sector-specific reservations/commitments always need to be read in conjunction with those applying across sectors. 

 

Detailed view of all commitments/exemptions for a Member

To see detailed information for many commitments/reservations at the same time, click on the name of the RTA, the Member, or on a sector heading in the “overview of search results” table.  These are all underlined and in bold.  

A new window then opens and presents the full text of all the commitments/reservations related to the relevant RTA, Member, or sectors selected. Among other things, this feature permits seeing the details of commitments/reservations of many Members at the same time (e.g., in a given sector or RTA).

 

Export in Excel or PDF format

Results shown in the table can be exported in Excel or PDF format by clicking on the relevant icon on the top right of the table. 


 

2.4 Applied Regimes module back to top

This module provides information on applied measures that affect access to markets and conditions of operation of foreign service suppliers. (7) It covers all sector groups from the Services Sectoral Classification List (W/120), as well as horizontal measures.

Two display features are available. The 'Standard Report' presents the information in text form. The titles used to identify the types of measures ('measures titles') correspond to the ones used in the original source. The 'Report by Measure', introduced in July 2016, displays the information according to a classification of measures jointly developed by the World Bank and the WTO ('Measure categories'). This new classification draws and improves upon previous work by the World Bank in the context of the Services Trade Restrictions Database (for more information see http://iresearch.worldbank.org/servicetrade/home.htm).  The universe of measures has been divided into five categories, namely conditions on market entry, conditions on operations, measures affecting competition, regulatory environment and administrative procedures, and miscellaneous. This feature and the underlying classification system are still under development. Consequently only part of the information in the database has been classified by type of measure thus far. Further updates are foreseen in the coming months.  

The module does not pretend to be exhaustive. There is no presumption that the information coming from the different sources fully and accurately reflects the present situation. Members are invited to provide feedback and identify any inaccuracies.  This module makes no attempt to rank or quantify levels of openness of Members' services policies.

 

2.4.1 How to use the Applied Regimes module of I-TIP Services

2.4.1.1 Search page

After clicking on the “Applied Regimes” icon on the I-TIP Services portal, the “search criteria” page appears. It offers the possibility to search for information on applied measures by Member and by sector. 

The drop-down list for the “Member” search criterion permits to select one or many Members by checking the box next to the name of the Member. To facilitate the selection, the name can also be typed in the corresponding space.   

By clicking on “show groups”, the user has the option to define the search criteria by region, sub-region, or trading group. 

Once the Members have been selected, click on “close”. The search criteria entered will appear at the bottom of the screen (in yellow).  To delete the criteria, click on the red “X” next to the drop-down list. 

It is also possible to limit the search to one or more service sectors.  The drop- down list for the 'sector' search criteria permits to select sector groups, as well as horizontal measures. Sector selection can take place at a more disaggregated level: clicking on the arrow next to a sector group will expand that group into the next level of groups. For example, expanding sector 4 — Distribution Services reveals sectors 4.A Commission agents' services, 4.B Wholesale trade services, 4.C Retailing services, 4.D Franchising, and 4.E Other. The user can then select one or many of these sectoral sub-groups. The sector classification employed here is further described in section 2.1.2.

From the selection page, the user also has the possibility to limit its search to certain of the sources of information used. Currently, the four sources of information are WTO, World Bank, APEC, and UNCTAD. Sub-categories can also be selected, for example Trade Policy Reviews, Trade Monitoring Reports, or GATS Notifications, within the 'WTO' category.

Accordingly, this module also serves as a tool to obtain, for example, all relevant information coming from Trade Monitoring Reports (for information from such reports on measures adopted in relation to trade in goods, see the WTO's Trade Monitoring Database).

From the selection page ('advanced criteria'), the search can be limited to measures affecting specific modes of supply and also to information available up to a specific year (in other words, if you choose for example the year 2012, the system will retrieve all the available information dated 2012 and before). 

Two reporting options are proposed:

  • The "Standard Report", that presents information on applied measuresin textual form, organized only by sector, subsector, source and year. The titles used to identify the types of measures ('measures titles') correspond to the ones used in the original source.
  • The"Report by Measure", that displays the information according to a classification of measures jointly developed by the World Bank and the WTO ('Measure categories').  

To visualize the results of the search, press the  button corresponding to the type of report chosen. Note that you can easily navigate from one option to the other within the applied regimes module. In order to do this, once the report chosen is displayed, you just need to click on the other report's button, which will be available in the top right corner of the webpage. To erase the search criteria entered and start over, press the "clear" button. 

2.4.1.2 Standard report

    2.4.1.2.1 Overview of search results in the "Standard Report"

The results of the search defined by the user are first presented in an overview page. Below is an example with Korea (Figure 9). The following explains the different components and features of the Standard Report page. 

At the top of the page, a menu bar consists of the four different modules in the database. The module currently used is highlighted. Clicking on the I-TIP Services logo on the top right or on “home” in the menu bar permits going back to the portal.

Below the menu bar, the search criterion entered is presented.  Clicking on 'modify search' sends the user back to the 'selection criteria' page, where new criteria can be entered to perform a new search.

The search results are presented in the table. By default, the results are ordered by Member, then by sector/sub-sector. 

The text in the “sector title” column indicates the service(s) to which the measure relates, while the text in the “measure title” column provides an indication of the measure at issue.  These columns aim to provide the user with an overview of all information captured by its search criteria. The text of both the sector and measure titles are based on the description of the measure, as found in the original source.

 

Figure 9: Overview of standard report (Applied Regimes module) - example of Korea

 

The “source” column of the table indicates whether the information comes from the WTO, the World Bank, UNCTAD, or APEC. The year in which the information was published or accessed is indicated next to the source.

When the amount of information presented is important, the user can move to different pages of results by using the relevant icons at the bottom of the table. The possibility to show more or all results on a single page is also available. To print the search results, use the relevant print function of the browser. 

'Measure titles' correspond to the tiles already used in the original source, or have been chosen to better reflect the content of the measure.

Users can also view the results classified by type of measure by clicking on the "Report by measure" button.

The following sections explain the different components of the table presenting the overview of search results for the applied regimes module.

 

Groups of measures

The overview table contains both single measures (which are underlined and presented against a white backdrop) as well as groups of measures (blue backdrop).  Clicking on the arrow next to the sector prompts the display of the individual measures comprised within the group.   

Measures have been grouped in order to facilitate visualization.Groups are specific to a given Member and sector, and contain either similar measures or information on the same measure from different sources. 

Sorting

When search results are presented for more than one Member, the user has the possibility to modify the sorting of the results. By default, the results are ordered by Member and then by sector.  For example, if the user selects to see applied measures of Chile and Australia in all sectors, the default presentation is that Australia's measures in sector no. 1 are first presented, then Australia's measures in sector no. 2, etc.  

Using the “Group by sector” option above the table changes the presentation of the search results. Measures of the Members selected are first presented for sector 1, then measures of both Members for sector 2, and so on. 

 

Filters and word search

The database offers the possibility to filter the search results by Member and sector. This permits seeing the results for only one of the Members selected and/or one of the sector at a time.  To do so, click on “show filters” (above the results table), and then limit the view of the results to one Member or sector using the respective drop-down list. 

This feature also allows performing a word search. To do so, type the word or exact sequence of words in the empty rows appearing below the “sector title” and “measure title” headings.  Note that the scope of the word search is the text appearing in the table (and not, for example, the full text describing the measures, which is accessible in the detailed view). 

Filters can also be used for the “source” and “year” columns, through a drop-down selection list.

To return to a full view of the search results, click on “clear filters”. 

 

Export to Excel and PDF

Results shown in the table can be exported in Excel or PDF format by clicking on the relevant icon on the top right of the table.   

Report by measure

This display feature was introduced in July 2016. It enables the display of information according to a classification of measures jointly developed by the World Bank and the WTO ('Measure categories').  which enables the display of information by type of measure. This new classification draws and improves upon previous work by the World Bank in the context of the Bank's Services Trade Restrictions Database (for more information see http://iresearch.worldbank.org/servicetrade/home.htm).  The universe of measures has been divided into five categories, namely conditions on market entry, conditions on operations, measures affecting competition, regulatory environment and administrative procedures, and miscellaneous. This feature and the underlying classification system are still under development. Consequently only part of the information in the database has been classified by type of measure thus far. Further updates are foreseen in the coming months. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

Overview of search results in the "Report by measure"

 The results of the search defined by the user are first presented in an overview page. Figure 10 below provides an example for Colombia.   

At the top of the page, a menu bar consists of the four different modules in the database. The module currently used (in this case 'Applied regime') is highlighted. Clicking on the I-TIP Services logo on the top right or on "home" in the menu bar permits going back to the portal.

Below the menu bar, the criteria chosen in the search is presented (in this case Colombia, all sectors, WTO source).  Clicking on 'modify search' sends the user back to the 'selection criteria' page, where criteria can be modified to perform a new search.

The results are displayed in table format. In the first column ('measure'), the results are ordered in successive rows by sector/subsector, mode and type of measure (Note: 'horizontal' corresponds to measures affecting all sectors). Measures are organized according to the following categories:

A. Conditions on market entry

    1.Forms of entry (including foreign equity limits)
    2. Quantitative measures (for firms and natural persons)
    3. Conditions on licensing/qualifications relating to market entry (for firms and natural persons)
    4. Other conditions on market entry

B. Conditions on operations

    1. Conditions on supply of services
    2. Conditions on service supplier
    3. Conditions on government procurement
    4. Other conditions on operations
    C. Measures affecting competition
    1. Conditions on conduct by firms
    2. Governmental rights/prerogatives (including public ownership)
    3. Other measures affecting competition

D. Administrative procedures and regulatory transparency

    1. Administrative procedures
    1. Regulatory transparency (including licensing)
    2. Nature of regulatory authority (measures related to nature of regulator)
    3. International standards
    5. Other regulatory environment and administrative procedures

E Miscellaneous

Sectors have been classified on the basis of the Services Sectoral Classification List (document MTN.GNS/W/120, commonly known as "W/120"), modified as appropriate:

  - 1.A.a Legal services
       - 1.A.a.(a) – Host country (domestic) law (advisory /representation)
                - 1.A.a.(a.1) – Host country advisory services
                - 1.A.a.(a.2) – Host country representation services
- 1.A.a.(b) – Home country law and/or third country law (advisory/representation)
       - 1.A.a.(c) – Host country (domestic) law (advisory /representation)
      - 1.A.a.(d) – Legal documentation and certification services
      - 1.A.a.(e) – Other advisory and information services
  - 1.A.b – Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services
      - 8621 – Accounting and auditing services
                - 8621.(1) – Accounting services
                - 8621.(2) – Auditing services
  - 2.D.c – Radio and television services
      - 96131 – Radio services
      - 96132 – Television services
      - 96133 – Combined programme making and broadcasting services
  - 2.D.d – Radio and television transmission services
      - 75421 – Television broadcast transmission services
                75421.(1) – Television broadcasting non-terrestrial
                75421.(2) – Television broadcasting terrestrial
      - 75422 – Radio broadcast transmission services
  - 4.C Retailing services
      - 631 – Food retailing services
      - 632 – Non-food retailing services
      - 6111 – Sales of motor vehicles
      - 6113 – Sales of parts and accessories of motor vehicles
      - 6121 – Sales of motorcycles/snowmobiles, related parts, accessories
  -5.C – Higher education services
      5.C.(a) – Technical higher education
      5.C.(b) – Vocational higher education
  - 7.A.a.02 – Non-life insurance services
                7.A.a.02.(a) – Non-life insurance (except MAT)
                7.A.a.02.(b) – MAT insurance
  - 9.A – Hotels and restaurants (incl. catering)
       - 641 – Hotel and other lodging services
       - 642 – Food serving services
       - 643 – Beverage serving services for consumption on the premises
  - 11.C.a – Air transport passenger services
       11.C.a.(a) – Air passenger domestic
       11.C.a.(b) – Air passenger international
  - 11.E.b – Rail freight transport
       - 11.E.b.(a) – Domestic rail freight
       - 11.E.b.(b) – International rail freight
  - 11.F.b – Road freight transport
       - 11.F.b.(a) – Domestic road freight
       - 11.F.b.(b) – International road freight

Note that in many cases the matching of a measure to a specific sector has been done to the best of our understanding on the basis of available information. Consequently the sectoral coverage of measures should be considered as indicative. The measure should be understood as applying to the sector as described in the source used (this information is available either through the detailed view or the excel download, see below). Users are therefore strongly encouraged to read the description of the measure to have a clear understanding of the information provided through this new reporting feature.

     Members selected are shown in the successive columns. Note that only a maximum of three Members can be displayed on the screen, but all Members selected will be included in the excel download facility (see below).

Figure 10: Overview of report by measure (Applied Regimes module) - example of Colombia

The successive rows under the 'measure' column show 1) the  service(s) to which the measure relates (e.g. Horizontal, Investigation and security), 2) the mode of supply concerned, 3) the measure category (e.g. A. Conditions on market entry), 4) the measure subcategory (e.g. Forms of entry (including foreign equity limits), and 5) finally, the actual measure (e.g. foreign establishment prohibited). 

Detailed view in the "report by measure"

The detailed view of each measure may be obtained by clicking on the underlined text in the appropriate row (e.g. foreign establishment prohibited).  A new window then opens up and presents information for the case at hand. 

Each record contains the following information:

  • Member concerned;
  • Sector description (Note: it corresponds to the sector as described in the original source);
  • Description (Note: it contains an excerpt of the measure as described in the original source); 
  • Relevant laws (ifmentioned in the relevant source);
  • Measure category and mode of supply (Note: it indicates the measures to which the description refers to);
  • Source; and 
  • Date published(Note: it contains the date of publication of the source document or, when the information comes from a website, the date the information was accessed).

To see the detailed information for measures applying to all sectors or to a specific subsector, click on the sector heading in the appropriate row. Sector headings are underlined and in bold (e.g. Horizontal, or Investigation and security).  

Export in Excel or PDF format

Results shown in the table can be exported in an Excel flat file by clicking on the relevant icon on the top right of the table. The information in the Excel workbook is organized in columns, as follows:  Member, Sector, Mode, Category, Subcategory, Measure, Local/foreign (i.e. whether the measure applies to all services and service suppliers or only to foreign ones, F: foreign, D: Domestic, A: all), Response, Numeric value (if relevant), Comment (as appropriate), Law, Source, Source: sector coverage, Source: title, Source: description, Date published (i.e. date of source publication).

Alternatively information as shown on the screen can be downloaded in PDF format by clicking on the relevant icon on the top right of the table. In this case, the information is displayed as shown on the screen. Please note that the PDF file, once displayed on the screen, replaces the previous screen view. Also note that if you have chosen the Excel file first, the PDF file cannot be displayed if the Excel file is still open. You must first saved or close the Excel file in order to allow the PDF display.

Links to other modules

Clicking on the "bar chart" icon that appears next to each sector header of the results table permits switching to the statistics module, where relevant statistics and indicators for the selected sector and Member are presented. 

One can also move between modules by selecting a different module from the menu bar. In doing so, the Members and sectors selected are retained in the new module. This means, in our example, that the user can easily switch from looking at Colombia's applied measures to Colombia's GATS commitments for the same search criteria. 

Note that switching to the RTA module will send you to the RTA selection criteria page, as the relevant RTAs signed by the Member concerned need to be specified.

 

2.5 Reports Module

This module provides access to summary information and statistics on specific commitments and MFN exemptions under the GATS, commitments under services RTAs, and changes in applied policies.

The module is accessed by clicking on the 'Reports' icon from the portal page.  The entry page presents all the different types of reports available.  These are listed in four distinct tabs, each corresponding to the subject matter covered by the reports: GATS; RTAs; Cross-Regime Reports; Policy Changes (Applied Regimes). 

Each report is accessed by clicking on its name in the relevant tab.  An information icon next to each report name provides a brief description.    

All reports can be exported in PDF or Excel formats.

 

2.5.1 Reports on GATS

2.5.1.1 See which Members have undertaken commitments in a specific sector

This report shows, in table form, which (and how many) Members have undertaken GATS commitments in each sector.

The default search option (all Members and all sectors) provides an overview of commitments in the 12 sector groups of the Services Sectoral Classification List.

The total in the last column indicates the number of sectors in which each Member has undertaken commitments. The total in the last row indicates the total number of Members with GATS commitments in each sector. Clicking on the name of the Member opens a new window showing the details of the specific commitments. Members' horizontal commitments can similarly be accessed directly from the table (“HC Text” column). 

The report can be limited to certain Members or group of Members by selecting from the drop-down list. To see which and how many Members have undertaken commitments in particular subsectors, select one of the 12 sector groups from the drop-down list. For example, selecting sector “2 — Communication Services” will provide statistics on commitments in subsectors “2A — Postal Services”, 2B — Courier Services”, 2C — Telecommunication Services”, “2D — Audiovisual Services”, and “2E — Other”.

Reports will only list those Members that have undertaken specific commitments in sectors selected.

 

2.5.1.2 See which Members have undertaken MFN exemptions in a specific sector

This report shows, in table form, the number of exemptions to the GATS most-favoured-nation (MFN) obligation, by Member and by sector.

The default search option (all Members and all sectors) provides an overview of MFN exemptions in the 12 sector groups of the Services Sectoral Classification List, as well as with respect to those that apply to all sectors. 

Numbers in the table indicate the number of MFN exemptions undertaken by each Member, per sector. The column “total — sectors” indicates the number of sectors where each Member has undertaken exemptions, while the column “total — exemptions” indicates the number of MFN exemptions undertaken by each Member across all sectors selected.

The row “total — Members” specifies the total number of Members with MFN exemption in each sector, while the row “total — exemptions” indicates the number of MFN exemptions undertaken by all relevant Members in each sector.

Clicking on the name of the Member opens a new window showing the details of the MFN exemptions.  

The report can be limited to certain Members or group of Members by selecting from the drop-down list. To see which and how many Members have listed MFN exemptions in particular subsectors, select one of the 12 sector groups from the drop-down list. For example, selecting sector “2 — Communication Services” will provide statistics on exemptions in subsectors “2A — Postal Services”, 2B — Courier Services”, 2C — Telecommunication Services”, “2D — Audiovisual Services”, and “2E — Other”.

Reports will only list those Members that have undertaken MFN exemptions in sectors selected.

 

2.5.1.3 See selected Members' commitments across all sectors and subsectors   

This report shows, in table form, specific commitments of selected Members across all subsectors.  The table provides information on a total of 56 subsectors, on the basis of the Services Sectoral Classification List. 

The total in the last row indicates the total number of subsectors in which GATS commitments have been undertaken by each Member.

The report can be limited to certain Members by selecting from the drop-down list. Results for a maximum of 10 Members can be presented in the table on the webpage. However, schedules of all Members will appear when the table is exported to Excel. 

Clicking on the sector in the first column opens a new window showing the details of the corresponding commitments of Members appearing in the table.

 

2.5.2 Reports on RTAs

2.5.2.1 See which Members have undertaken commitments in selected RTAs and sectors

This report shows, in table form, sectors where Members have undertaken services commitments in their different regional trade agreements (RTAs).

The default search option (all Members in all RTAs and all sectors) provides an overview of commitments in the 12 sector groups of the Services Sectoral Classification List.

The total in the last column indicates the number of sectors in which each Member has undertaken commitments. Clicking on the name of the RTA opens a new window showing the details of relevant Members' commitments.  Members' horizontal commitments/reservations can similarly be accessed directly from the table (“HC Text” column). 

The report can be limited to certain Members or certain RTAs by selecting from the drop-down list.  To see in which subsectors commitments have been undertaken by Members in relevant RTAs, select one of the 12 sector groups from the drop-down list. For example, selecting sector “2 — Communication Services” will provide statistics on commitments in subsectors “2A — Postal Services”, 2B — Courier Services”, 2C — Telecommunication Services”, “2D — Audiovisual Services”, and “2E — Other”.

 

2.5.2.2 See selected Members' commitments in relevant RTAs across all sectors and subsectors

This report shows, in table form, specific commitments of selected Members in regional trade agreements (RTAs) across all subsectors. The table provides information on a total of 56 subsectors, on the basis of the Services Sectoral Classification List. 

The total in the last row indicates the total number of subsectors in which RTA commitments have been undertaken by each Member.

The report can be limited to certain Members by selecting from the drop-down list. Results for a maximum of 10 Members/RTAs can be presented in the table on the webpage. However, schedules of up to 255 Members/RTAs will appear when the table is exported to Excel. 

Clicking on the sector in the first column opens a new window showing the details of the corresponding commitments of Members appearing in the table.

 

2.5.3 Cross-Regime reports

2.5.3.1 See Members' commitments under the GATS and in RTAs by sector

This report shows, in table form, sectors where Members have undertaken services commitments under the GATS as well as in different regional trade agreements (RTAs).

The default search option (all Members in GATS and in all RTAs, and all sectors) provides an overview of commitments in the 12 sector groups of the Services Sectoral Classification List.

The total in the last column indicates the number of sectors in which each Member has undertaken commitments. Clicking on the name of the RTA or the GATS schedule opens a new window showing the details of relevant Members' commitments.  Members' horizontal commitments/reservations can similarly be accessed directly from the table (“HC Text” column). 

The report can be limited to certain Members or certain RTAs by selecting from the drop-down list.  To see in which subsectors commitments have been undertaken by Members in relevant RTAs, select one of the 12 sector groups from the drop-down list. For example, selecting sector “2 — Communication Services” will provide statistics on commitments in subsectors “2A — Postal Services”, 2B — Courier Services”, 2C — Telecommunication Services”, “2D — Audiovisual Services”, and “2E — Other”.

 

2.5.3.2 See Members' commitments under the GATS and in RTAs across all sectors and subsectors

This report shows, in table form, services commitments of selected Members under the GATS and in regional trade agreements (RTAs) across all subsectors. The table provides information on a total of 56 subsectors, on the basis of the Services Sectoral Classification List. 

The total in the last row indicates the total number of subsectors in which GATS and/or RTA commitments have been undertaken by each Member.

The report can be limited to certain Members and RTAs by selecting from the drop-down lists. Results for a maximum of 10 sets of commitments can be presented in the table on the webpage. However, up to 255 records will appear when the table is exported to Excel. 

Clicking on the sector in the first column opens a new window showing the details of the corresponding commitments of Members appearing in the table.

 

2.5.4 Reports on Policy Changes (Applied Regimes)

2.5.4.1 See the number of policy changes by Member and sector

This report shows, in table form, the number of policy changes by Member and by sector. The table refers to the number of records from the applied regimes module that contain information on more restrictive or liberalizing policies adopted by Members.

The default search option (all Members and all sectors) provides an overview of policy changes in the 12 sector groups of the Services Sectoral Classification List, as well as those that apply to all sectors. 

The column “total — sectors” indicates the number of sectors where there are records of policy changes for each Member.  The column “total — policy changes” indicates the number of records of policy changes for each Member across all sectors selected.

The row “total — Members” specifies the total number of Members where a policy change occurred in each sector, while the row “total — policy changes” indicates the number of records of policy changes for all selected Members in each sector.

Clicking on the name of the Member opens a new window showing the details of the policy changes. Since information on the same policy changed may come from different sources, the number of policy changes in the 'detailed view' may be greater than the number shown in the table.

The report can be limited to certain Members or group of Members by selecting from the drop-down list. To obtain information on policy changes in particular subsectors, select one of the 12 sector groups from the drop-down list. For example, selecting sector “2 — Communication Services” will provide statistics on policy changes in subsectors “2A — Postal Services”, 2B — Courier Services”, 2C — Telecommunication Services”, “2D — Audiovisual Services”, and “2E — Other”.

Reports will only list those Members on which there is information on policy changes.

To see policy changes corresponding to particular members states of the European Union, please select “European Union” in the drop-down list.

 

2.5.4.2 See the number of policy changes by Members over time

This report shows, in table form, the number of policy changes by Member and by year. The table refers to the number of records from the applied regimes module that contain information on more restrictive or liberalizing policies adopted by Members.

The default search option (all Members and all sectors) provides an overview of policy changes from 2000 onward. 

The column “total — years” indicates the years where there are records of policy changes for each Member.  The column “total — policy changes” indicates the number of records of policy changes for each Member.

The row “total — Members” specifies the total number of Members where a policy change occurred in each year, while the row “total — policy changes” indicates the number of records of policy changes for all selected Members in each year.

Clicking on the name of the Member opens a new window showing the details of the policy changes. Since information on the same policy changed may come from different sources, the number of policy changes in the 'detailed view' may be greater than the number shown in the table.

The report can be limited to certain Members or group of Members by selecting from the drop-down list.  To obtain information on policy changes in particular subsectors, select one of the 12 sector groups from the drop-down list. For example, selecting sector “2 — Communication Services” will provide statistics on policy changes in subsectors “2A — Postal Services”, 2B — Courier Services”, 2C — Telecommunication Services”, “2D — Audiovisual Services”, and “2E — Other”.

Reports will only list those Members on which there is information on policy changes.

To see policy changes corresponding to particular members states of the European Union, please select “European Union” in the drop-down list.

 

2.5.4.3 See the number of policy changes by sectors over time

This report shows, in table form, of the number of policy changes by sector and by year.  The table refers to the number of records from the applied regimes module that contain information on more restrictive or liberalizing policies adopted by Members.

The default search option (all Members and all sectors) provides an overview of policy changes from 2000 onward, per sector. 

The column “total — years” indicates the number of years where there are records of policy changes for each sector. The column “total — policy changes” indicates the number of records of policy changes for each sector.

The row “total — Members” specifies the total number of Members where a policy change occurred in each year, while the row “total — policy changes” indicates the number of records of policy changes for all selected Members in each year.

Clicking on the sector opens a new window showing the details of the policy changes. Since information on the same policy change may come from different sources, the number of policy changes in the 'detailed view' may be greater than the number shown in the table.

The report can be limited to certain Members or group of Members by selecting from the drop-down list.  To obtain information on policy changes in particular subsectors, select one of the 12 sector groups from the drop-down list. For example, selecting sector “2 — Communication Services” will provide statistics on policy changes in subsectors “2A — Postal Services”, 2B — Courier Services”, 2C — Telecommunication Services”, “2D — Audiovisual Services”, and “2E — Other”.

Reports will only list those Members on which there is information on policy changes.

To see policy changes corresponding to particular members states of the European Union, please select “European Union” in the drop-down list.

 

2.6 Statistics Module

2.6.1 Search page

After clicking on the 'Statistics' icon on the I-TIP Services portal, the 'search criteria' page appears, and offers the possibility to search across relevant trade in services sectors and related statistics by selecting WTO Member(s) and W/120 services sector(s).

The dropdown lists for the 'Member' or 'Sector' search criteria permit to select one or many Members or/and Sectors.

To view data for total services, select “All sectors” in the 'Sector' search criteria.

The search criteria entered will appear at the bottom of the screen (in yellow).

It is also possible to limit the search to one or many services sectors.  The drop down list for the 'Sector' search criteria permits to select one or many of the 12 W/120 sector groups as well as one or many of the numerous sub-sectors.

Once all desired search criteria have been selected and the user is ready to see the results, press the 'search' icon.

To erase the search criteria entered and start over, press the 'clear' button.

 

2.6.2 Overview of search results

2.6.2.1 Main features

After entering the search criteria and submitting his choice, the user is sent to the 'search results' page. Below, an example of search results for Austria — Business services.

The menu bar at the top of this 'search results ' page consists of the four different modules in the database. The module currently used is highlighted. The same selection remains when the user switches to any other module.

The search criteria entered by the user is depicted below the menu bar. Clicking on 'modify search' sends the user back to the 'selection criteria' page, where new criteria can be entered to perform a new search.

Useful links to the WTO statistical database and Trade and Services profiles can be found in this part of the page, as well as an Excel export tool. The trade and services profiles are shown for the Member selected.

The search result page for the statistics module provides detailed information on four main groups of statistics: trade in services imports/ exports (balance of payments based), foreign affiliates statistics (FATS), other indicators (foreign direct investment (FDI), value added & employment), and services specific indicators. The page also provides information on data sources.

The search results are presented in the form of tables for each group of statistics for each Member and W/120 sector selected.

The users are recommended to check the information icon  to obtain details on the definitions and coverage of the statistics used.

If data are not available at the most detailed level, statistics shown correspond to the nearest aggregate.

The following sub-sections explain the different components of the Statistics module page.


2.6.2.2 Sectoral Classifications in the Statistical Module

When working with the statistical tables on the search results overview page, it is important to understand the sector classification underlying each particular group of statistics.

The W/120 is the services negotiating list which groups together 12 main service sectors sub-divided into a total of some 160 sub sectors.(8) W/120 is mainly used in a WTO context, and it is the common sector classification used in all I-TIP modules. The I-TIP statistical module allows searching by W/120 service sectors and sub-sectors.

The Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification (EBOPS) is primarily a product-based classification used to classify statistics on international trade in services between residents and non-residents (i.e. balance of payments basis). EBOPS is built upon the BPM6 classification of services which identifies 12 main service categories and breaks them down into a list of standard and supplementary components. EBOPS consists of a further breakdown of these components into more detailed sub-items. It is available here.

Although categories based on W/120 and EBOPS classifications are related, a one-to-one correspondence is not always possible.(9)

It is also more difficult to establish correspondence between the two classification systems in the areas which focus on the mode of consumption of goods and services or the status of the transactor, rather than on the type of product consumed, such as travel or construction. For example, EBOPS component SD 'Travel' (and its constituent parts) cannot be fully described in terms of W/120 since travellers may consume a wide range of goods and services.

Statistical tables for Import/Export of services on the I-TIP search result page contain the product categories according to EBOPS classification.

Another classification system, namely the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Revision 3 or 4 (ISIC, Rev.3 or 4)(10) is used for other groups of data presented, such as Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS), Foreign Direct Investment data (FDI) and data on value added  and employment. Unlike EBOPS which classifies trade in services based on service products, ISIC is an activity classification, i.e. all of the data for a given enterprise are classified according to its primary activity, that is, the single activity for which its sales (or another key variable such as employment) are largest. For example, the total output recorded under legal activities refers to the total sales of law firms rather than the actual supply of legal services. Some enterprises which are not classified as law firms also offer legal services as a secondary activity; however this production is not included in legal activities. Further, the output of legal activities might include some of law firms' output resulting from secondary activities, such as, for instance, providing financial advisory services.

This is why this module presents statistics according to the item(s) that most closely correspond to W/120 category selected in statistical classifications. For example, for the trade in services statistics shown (balance of payments basis), the user may be provided with an option to further choose the categories based on the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification (EBOPS 2010) if there is more than one correspondence with the W/120 sector.

Here is an example of a complete item correspondence between W/120 and EBOPS classifications: sub-sector 'Research and development services' of the sector 'Business services' listed in W/120 fully corresponds with 'Research and development' group from EBOPS.

As indicated above, some items of the W/120 correspond to more than one EBOPS categories. The example below demonstrates that the sector 'Real Estate Services' listed in the W/120 corresponds to two EBOPS items 'Operational leasing services' and 'Other business, services n.i.e'. By choosing different EBOPS categories, the user changes only the chart presented on the search result page. The table of imports/exports provide data on both EBOPS categories separately.

 

2.6.2.3 Detailed view of search results

Import/ Export

The data on exports (credits) and imports (debits) of commercial services are broken down into components according to EBOPS which provides a basis for the measurement of trade in services in the conventional sense. For the users' convenience, imports and exports are presented in form of a chart and a table for each Member and sector or sub-sector.(11)

The chart tool enables the users to choose different chart types and shows import/export by trading partners of the Member (if data are available).

The table Import/Export summarizes the trade statistics on selected EBOPS items for a selected Member with possibility of data disaggregation by trading partners. The following statistics are presented in the table: export/import values (in mil. US dollars) for the last three years for which data are available; '% in total services' provides data on the share of the service sector in the member's total trade in commercial services with the partner identified; '% in world' shows the share of partners in the reporter's total trade for the given EBOPS service item; finally, 'Average growth' columns contain data on the average annual growth of the exports/imports over 2005 and growth rates over previous years.

 

Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS)

The international delivery of a number of services requires certain physical proximity between producers and consumers, which can often only be achieved through a commercial presence abroad, i.e. the establishment of foreign affiliates. The framework of Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS) provides for the compilation of a number of indicators on the operations of foreign-controlled enterprises.(12) Data on the operations of both domestic enterprises controlled by foreign investors (inward FATS), and affiliates abroad controlled by residents (outward FATS) are shown. (13) The following indicators describe the operations of foreign affiliates: sales (turnover) and/or output, employment, value added, exports and imports of goods and services, and number of enterprises.

The statistical module presents FATS sales/turnover14 , number of enterprises and number of employees broken down by primary industrial activity of the affiliates. (15)The activity classification for FATS variables is based either on the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Revision 3 or 4 (ISIC Rev.3 or 4).(16) FATS table for Czech Republic, sector 'Business services' listed in W/120 is presented below (in this example corresponding to ISIC Rev.3 categories 'Administrative and support activities', 'Information and communication, and ' Professional, scientific and technical activities'):

When analysing FATS data broken down by activity, one needs to keep in mind that these statistics might give an approximation, but not a precise measure, of the activity itself. It is caused by the fact that FATS include all the enterprises undertaking a selected activity, even those for which this activity is secondary. For example the statistics of a firm specializing on financial services and providing legal services as its secondary activity will be included in FATS for financial intermediation services.

 

Other Indicators

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Statistics

FDI statistics are concerned with international economic relations(17) between direct investors and the enterprises which receive the investment (the direct investment enterprises).(18) They measure financial transactions between them, and related income and investment position. FDI statistics are considered as an important supplementary set of indicators to FATS variables. The population of firms covered by FDI is bigger than that of FATS as the former covers all relationships where a direct investor controls more than 10% of the voting power in a direct investment enterprise (i.e. influence), whereas the latter only covers those which are controlled by more than 50 % (i.e. control). FDI statistics are distinguished between outward and inward FDI.

FDI data can be also presented in terms of positions and transactions. FDI financial transactions refer to those cross-border transactions which qualify as direct investments recorded during the reference period (year, quarter, or month). Negative values in transactions may indicate disinvestment in assets or discharges of liabilities. FDI positions represent the value of the stock of FDI held at the end of the year.

The module provides FDI data on the basis of the economic activity of the direct investment enterprise according to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Revision 3 or 4 (ISIC Rev.3 or 4).(19)Below is an example of the FDI statistics table for Mauritius, for the sector 'Tourism and Travel Related Services' listed in W/120 (in this example corresponding to ISIC Rev.4 category 'Accommodation and food services'):

 

Value Added and Employment

Value added and employment indicators are important statistics reflecting economic activity in particular industries or sectors.(20)

The module provides value added and employment statistics on the basis of the economic activity in accordance with the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Revision 3 or 4 (ISIC Rev.3 or 4).(21) Here is an example of the table 'Value Added and Employment' for Chile, sector 'Financial Services' listed in W/120 (in this example corresponding to ISIC, Rev.3 category 'Financial Intermediation'):

 

Sector-specific indicators

I-TIP Services also proposes a large amount of statistical data specific to different economic sectors. The module presents a selection of sector-specific indicators that are broadly available across Members. These indicators supplement main economic statistics with data unique to each service sector. An example of sector specific indicators for 'Ghana — Communication services' is presented below.

 

2.6.2.4 Additional functions

Export to Excel

Statistical tables from the search results overview page can be exported to Excel by clicking on the relevant icon on the right hand side of the page.

The data will be exported to an Excel file containing the different groups of statistics on separate sheets:

 

Useful links

Links to the WTO statistics database, the service profiles as well as the trade profiles of the Members are located on the right hand side of the result overview page.

 

Information icons

The module contains a number of footnotes presented in the form of information icons. They provide the users with additional information regarding definitions of indicators, sector classification used, data range (year coverage) and availability, as well as relevant precisions.

 

Notes:
1. When accessing information on services commitments in regional trade agreements, users need to keep in mind that the scope and content of services RTAs may differ from GATS in a number of respects, just as the scope and content of services disciplines also differ from one RTA to the other. Back to text
2.Document MTN.GNS/W/120, dated 10 July 1991.  Thereafter referred to as “W/120”. Back to text
3. Document S/L/92, dated 28 March 2001. Back to text
4. These extended negotiations have now concluded, except with respect to maritime transport services. The negotiation of commitments and lists of MFN exemptions in the maritime transport sector is subject to particular conditions as specified in the Decision of the Council for Trade in Services of 3 July 1996 (S/L/24). Back to text
5. If there are no specific commitments to display for the Member(s) and sector(s) selected from the selection criteria page (e.g., “Canada” and “2.D — Audiovisual services”), the results page will indicate “No records to display”. Back to text
6. Other obligations for which reservations can be undertaken include MFN treatment, local presence, senior management and board of directors, and performance requirements. Back to text
7. In contrast, the GATS and RTA contain legal guarantees of a minimum level of treatment that does not necessarily reflect applied policies. Indeed, markets may be more 'open' than what governments are bound to do under international agreements. Back to text
8. Section 2.1.2 'Sectoral Classification' provides information on classifications used in I-TIP Services. Back to text
9. The tables of correspondence between EBOPS and W/120 can be found here. Back to text
10. The fourth revision of ISIC has replaced the third revision of the classification since its official release in August, 2008. However, some Members still report their trade statistics according ISIC, Rev.3. Back to text
11. For more information on data sectoral classifications as well as the detailed explanation of data presentation, please consult the section 'Sectoral classifications in the Statistical Module'. Back to text
12. Foreign-controlled enterprise is defined as the one where a foreign investor (associated group of investors acting in concert is considered as a single investor) owns more than 50 % of voting power. FATS reflect all operations of the affiliates concerned rather than being prorated according to the controlling share of the foreign parent firms. Back to text
13. More information on FATS can be found here. Back to text
14. Although output would be a preferred measure, the module presents the variable sales/turnover as data on foreign affiliates' output are available for a small number of Members. In the few cases where no data on sales/turnover are available, data on output are shown. Information icons provide relevant notes for such cases. Back to text
15. Some Members publish data on products of their foreign affiliates but for the sake of cross-country comparability the statistical module still presents FATS by primary industrial activity. Back to text
16. Section 'Sectoral classifications in the Statistical module' of this user guide provides a more detailed discussion of the classifications used, including ISIC. Back to text
17. For statistical purposes, FDI relationships are defined by the ownership of at least 10% of a foreign enterprise's voting power. Back to text
18. More information on FDI can be found here. Back to text
19. The section 'Sectoral classifications in the Statistical module' of this user guide provides a more detailed discussion of the classifications used, including ISIC. Back to text
20. Value added is the value of output less the value of intermediate consumption. (OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms). Back to text
21. The section 'Sectoral classifications in the Statistical module' of this user guide provides a more detailed discussion of the classifications used, including ISIC.Back to text