you for the invitation to speak and share some thoughts.
millennium subject is globalization. I wish that word had
never been invented. The word conjures up a vision of an
uncaring, unrepresentative future where ordinary people ,
Parliaments, cultures and Nations lose their character,
power and sovereignty. In the absence of an
"ism" to hate and to march against, globalism
has become the target. Globalization is a process, an
idea not an ideology. But every great lie has within a
germ of truth. There is injustice, the world is unequal
and we are faced with unequalled opportunity and
challenges. These must be answered.
speak to you today as Director-General of the World Trade
Organization or as so much of my correspondence accuses,
The World Terrorist Organization.
sought the job as Director-General of the World Trade
Organization because I believed, and still do, that open
societies do better. Where peoples and nations enjoy each
other's culture and music, ideas and commerce they do
better. Open societies always tend to have better human,
environmental, and labour rights. Those nations that
trade, enjoy each other's company and companies have
better results. That is the lesson of history. In Europe
you have two visions: one a united Europe, a Union where
people do respect each other and see the benefits of
exchange; and then the tribal hatred that is the Balkans,
the mirror opposite. I believe that we are all brothers
and sisters, born in the image of God, thus created
equal. We are equal, but not the same. Trade and business
is only one aspect of the interchanges and the civilising
effect of cooperation. Moreover, trade and increasing
interdependence among nations is nothing now. Neither is
the exchange of ideas and the movement of peoples across
one of the first multinational institutions was the
Church. Faith knows no boundaries. Faith has withstood
nationalism, persecution, empires and ideologies. It is
will be no lasting peace unless there is peace and
co-existence between religions. There have been those who
predicted the death of history, that there will be one
global community. This is not so. Yet there is so much in
common among religions and faiths that should make this
task easier. All the great religions and great
civilizations have at their heart, a core message of
human unity. Can I quote from Hans Küng's book "A
Global Ethic for Global Politics and Economics"
where he writes of the Golden Rule of Humanity?
I mean by this can be demonstrated relatively simply by
means of that Golden Rule of humanity which we find in
all the great religious and ethical tradition. Here are
some of its formulations:
Confucius (C.551-486 BCE): 'What you yourself do not
want, do not do to another person" (Analects 15.23).
Rabbi Hillel (60 BC-10CE): 'Do not do to others what you
would not want them to do to you' (Shabbat 31a).
Jesus of Nazareth: 'Whatever you want people to do to
you, do also to them' (Matt. 7.12; Luke 6.31).
Islam: 'None of you is a believer as long as he does not
wish his brother what he wishes himself' (Forty Hadith of
Jainism: 'Human beings should be indifferent to worldly
things and treat all creatures in the world as they would
want to be treated themselves' (Sutrakritanga I, II, 33).
Buddhism: 'A state which is not pleasant or enjoyable for
me will also not be so for him; and how can I impose on
another a state which is not pleasant or enjoyable for
me?' (Samyutta Nikaya V, 353, 35-342, 2).
Hinduism: 'One should not behave towards others in a way
which is unpleasant for oneself: that is the essence of
morality' (Mahabharata XIII, 114, 8).
one thinks globalization can be stopped or should be. But
there are dangers and fears that need to be addressed.
Celebrating a non-result in Seattle is as useful as
suggesting Europe ought not to enlarge or China engage.
is anxiety because there is unfairness, not everyone is
getting a fair opportunity. Alas they never have, this
has been true of the other great economic and social
upheavals. As we shifted from hunter-gatherers to an
agricultural, feudal and then industrial society, we are
now moving into a post-industrial society, the
information age. Now as then these great upheavals cause
social dislocations. Be they Kings or Popes in the past
or politicians now, leaders are blamed for not preserving
the present. Yesterday always looks better.
a speech celebrating the 50th anniversary of
the United Nations Pope John Paul II put it most
the threshold of a new millennium we are witnessing
an extraordinary global acceleration of that quest
for freedom which is one of the great dynamics of
human history. This phenomenon is not limited to any
one part of the world; nor is it the expression of
any single culture. Men and woman throughout the
world, even when threatened with violence, have taken
the risk of freedom, asking to be given a place in
social, political, and economic life which is
commensurate with their dignity as free human beings.
This universal longing for freedom is truly one of
the distinguishing marks of our time.'
great change in history causes resentment and breeds fear
and causes anxiety. You could mount a case, indeed some
of our critics do, that the motorcar is lethal, pollutes,
kills and divides communities. But it's not about banning
the motorcar, we cannot uninvent the combustion engine!
It's about road rules, road rage and better managing and
sharing more equally the costs and advantages.
is also true of the impact of globalization,
technological change and the WTO and its sister
that the dust has started to settle after the turmoil of
Seattle, perhaps we should revisit what the multilateral
trading system means to us and to the people of the 135
other countries who are part of the WTO, and Governments
representing some 1.5 billion people who want to join.
Perhaps they did not dominate the headlines, as did the
30,000 outside protesting, but aren't their concerns
ought to get back to core principles and values, restate
our case. We all realize that no nation can now enjoy
clean water, air, manage an airline, even organize a tax
system or hope to contain or cure AIDS or cancer without
the cooperation of others. Thus we must seek democratic
internationalism and cooperation if we are to prosper and
enjoy balanced development on our crowded planet.
the Berlin wall came down, when Nelson Mandela was freed,
and when freedom has flourished elsewhere, the world
celebrated. We celebrated the universal values of
political and economic freedom. No one shouted, cursed
and swore about the evils of globalization or common
mother with a sick child wants the best the world has to
offer from science, no one wants the old technology when
they go to the dentist. They don't complain then about
global or universal values.
yet, at a time when the world is more integrated than
ever, where technology brings us all within reach of each
other and offers unprecedented opportunities for
communication, increased cooperation and solidarity,
there is a growing sense of unease at the impact of this
globalized world on people's lives.
have some empathy with some of those who protest in the
streets of Seattle, New Delhi or Auckland about change
and the WTO. People around the world are right when they
say they want a safer, cleaner more healthy planet. They
are correct when they call for an end to poverty, more
social justice, better living standards. But they are
wrong to blame the WTO for all the world's problems. They
are especially wrong when they say we are not a
democratic house. We are owned by Governments who
represent hundreds of millions of voters. The Indian
Ambassador is appointed by his Government, his government
is answerable to Parliament. Parliament and congresses
and governments must ratify our agreements. Thats
how it should be. How do we manage? History tells us
democracy and freedom is not just a moral imperative. It
makes better economic sense. Gets the best results.
is a perceived loss of identity and ownership given the
new economic age. A democratic deficit. Our mission must
be to ensure that people and Parliaments own us, that the
people are the masters of globalization and not the
servants. Thus the active understanding, engagement and
ownership of the great institutions like the WTO by
Sovereign Governments and its people is necessary if we
are to have any moral authority. That's how it is. That's
how it should be. The challenge to policy-makers is how
we can achieve this. I have some ideas and will be
working with the Heads of other institutions, Ministers
and Ambassadors to help correct this democratic deficit.
That deficit is so deep that almost one quarter of the
Members of the WTO cannot afford representation in
Geneva. We have organized the first ever seminars for
non-resident Ambassadors. We are working on some creative
ways of advancing and facilitating their involvement;
new century poses enormous challenges. Within 25 years
over 3 billion people will be added to the global
population. Urban populations will treble over the next
30 years. By the year 2020, two-thirds of Africa's
population will live in cities. Over the next 30 years
food production will have to double. The World Bank
reports that 2 billion people will suffer from chronic
water shortages within 30 years. Half the world's
population lives on under US$2 per day.
is brave enough to say that our political structures,
that the international institutions you own such as the
WTO, the UN, the IMF, the World Bank, are equipped to
serve the people and their Governments to meet these
about coherence between the institutions must become a
working reality. We must adapt and be bold enough to look
at ourselves and how we can collectively do a better job.
me it's a simple proposition. The first half of this
century was marked by force and coercion. Our new century
ought to be one marked by persuasion and cooperation. Of
States settling their differences through that great
equaliser, the law. Of a binding disputes mechanism, to
settle differences, of engagement and interdependence.
come from a small country. I see interdependence, and
treaties and the great global institutions as guarantors
of our sovereignty and safety. I recall a splendid
comment of Julius Nyerere, of Tanzania, who claimed that
as each village's wealth once depended on its neighbour's
ability to purchase, this is now true of nations. Our
parents learnt from the great depression, made deeper and
more lethal by rising trade barriers from which came the
twin tyrannies of our age, fascism and Marxism, thus war;
hot and cold. Economists and historians have costed the
hot wars. We know of the casualties. We are still
carrying the cost of the cold war. Our global
institutions do not yet reflect the new reality born of
the post cold war era and the post industrial age where
knowledge not coal is king.
our parents had a profound and compelling vision, because
they saw economic and political integration as assisting
in uniting nations and promoting development and peace.
created an international architecture which included the
UN, IMF, World Bank, and the GATT, now the WTO, to
achieve that peaceful purpose and noble vision. In the
main it's worked. Far from perfect. But the world would
be a less safe place without them. The WTO is NOT the
GATT. We now have more countries in the much criticized
"green rooms" than we had as original members.
We endure a culture in Geneva based on an old
organization of 30 Members when we now have over 130. And
20plus more want to join.
why we must change how the WTO operates, we are driven by
our Members, owned by them. So I will be calling Member
Governments for advice, even giving some, to increase
transparency and efficiency, to ensure that national
governments and their parliaments must have a greater
involvement and ownership.
century offers us the opportunity to achieve much. The
last 50 years have seen Empires shrink, democracy rise,
freedoms grow, and living standards lift in most
continents and countries. Not all. I'm full of confidence
because I have an abiding, unshakeable confidence in the
people who, given freedom, will do the right thing by
their families and nations. Too much is at stake for us
to falter, be timid or to fail.
we address the issues of managing globalization, we could
do a lot worse than heeding the words of the great
Mahatma Gandhi who warned of the SEVEN deadly sins in
without sacrifice and