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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: GATT 1994

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

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> Language Incorporating GATT 1947 and other Instruments into GATT 1994
> Preamble
> Article I
> Article II
> Article III
> Article IV
> Article V
> Article VI
> Article VII
> Article VIII
> Article IX
> Article X
> Article XI
> Article XII
> Article XIII
> Article XIV
> Article XV
> Article XVI
> Article XVII
> Article XVIII
> Article XIX
> Article XX
> Article XXI
> Article XXII
> Article XXIII
> Article XXIV
> Article XXV
> Article XXVI
> Article XXVII
> Article XXVIII
> Article XXVIII bis
> Article XXIX
> Article XXX
> Article XXXI
> Article XXXII
> Article XXXIII
> Article XXXIV
> Article XXXV
> Article XXXVI
> Article XXXVII
> Article XXXVIII
> Table of Regional Trade Agreements Notified to the GATT/WTO and in Force, as of 30 September 2011

 

> Analytical Index main page


Table of contents    back to top

I.  Language Incorporating GATT 1947 and Other Instruments Into GATT 1994    back to top

A. Text of the Language Incorporating GATT 1947 and Other Instruments into GATT 1994
B. Interpretation and Application of the Language Incorporating GATT 1947 and Other Instruments into GATT 1994

1. General

2. Paragraph 1

(a) Paragraph 1(a): “the provisions in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 30 October 1947 … as rectified, modified or amended …”
(b) Paragraph 1(b): Legal instruments under the GATT 1947

(i) “protocols and certifications relating to tariff concessions”
(ii) “protocols of accession”
(iii) “decisions on waivers granted under GATT 1947 and still in force …”
(iv) Item (iv) — “other decisions of the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947”

(c) Relationship with Article XVI:1 of the WTO Agreement

3. Paragraph 2

(a) Allocation of functions of the CONTRACTING PARTIES acting jointly

(b) Authentic texts of GATT 1994

4. Paragraph 3


II. Preamble     back to top

A. Text of the Preamble
B.
Interpretation and Application of the Preamble

1. Second recital

2. Third recital

3. GATT practice


III. Article I
     back to top

A. Text of Article I
B. Text of Notes Ad Article I
C. Interpretation and Application of Article I

1. Article I:1

(a) General

(i) Object and purpose
(ii) Application to de facto discrimination
(iii) Order of examination

(b) “All rules and formalities in connection with importation or exportation”

(c) “all matters referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article III”

(d) “Any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by any Member”

(i) General
(ii) Allocation of tariff quotas
(iii) Flexibility in import procedures
(iv) Access to certification procedures
(v) GATT practice

(e) “like products”

(f) “any product originating in or destined for any other country”

(g) “shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally”

(i) General

2. Articles I:2 and I:4: historical preferences

3. Exceptions and derogations to the MFN principle

(a) Enabling Clause

(i) Text and adoption of the Enabling Clause
(ii) Notification, consultation and transparency for preferential measures
(iii) Regional trade agreements (RTAs) notified under the Enabling Clause
(iv) Special treatment of the least-developed countries
(v) Interpretation

(b) Anti-dumping and countervailing duties

(c) Frontier traffic, customs unions and free trade areas

(d) Waivers of Article I:1

(i) Waiver on Preferential Tariff Treatment for Least-Developed Countries
(ii) Decision on duty-free and quota-free market access for least-developed countries
(iii) Other waivers of Article I:1

4. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article III

(b) Article VI

(c) Article XI

(d) Article XIII

(e) Article XXIV

(f) Article XXVIII

5. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) SCM Agreement


 IV. Article II
     back to top

A. Text of Article II
B. Text of Note Ad Article II
C. Understanding on Interpretation of Article II .1(B) of the GATT 1994
D. Interpretation and Application of Article II

1. Article II:1: Interpretation of tariff concessions

(a) General

(b) Applicable interpretative rules

(c) Ordinary meaning and factual context

(d) Context for tariff concessions including Harmonized System

(e) Subsequent practice

(f) Circumstances of conclusion

(g) Relevance of “legitimate expectations”

2. Article II:1(a): “treatment no less favourable than that provided for in the appropriate Part of the appropriate Schedule”

(a) “treatment no less favourable”

(b) “Treatment”: Schedule concessions other than duties on importation

(i) Non-tariff concessions
(ii) Export duties and taxes

3. Article II:1(b)

(a) Duties or charges under Article II:1(b)

(b) “subject to the terms, conditions or qualifications set forth in that Schedule”

(c) “ordinary customs duties”

(d) “in excess of”

(e) “other duties or charges” (ODCs)

(i) General
(ii) Import surcharges
(iii) Foreign exchange fees
(iv) Recording of “other duties and charges” pursuant to the Understanding on Article II.1(b)

(f) “date of this Agreement” (Article II:1(b), II:1(c), II:6(a))

(g) Relationship between paragraphs 1(b) and 2(a)

4. Article II:2

(a) Article II:2(a): “a charge equivalent to an internal tax imposed consistently with paragraph 2 of Article III”

(b) Article II:2(b)

5. Article II:5

6. Article II:7

7. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) General

(b) Article III

(c) Article XIII

(d) Article XVII

8. Exceptions and derogations from Article II

(a) Waivers

(b) Price-based measures taken for balance of payments purposes

9. Relationship with other WTO agreements

(a) Agreement on Agriculture

(b) Licensing Agreement

E. Schedules of Concessions

1. Schedules to GATT 1994

2. Consolidated Loose-Leaf Schedules and Market Access Databases

(a) Consolidated Loose-Leaf Schedules and Consolidated Tariff Schedule (CTS) Data Base

(b) Integrated Data Base (IDB) Project

(c) Dissemination and access to CTS Database, IDB and other tariff data

3. Implementation in WTO Schedules of HS changes

F. Tariff Initiatives in the WTO

1. Ministerial Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products

2. Other sectoral initiatives


V. Article III
     back to top

A. Text of Article III
B. Text of Note Ad Article III
C. Interpretation and Application of Article III

1. General

(a) Purpose of Article III

(i) Avoidance of protectionism in the application of internal measures
(ii) Protection of tariff commitments under Article III/Relevance of tariff concessions
(iii) Comparison with competition law
(iv) GATT practice

(b) Scope of application — measures imposed at the time or point of importation

(ii) State trading enterprises
(iii) GATT practice

(c) Relevance of policy purpose of internal measures / “aims-and-effects” test

(d) Relevance of trade effects

(e) State trading monopolies

2. Article III:1

(a) Relationship between paragraph 1 and paragraphs 2, 4 and 5

3. Article III:2

(a) General

(i) General distinction between first and second sentences
(ii) Relationship with paragraph 1
(iii) Legal status of Note Ad Article III:2

(b) Article III:2, first sentence

(i) General
(ii) “like domestic products”
(iii) “internal tax or other internal charge of any kind”
(iv) “in excess of those applied”
(v) “directly or indirectly”

(c) Article III:2, second sentence

(i) General
(ii) “directly competitive or substitutable products”
(iii) “not similarly taxed”
(iv) “so as to afford protection to domestic production”

4. Article III:4

(a) General

(i) Test under paragraph 4
(ii) Burden of proof
(iii) Relationship with other paragraphs of Article III

(b) “like products”

(i) Relevant factors
(ii) GATT practice

(c) “laws, regulations or requirements”

(i) Differences from “measures” under Article XXIII:1(b)
(ii) Non-mandatory measures
(iii) Action of private parties
(iv) The term “requirement”
(v) GATT practice

(d) “affecting the internal sale, offering for sale, purchase”

(i) Scope of “affecting”
(ii) Application of “affecting”
(iii) GATT practice

(e) “treatment no less favourable”

(i) General
(ii) Methodology of comparison

(f) Relationship with other GATT provisions

(i) Article III:8
(ii) Article XX
(iii) Article XXIII:1(b)
(iv) GATT practice

5. Article III:8

(a) Item (b)

(i) “the payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers”
(ii) GATT practice

6. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article I

(b) Article II

(c) Article VI

(d) Article XI

(e) Article XVII

7. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) General

(b) SPS Agreement

(c) TBT Agreement

(d) SCM Agreement

(e) TRIMs Agreement

(f) GATS


VI. Article IV
     back to top

A. Text of Article IV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article IV


VII. Article V     back to top

A. Text of Article V
B. Text of Note Ad Article V
C. Interpretation and Application of Article V

1. General

(a) “traffic in transit”

2. Article V:2

(a) “There shall be freedom of transit”

(b) “No distinction shall be made”

3. Article V:5

4. Article V:6

(a) Scope of paragraph 6

(b) Obligations under paragraph 6

(c) “date of this Agreement”

5. Relationship with other GATT provisions

6. GATT practice


VIII. Article VI     back to top

A. Text of Article VI
B. Text of Note Ad Article VI
C. Interpretation and Application of Article VI

1. Scope and applicability of Article VI

(a) Subject matter applicability

(b) Temporal applicability

2. Article VI:1

(a) Definitional nature and elements of paragraph 1

(b) Irrelevance of “intent” in determining dumping

3. Note 2 Ad Article VI:1

4. Article VI:2

(a) “a contracting party may levy … an antidumping duty”: Permissible responses to dumping

(b) Methodology of investigation

(i) No obligation to choose a particular methodology
(ii) Price comparisons and zeroing

5. Article VI:3

(a) Relationship between Paragraph 3 and the SCM Agreement

(b) Permissible responses to subsidization

(c) Calculation of subsidies

6. Note 1 Ad Article VI:2–3

7. Article VI:4

8. Article VI:5

9. Article VI:6

(a) Article VI:6(a): material injury

(b) Article VI:6(b) and (c): Anti-dumping and countervailing duties based on material injury to the industry in a third country

10. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article I

(b) Article II

(c) Article III

(d) Article XI

11. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) Anti-Dumping Agreement

(b) SCM Agreement


IX. Article VII     back to top

A. Text of Article VII
B. Text of Note Ad Article VII
C. Interpretation and Application of Article VII


X. Article VIII     back to top

A. Text of Article VIII
B. Text of Note Ad Article VIII
C. Interpretation and Application of Article VIII

1. Article VIII:1(a)

2. GATT practice

3. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article II:1(b) and recording of changes in Schedules pursuant to Understanding on Article II:1(b)

4. Relationship with other WTO Agreements


XI. Article IX     back to top

A. Text of Article IX
B. Interpretation and Application of Article IX


XII. Article X     back to top

A. Text of Article X
B. Interpretation and Application of Article X

1. General

2. Article X:1

(a) “Laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings”

(b) “of general application”

(c) “made effective”

(d) “pertaining to the classification … of products for customs purposes, or to requirements … on imports or exports or on the transfer of payments therefor, or affecting their sale, distribution … or other use”

(e) “shall be published”

(f) “promptly”

(g) “in such a manner as to enable governments and traders to become acquainted with them”: website publication

(h) “confidential information”

(i) GATT practice

3. Article X:2

(a) General

(b) “measure of general application”

(c) “effecting an advance in a rate of duty or other charge on imports under an established and uniform practice”

(d) Enforcement before official publication

4. Article X:3

(a) General

(b) Article X:3(a)

(i) General
(ii) “shall administer”
(iii) “in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner”

(c) Article X:3(b)

(i) “prompt review and correction”
(ii) “administrative action relating to customs matters”
(iii) “Such tribunals or procedures shall be independent of the agencies entrusted with administrative enforcement”

(d) Article X:3(c)

(i) “the date of this Agreement”

5. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) General

(b) Article I

(c) Article III

(d) GATT practice

6. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) Licensing Agreement

(b) Anti-Dumping Agreement


XIII. Article XI     back to top

A. Text of Article XI
B. Text of Note Ad Article XI
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XI

1. General

(a) Role of Article XI in GATT

(b) Burden of proof

(c) GATT practice

2. Article XI:1

(a) “restrictions or prohibitions”

(b) De facto prohibitions or restrictions

(c) Import prohibitions

(d) Enforcement measures

(e) Licensing schemes

(f) Trade balancing requirements

(g) Minimum export price requirements

(h) Restrictions on circumstances of importation

(i) Restrictions on imports by particular persons
(ii) Trading rights
(iii) Restrictions on ports of entry

(i) “restrictions made effective through statetrading operations”

(j) Bonding requirements

(k) “prohibitions or restrictions … on the exportation or sale for export of any product”

(l) GATT practice regarding Article XI:1

3. Article XI:2(a)

(a) Burden of proof

(b) “Export prohibitions or restrictions”

(c) “temporarily applied”

(d) “essential products”

(e) “prevent or relieve critical shortages”

4. Notification of quantitative restrictions and non-tariff trade barriers

5. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article II

(b) Article III

(c) Article VI

(d) Article XVII

(e) GATT practice regarding relationship with other Articles

6. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) Agreement on Agriculture

(b) TRIMs Agreement

(c) SPS Agreement

(d) Anti-Dumping Agreement


XIV. Article XII     back to top

A. Text of Article XII
B. Text of Note Ad Article XII
C. Understanding on the Balance-of-Payments Provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
D. Interpretation And Application of Article XII

1. General

2. BOP Understanding

3. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article II

(b) Article XVIII

4. GATT practice


XV. Article XIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XIII
B. Text of Note Ad Article XIII
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XIII

1. General

2. Article XIII:1: “the importation … is similarly restricted”

3. Article XIII:2

(a) Chapeau: “aim at a distribution of trade”

(b) Article XIII:2(a): “quotas representing the total amount of permitted imports … shall be fixed”

(c) Article XIII:2(b): import licensing schemes

(d) Article XIII:2(d): quota allocation

(i) Agreements under Article XIII:2(d)
(ii) “among supplying countries”:
(iii) Allocation of quotas to non-Members and newly acceded Members

4. Article XIII:4: Adjustment of quota allocation

5. Article XIII:5

(a) Application of Article XIII to tariff quotas

(b) Export quota allocation

6. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article I

(b) Article II

(c) Article XI

(d) Article XXIV

(e) Article XXVIII

(f) Reference to GATT practice

7. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) Agreement on Agriculture

(b) Agreement on Safeguards


XVI. Article XIV     back to top

A. Text of Article XIV
B. Text of Notes Ad Article XIV
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XIV


XVII. Article XV     back to top

A. Text of Article XV
B. Text of Note Ad Article XV
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XV

1. Article XV:1: “cooperation with the International Monetary Fund”

2. Article XV:2: Consultation with the Fund

(a) Participation by the Fund in balance-of-payments consultations

(b) Consultation with the Fund in the context of dispute settlement

(c) “findings of statistical and other facts presented by the Fund”

3. Article XV:6: special exchange agreements

4. Article XV:9(a)

(a) “exchange controls or exchange restrictions”

(b) “in accordance with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund”

5. GATT practice


XVIII. Article XVI     back to top

A. Text of Article XVI
B. Text of Notes Ad Article XVI
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XVI

1. Article XVI:1

2. Article XVI:3

3. Article XVI:4

4. Agreement on Agriculture

5. SCM Agreement

6. GATT practice


XIX. Article XVII     back to top

A. Text of Article XVII
B. Text of Notes Ad Article XVII
C. Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XVII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
D. Interpretation and Application of Article XVII

1. General

(a) State trading enterprises

(b) Note Ad Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV and XVIII

2. Article XVII:1(a)

(a) General: State trading enterprises

(b) “general principles of non-discriminatory treatment”

(c) GATT practice

3. Article XVII:1(b)

(a) “the provisions of subparagraph (a) … shall be understood to require”

(b) “solely in accordance with commercial considerations”

(c) “adequate opportunity … to compete for participation in such purchases or sales”

(d) GATT practice

4. Relationship between Article XVII:1(a) and XVII:1(b)

5. Article XVII:4

(a) Notification requirements

(b) GATT practice

6. Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XVII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

(a) Paragraph 1

(b) Paragraph 3

(c) Paragraph 5

(i) Working Party on State Trading Enterprises
(ii) “an illustrative list”

7. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article I

(b) Article II

(c) Article III

(d) Article XI

8. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) Agreement on Agriculture


XX. Article XVIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XVIII
B. Text of Notes Ad Article XVIII
C. Understanding on the Balance-of-Payments Provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
D. Interpretation and Application of Article XVIII

1. Article XVIII:B

(a) General

(b) Jurisdiction of panels

(c) Right to maintain balance-of-payments measures

(d) Burden of proof regarding measures justified by Article XVIII:B

(e) GATT practice

2. Article XVIII:9

(a) General

(b) Adequacy of reserves

(c) “restricting the quantity or value of merchandise permitted to be imported”: quantitative versus price-based balance-of-payments measures

3. Article XVIII:11

(a) Burden of proof

(b) Note Ad Article XVIII:11

(i) General
(ii) “would thereupon produce”

(c) Proviso to Article XVIII:11

4. Article XVIII:12

(a) Article XVIII:12(c)

5. Article XVIII:C

6. Understanding on the Balance-of-Payments Provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

(a) General

(b) Invocation and disinvocation of Articles XII and XVIII:B

(c) Footnote 1

(d) Paragraph 1

(e) Paragraph 5

(i) Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions

(f) Paragraph 9

(g) Paragraph 13

(i) Conclusions
(ii) Reporting by the Committee

7. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article II

(b) Articles XI, XIII, XIV and XVII

(c) Article XII

(d) GATT practice


XXI. Article XIX     back to top

A. Text of Article XIX
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XIX

1. General

(a) Application of Article XIX

(b) Standard of review

2. Article XIX:1: “as a result of unforeseen developments”

(a) Concept of unforeseen developments

(b) Requirement to demonstrate “unforeseen developments”

(i) General
(ii) Unforeseen developments as describing a set of circumstances
(iii) Confluence of developments to form the basis of an unforeseen development

(c) Logical connection between “unforeseen developments” and “the condition for imposition of a safeguard measure”

(i) General
(ii) Point in time where the developments were unforeseen
(iii) Judicial economy

(d) “as a result … of the effect of the obligations incurred by a Member”

(e) “being imported in such increased quantities …”

(f) “under such conditions”

(g) “as to cause or threaten serious injury to domestic producers”

3. Article XIX:2

(a) “shall give notice in writing to the Contracting Parties as far as in advance as may be practicable”

(b) “an opportunity to consult”

4. GATT practice

5. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) Agreement on Safeguards


XXII. Article XX     back to top

A. Text of Article XX
B. Text of Note Ad Article XX
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XX

1. General

(a) Nature and purpose of Article XX

(b) Structure of Article XX

(i) Two-tier test
(ii) Language of paragraphs (a) to (i)

(c) Burden of proof

2. Chapeau of Article XX

(a) Purpose

(b) “arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail”

(i) Constitutive elements
(ii) Type of discrimination covered by the chapeau
(iii) Standard of discrimination
(iv) Examples of arbitrary and unjustifiable discrimination

(c) “disguised restriction on international trade”

(d) Reference to GATT practice

3. Paragraph (a)

(a) General; “public morals”

(b) “necessary”

(c) weighing and balancing

4. Paragraph (b)

(a) Three-tier test

(i) General
(ii) Policy objective of the measure at issue
(iii) “necessary”

(b) GATT practice

5. Paragraph (d)

(a) General

(b) “necessary”

(c) Aspect of measure to be justified as “necessary”

(d) “laws or regulations”

(e) “to secure compliance”

(f) “Reasonably available” alternatives

(g) GATT practice

6. Paragraph (g): “relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources”

(a) “the conservation of exhaustible natural resources”

(i) Jurisdictional limitations
(ii) Meaning of “exhaustible natural resources”
(iii) GATT practice

(b) “relating to”

(i) Aspect of the measure to be justified as “relating to”
(ii) Meaning of “relating to” and “primarily aimed at”

(c) “measures made effective in conjunction with”

(d) GATT practice

7. Relationship between Article XX and other WTO Agreements

(a) Anti-Dumping Agreement

(b) SPS Agreement

(c) Special provisions in Protocols of Accession


XXIII. Article XXI     back to top

A. Text of Article XXI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXI

1. GATT practice


XXIV. Article XXII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXII


XXV. Article XXIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXIII

1. General

(a) Relationship between Articles XXIII:1(a) and XXIII:1(b)

2. Article XXIII:1(b)

(a) Overview of the non-violation complaint

(b) Purpose

(c) Scope

(d) Test under Article XXIII:1(b)

(e) Burden of proof

(f) “measure”

(g) “benefit”

(h) Legitimate expectations

(i) “nullified or impaired”

(j) Non-violation complaints in relation to the Agreement on Government Procurement

(k) Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(i) Anti-Dumping Agreement

3. Article XXIII:1(c)

4. Article XXIII:2

5. GATT practice


XXVI. Article XXIV     back to top

A. Text of Article XXIV
B. Text of Ad Article XXIV
C. Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs And Trade 1994
D. Transparency Mechanism For Regional Trade Agreements
E. Interpretation and Application of Article XXIV

1. Territorial application

2. Regional trade agreements

(a) Committee on Regional Trade Agreements

(b) Enabling Clause

3. Article XXIV:4

(a) “not to raise barriers to the trade of other contracting parties”

(b) Relationship between paragraph 4 and paragraphs 5 to 9

(c) Reference to GATT practice

4. Article XXIV:5

(a) Chapeau

(i) “the provisions of this Agreement shall not prevent … the formation of a customs union or of a free-trade area”: the “necessity test”
(ii) Reference to GATT practice

(b) Paragraph 5(a): “the duties and other regulations of commerce … shall not on the whole be higher or more restrictive”

(i) Link with the chapeau
(ii) “The general incidence of duties”
(iii) “Other regulations of commerce”

(c) Evaluation of trade-restrictiveness under paragraph 5

(d) Reference to GATT practice

5. Article XXIV:7

(a) “Any contracting party … shall promptly notify the contracting parties”

(b) Examination and consideration of agreements

(i) Working parties
(ii) Committee on Regional Trade Agreements
(iii) Reference to GATT practice

(c) Legal status of agreements in the absence of recommendations pursuant to Article XXIV:7

6. Article XXIV:8

(a) “substantially all the trade”

(b) Reference to GATT practice

(c) Article XXIV:8(a)(ii): “substantially the same duties and other regulations of commerce”

(i) Interpretation
(ii) Reference to GATT practice

7. Article XXIV:12

8. Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXIV of the GATT 1994

(a) Reporting requirements in accordance with paragraphs 9 and 11 of the Understanding

(b) Dispute settlement under paragraph 12 of the Understanding

9. Transparency Mechanism for Regional Trade Agreements

10. Relationship with other GATT provisions

(a) Article I

(b) Article XI

(c) Article XIII

11. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

(a) Agreement on Safeguards

(i) Footnote 1 to Article 2.1
(ii) Article 2.2

(b) Agreement on Textiles and Clothing


XXVII. Article XXV     back to top

A. Text of Article XXV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXV

1. Decision-making

2. Waivers under the GATT

(a) Understanding In Respect of Waivers of Obligations Under the GATT 1994

(i) Text
(ii) Interpretation and Application

3. Reference to GATT practice


XXVIII. Article XXVI     back to top

A. Text of Article XXVI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXVI

1. Paragraph 1: “date of this Agreement”

2. Authentic texts

3. Acceptance, entry into force, deposit and registration

4. Practice under the GATT 1947 including provisional application


XXIX. Article XXVII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXVII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXVII

1. Withholding or withdrawal of concessions made in multilateral trade negotiations


XXX. Article XXVIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXVIII
B. Text of Note Ad Article XXVIII
C. Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of the General Agreement an Tariffs and Trade 1994
D. Interpretation and Application of Article XXVIII

1. Legal relevance of Article XXVIII negotiations in interpretation of GATT Articles

2. Article XXVIII:2: “general level of … concessions not less favourable to trade”

3. Review of the Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of the GATT 1994

4. Renegotiation of concessions under Article XXVIII

5. Time-limits for invocation of Article XXVIII:3 (including application in the context of Article XXIV:6)

6. Notifications submitted under Article XXVIII:5

7. GATT practice under Article XXVIII


XXXI. Article XXVIII bis     back to top

A. Text of Article XXVIII bis
B. Text of Note Ad Article XXVIII bis
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XXVIII bis

1. Tariff Negotiations


XXXII. Article XXIX     back to top

A. Text of Article XXIX
B. Text of Note Ad Article XXIX
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XXIX


XXXIII. Article XXX     back to top

A. Text of Article XXX
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXX


XXXIV. Article XXXI     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXI
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXI


XXXV. Article XXXII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXII


XXXVI. Article XXXIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXIII


XXXVII. Article XXXIV     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXIV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXIV


XXXVIII. Article XXXV     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXV
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXV


XXXIX. Article XXXVI     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXVI
B. Text of Note Ad Article XXXVI
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXVI

1. General

2. WTO Work Programme for the Least-Developed Countries

3. Integrated Framework (IF), Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) and Aid for Trade

4. Favourable and more preferential treatment for developing countries

5. Work Programme on Small Economies, Paragraph 35 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration

6. GATT practice


XL. Article XXXVII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXVII
B. Text of Ad Article XXXVII
C. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXVII

1. General

2. GATT practice


XLI. Article XXXVIII     back to top

A. Text of Article XXXVIII
B. Interpretation and Application of Article XXXVIII

1. General

2. GATT practice


XLII. Table of Regional Trade Agreements Notified to the GATT/WTO and in Force, as of 30 September 2011     back to top

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