Download the texts or PowerPoint slides presented at the workshop. These files are presentations that the speakers have sent to us and authorized us to distribute. Almost all the presentations are here. We are still checking to see if any more presentations can be distributed. They will be posted here when they are made available to us.
> See also final report
> Consult the guide to downloading files.
The 8-11 April 2001 meeting in Høsbjør, Norway, brought together about 80 experts from industrialized and developing countries. It was organized jointly by the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Norwegian Foreign Ministry and the Global Health Council, a broad-based US organization in the healthcare field.
- Sigrun Møgedal, State Secretary of International Development, Norway: Opening statement (MS Word, 2 pages, 27.5KB)(pdf, 14KB)
- Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General, WHO Opening remarks (browse)
- Adrian Otten, WTO Secretariat Introductory remarks (browse)
- Nils Daulaire, President, Global Health Council: Opening statement (MS Word, 2 pages, 27.5KB)(pdf, 7KB)
- Peter Piot, Executive Director, UNAIDS: Opening statement (MS Word, 5 pages, 119KB)(pdf, 51KB)
Session I — Access to Essential Drugs in Low Income Countries: Key Issues back to top
This session examined the range of obstacles to adequate access to essential drugs in developing countries, including issues of financing, pricing, supply, selection and distribution. It, amongst other things, sought to examine the respective importance of the various factors, including the significance of patent protection.
- Patrick Kadama, Government of Uganda: Role of government in healthcare (MS Word, 4 pages, 37.5KB)(pdf, 19KB)
- Richard Laing, Boston University: Health and Pharmacy systems in developing countries (MS Word, 10 pages, 479KB)(pdf, 1,574KB)
- Harvey Bale, IFPMA: Access to Essential Drugs in Poor Countries — Key Issues: The Industry Perspective (MS Word, 6 pages, 37KB)(pdf, 22KB)
- Jonathan Quick, WHO: Ensuring access to essential drugs — framework for action (MS PowerPoint, 20 pages, 848KB)(pdf, 156KB)
Session II — The Role of Financing in Ensuring Access to Essential Drugs back to top
This session considered the financing needs for ensuring adequate access to essential drugs in developing countries, even in an environment of differential pricing, and how such financing can be mobilized.
- Suwit Wibulpolprasert, Government of Thailand: Mobilization of Domestic Resources for Essential Drugs in Developing Countries: Case-study from Thailand (MS Word, 9 pages, 368KB)(pdf, 1,239KB)
- Paulo Teixeira, Government of Brazil: Brazilian ARV access program: major aspects (MS PowerPoint, 8 pages, 61KB)(pdf, 33KB)
- Lieve Fransen, European Commission: The Role of Financing in Ensuring Access to Essential Drugs (MS Word, 4 pages, 72KB)(pdf, 21KB)
- Francoise Varet, Government of France: External assistance and pharmaceutical financing (MS Word, 4 pages, 41.5KB)(pdf,13KB)
Session III — Differential Pricing: Concepts and Issues back to top
This session sought to identify key issues that need to be explored in regard to differential pricing of essential drugs, whether patented or generic, and to examine what economic analysis can tell us about whether, and under what conditions, differential pricing can be a win-win policy and to what extent there could be losers.
- Patricia Danzon, University of Pennsylvania: Differential Pricing: Reconciling R&D, IP and Access (MS PowerPoint, 14 pages, 51KB) (pdf, 42KB)
- F.M.Scherer, Harvard University: The economics of parallel trade in pharmaceutical products (MS Word, 4 pages, 34KB)(pdf, 13KB)
- Heinz Redwood, Industry Consultant: Advantages and risks of differential pricing for prescription drugs (MS Word, 5 pages, 37KB)(pdf, 18KB)
- Gunther Faber, GlaxoSmithKline: Presentation (MS Word, 3 pages, 27KB)(pdf, 13KB)
- Ellen ‘t Hoen, Médecins Sans Frontières: Affordable Medicines for Developing Countries — text (MS Word, 17 pages, 90KB)(pdf, 7KB) and slides (MS PowerPoint, 21 pages, 47KB)(pdf, 1578KB)
Session IV — Current Experience with Differential Pricing back to top
The purpose of this session was to examine to what extent differential pricing occurs already and what can be learnt from this experience, for example in regard to techniques for ensuring market segmentation and managing reactions in industrial countries.
- Jacques-François Martin, Global Fund for Childrens’ Vaccines: Tiered Prices (or Differentiated Prices or Market Segmentation) text (MS Word, 18 pages, 120KB)(pdf, 470KB) and slides (MS PowerPoint, 18 pages, 120KB)(pdf, 469KB)
- Christian Saunders, UNFPA: UNFPA’s Experience With Contraceptives (MS PowerPoint, 24 pages, 193KB)(pdf, 1,057KB)
- Cecile Miles, Ranbaxy, India: Experience with Generic Drugs (MS PowerPoint, 13 pages, 69KB)(pdf, 47KB)
- Dorothy Ochola, Uganda HIV/AIDS Drugs Access Initiative: Current experience with differential pricing of HIV/AIDS related drugs in Uganda (MS PowerPoint, 18 pages, 120KB)(pdf, 48KB)
- John Wecker, Boehringer-Ingelheim: Current Experience with Differential Pricing: Accelerating Access Initiative and the Viramune(R) Donation Program (MS Word, 4 pages, 30.5KB)(pdf, 14KB)
- Dr. Maria Neira, WHO: Experience with access to essential medicines for tropical diseases (MS Word, 3 pages, 29KB)(pdf, 22KB)
- Jeffrey Sturchio, Merck: The Case of Ivermectin: Lessons Learned and Implications for Improving Access to Care and Treatment in Developing Countries (MS Word, 5 pages, 35.5KB)(pdf, 21KB)
- Chuck Hardwick, Pfizer: Access to Medicines in the Developing World Through Partnerships (MS Word, 8 pages, 31KB)(pdf, 16KB)
Session V — Market Segmentation: Techniques, Actors and Incentives back to top
This session sought to examine the different ways in which the segmentation of markets necessary for differential pricing can be made effective, taking into account the need to ensure consistency with WTO and other international trade rules. Also considered were the extent to which competition law puts constraints on the use of market segmentation techniques.
Marketing strategies by manufacturers and contractual approaches
- Albert Itschner, Novartis: Market segmentation and price differentiation: a novel approach (MS Word, 4 pages, 31.5KB)(pdf, 17KB)
- Keith McCollough, Vuna Healthcare Logistics: Purchase undertakings (MS PowerPoint, 11 pages, 956KB) (pdf, 234KB)
- Clifford Wong, Medimpact Healthcare Systems, Inc: Differential Pricing Impact On Drug Costs To A Purchaser: Effectiveness of "Ex Post Reimbursement" Strategies (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 52KB)(pdf, 535KB)
- Guy Woods, Lacuna Research Ltd: Governmental Measures: Role of regulatory authorities (MS Word, 6 pages, 47KB)(pdf, 23KB)
- John Bisonga, Customs & Excise, Government of Kenya: Export controls (MS Word, 7 pages, 45KB)(pdf, 325KB)
The use of intellectual property rights
- Richard Wilder (Powell, Goldstein, Frazer & Murphy): The Value of Intellectual Property Rights (MS Word, 8 pages, 57KB) (pdf, 29KB)
- Carlos Correa, University of Buenos Aires: Intellectual Property Rights and the Exhaustion Principle (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 43.5KB)(pdf, 29KB)
Competition policy considerations
- Harvey Applebaum, Covington & Burling : Antitrust/Competition Law Considerations and Trade Law Considerations (MS Word, 3 pages, 32.5KB)(pdf, 12KB)
- Alberto Heimler (Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato, Italy): The pharmaceutical industry and parallel trade (MS Word, 6 pages, 95.5KB)(pdf, 22KB)
This session considered the perspectives of purchasers in high and low income markets and consider their influence on the price of essential drugs. It asked whether differential pricing for low income countries will put downward pressure on prices in industrialized countries even with market segmentation. It considered existing and potential fiscal and other incentives for companies to implement differential pricing.
- Pascal Hessou, ACAME: Joint Bulk Purchasing of Essential Drugs (MS Word, 5 pages, 32KB)(pdf, 17KB)
- Hanne Bak Pedersen, UNICEF: Equity Access to Life-saving Products (MS Word, 4 pages, 26KB)(pdf, 14KB)
- Malaya Harper (Department for International Development, UK): UK Policy considerations on increasing access to medicines for the poor in developing countries (MS PowerPoint, 8 pages, 62.5KB)(pdf, 34KB)
- K.Balasubramaniam, Consumers’ International: Equitable Pricing, Affordability and Access to Essential Drugs in Developing Countries: Consumers Perspective (MS Word, 12 pages, 58KB)(pdf, 41KB)
- Ed Schoonveld, Cambridge Pharma: Market segmentation and international price referencing (MS Word, 8 pages, 426KB)(pdf, 80KB)
Session VII — Perspectives on Financing and Differential Pricing back to top
This session provided an opportunity for a range of views on the issues under discussion in the Workshop to be provided from different perspectives, and for general discussion of these matters. Among the questions considered were how to deal with problems of the political acceptability in developed country markets of lower prices in developing countries.
- David Henry, Newcastle University, Australia: Levelling the playing field: Using evidence to determine ‘fair’ drug prices (MS PowerPoint, 18 pages, 123KB)(pdf, 30KB)
- Seth Berkley, IAVI: Accelerating the global effort to create an AIDS vaccine: IP issues for future global public goods products (MS PowerPoint, 39 pages, 1.96MB)(pdf, 259KB)
- Jamie Love, Consumer Project for Technology: Policies that ensure access to medicine, and promote innovation, with special attention to issues concerning the impact of parallel trade on the competitive sector, and a trade framework to support global R&D on new health care inventions (MS Word, 8 pages, 93KB) (pdf, 29KB) and tables (MS Word, 17 pages, 55KB)(pdf, 37KB)
- Mabel Torongo, International Pharmacy Federation: A pharmacy professional perspective (MS Word, 2 pages, 22.5KB)(pdf, 6KB)
- Bill Haddad, Cipla, India: Back to the future (MS Word, 6 pages, 42KB)(pdf, 23KB)
- Paul Vandoren, European Commission: Financing And Differential Pricing: A Developed Country Government Perspective (MS Word, 14 pages, 43KB)(pdf, 27KB)
- Desmond Johns, Government of South Africa: A developing country perspective (MS Word, 5 pages, 33.5KB)(pdf, 19KB)
- Adrian Otten, WTO Secretariat closing remarks (browse)
- Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General, WHO closing remarks (browse)