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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE

Agreement on Agriculture

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> Preamble
> Article 1
> Article 2 and Annex 1
> Article 3
> Article 4
> Article 5
> Article 6
> Article 7
> Article 8
> Article 9
> Article 10
> Article 11
> Article 12
> Article 13
> Article 14
> Article 15
> Article 16
> Article 17
> Article 18
> Article 19
> Article 20
> Article 21
> Annex 1
> Annex 2
> Annex 3
> Annex 4
> Annex 5
> Relationship with other WTO Agreements
> Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries (The “NFIDC Decision”)

 

> Analytical Index main page


Table of contents     back to top

I. Preamble     back to top

A. Text of the Preamble
B. Interpretation and Application of the Preamble


II. Article 1     back to top

A. Text of Article 1
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 1

1. Article 1(a)(ii)

(a) AMS

(b) “support”

(c) Article 1(c)

2. Article 1(e)

(a) “subsidies”

(b) “contingent upon export performance”

3. Article 1(h)


III. Article 2 and Annex 1     back to top

A. Text of Article 2
B. Text of Annex 1
C. Interpretation and Application of Article 2 and Annex 1


IV. Article 3     back to top

A. Text of Article 3
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 3

1. Article 3.1

2. Article 3.2

3. Article 3.3


V. Article 4     back to top

A. Text of Article 4
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 4

1. General

(a) Purpose of Article 4

(b) Notification requirements

2. Article 4.1

3. Article 4.2

(a) “any measures which have been required to be converted into ordinary customs duties”

(i) Interpretation

(ii) “converted”

(iii) “ordinary customs duties”

(iv) Timing of the obligation

(b) Relation with Article XI of GATT and its Ad Note

(c) Special treatment

4. Footnote 1 to Article 4.2

(a) “quantitative import restrictions”

(b) “variable import levies”

(c) “minimum import prices”

(d) “discretionary import licensing”

(e) “similar border measures”

(i) Concept of similarity

(ii) Relevance of tariff caps in the similarity analysis

(iii) Common features of border measures

(f) “other than ordinary customs duties”

(g) Exceptions in Footnote 1

(h) Relation with Article 4.2

5. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) GATT 1994


VI. Article 5     back to top

A. Text of Article 5
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 5

1. Article 5.1(b)

2. Article 5.5

3. Article 5.7

(a) Notification requirements

4. Relation of Article 5 with other articles


VII. Article 6     back to top

A. Text of Article 6
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 6

1. Notification requirements

2. Article 6.2

3. Article 6.3


VIII. Article 7     back to top

A. Text of Article 7
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 7

1. Paragraph 2

2. Relationship with Annex 2


IX. Article 8     back to top

A. Text of Article 8
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 8

1. Waivers from export subsidy commitments


X. Article 9     back to top

A. Text of Article 9
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 9

1. General

(a) Notification requirements

2. Article 9.1(a)

(a) “direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind”

(b) “governments or their agencies”

(c) “contingent on export performance”

3. Article 9.1(c)

(a) “payments”

(i) A payment includes a payment-in-kind

(ii) Cross-subsidization as a payment

(iii) Benchmark to be applied when assessing payments

(b) “financed by virtue of governmental action”

(i) Meaning of governmental action

(ii) Meaning of “financed”

(iii) Link between governmental action and the financing of payments

4. Article 9.1(d)

(a) “costs of marketing”

5. Article 9.2


XI. Article 10     back to top

A. Text of Article 10
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 10

1. Article 10.1

(a) Export subsidy commitments

(b) “export subsidies not listed in paragraph 1 of Article 9”

(c) “applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to circumvention”

(i) Threat of circumvention

(ii) Relevance of a measure’s structure and characteristics in respect of “threat of circumvention”

(iii) Difference in nature of “circumvention” in respect of scheduled and unscheduled products

2. Article 10.2

(a) Work in the WTO on development of disciplines on export credits pursuant to Article 10.2

(b) Application of Article 10.1 to export credit guarantees, export credits or insurance programmes

3. Article 10.3

(a) Partial reversal of burden of proof

(b) Limitation in scope to scheduled products

4. Article 10.4: International food aid

(a) Relationship between Articles 10.4 and 10.1

(b) International food aid


XII. Article 11     back to top

A. Text of Article 11
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 11


XIII. Article 12     back to top

A. Text of Article 12
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 12

1. Notification requirements


XIV. Article 13     back to top

A. Text of Article 13
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 13

1. General

2. Paragraph (a)

3. Paragraph (b)

(a) Subparagraph (i)

(i) Order of analysis

(ii) “injury or threat thereof”

(iii) “due restraint”

(iv) Scope

(b) Subparagraph (ii)

(i) “exempt from actions”

(ii) “grant”

(iii) “provided that such measures do not grant support to a specific commodity”

(iv) “that decided during the 1992 marketing year”

(c) Relationship with Annex 3 to the Agreement on Agriculture

4. Paragraph (c)


XV. Article 14     back to top

A. Text of Article 14
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 14


XVI. Article 15     back to top

A. Text of Article 15
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 15


XVII. Article 16     back to top

A. Text of Article 16
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 16

1. Article 16.1

(a) Text of the Decision

(b) Recommendations of the Singapore Ministerial Conference

(c) Recommendations approved at the Doha Ministerial Conference

(d) List of least-developed and net food-importing developing countries

2. Article 16.2

(a) General

(b) Notification requirements

(c) Opportunities for consultation

(d) Effectiveness


XVIII. Article 17     back to top

A. Text of Article 17
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 17

1. Committee on Agriculture

(a) Terms of reference

(b) Rules of procedure

(c) Activities


XIX. Article 18     back to top

A. Text of Article 18
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 18

1. Article 18.2

(a) Review procedures

(i) General

(b) Notification and transparency

(i) General

(ii) Information systems on agriculture notifications

(iii) Developing countries

2. Article 18.5

(a) Annual consultations: Members’ participation in the normal growth of world agricultural trade

3. Article 18.6

(a) Article 18.7: counter notifications


XX. Article 19     back to top

A. Text of Article 19
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 19

1. Articles of the Agreement on Agriculture invoked in panel and Appellate Body proceedings


XXI. Article 20     back to top

A. Text of Article 20
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 20

1. Decision of the Singapore Ministerial Conference

2. Decision to launch negotiations on agriculture

3. “What further commitments are necessary …”


XXII. Article 21     back to top

A. Text of Article 21
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 21

1. Relationship between the Agreement and Schedule concessions and commitments

2. Relationship between the Agreement and the SCM Agreement


XXIII. Annex 1     back to top


XXIV. Annex 2     back to top

A. Text of Annex 2
B. Interpretation and Application of Annex 2

1. Paragraph 6 of Annex 2

(a) Subparagraph (b)

(b) Subparagraph (e)

(c) Relationship with other Articles

(i) Paragraph 11 of Annex 2


XXV. Annex 3     back to top

A. Text of Annex 3
B. Interpretation and Application of Annex 3

1. General

2. Paragraph 7

3. Paragraph 8


XXVI. Annex 4     back to top

A. Text of Annex 4
B. Interpretation and Application of Annex 4


XXVII. Annex 5     back to top

A. Text of Annex 5
B. Interpretation and Application of Annex 5

1. Exemptions from Article 4.2 by virtue of Annex 5

2. Price gap methodology for calculating tariff equivalents provided for in the Attachment to Annex 5


XXVIII. Relationship with other WTO Agreements     back to top

A. SCM Agreement


XXIX. Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries (The “NFIDC Decision”)     back to top

A. Text of the Decision
B. Interpretation and Application of the Decision

1. General

2. Paragraph 3

(a) Paragraphs 3(i) and (ii)

(i) Extension of the Food Aid Convention

(b) Paragraph 3(iii)

3. Paragraph 4

4. Paragraph 5

(a) The Inter-Agency Panel

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