Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation: 45 Case Studies

45 case studies from economies around the world, each of which illustrates how governments, business and civil society manage their country’s participation in the World Trade Organization.

Published in 2005

Opinions expressed in the case studies and any errors or omissions therein are the responsibility of their authors and not of the editors of this volume or of the institutions with which they are affiliated. The authors of the case studies wish to disassociate the institutions with which they are associated from opinions expressed in the case studies and from any errors or omission therein.

This compilation of forty-five case studies documents disparate experiences among economies in addressing the challenges of participating in the WTO. It demonstrates that success or failure is strongly influenced by how governments and private-sector stakeholders organize themselves at home. The contributors, mainly from developing countries, give examples of participation with lessons for others. They show that when the system is accessed and employed effectively, it can serve the interests of poor and rich countries alike. However, a failure to communicate among interested parties at home often contributes to negative outcomes on the international front. Above all, these case studies demonstrate that the WTO creates a framework within which sovereign decision-making can unleash important opportunities or undermine the potential benefits flowing from a rules-based international environment that promotes open trade.

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> Introduction

> Acknowledgements

This publication was made possible with funding from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID).

> Abbreviations


Working Title of Chapter


Dispute Settlement between Developing Countries: Argentina and Chilean Price Bands
Diana Tussie and Valentina Delich


Argentina and GATS: A Study on the Domestic Determinants of GATS Commitments
Roberto Bouzas and Hernán Soltz


Rock 'n Roll in Bangladesh: Protecting Intellectual Property Rights in Music
Abul Kalam Azad


Barbados: Telecommunications Liberalisation
Linda Schmid


Services Commitments: Case Studies from Belize and Costa Rica
J.P. Singh


Inter-Agency Policy Co-ordination in Botswana
Kennedy K. Mbekeani


Brazil and the G-20 Group of Developing Countries
Pedro da Motta Veiga


Cambodia’s Accession to WTO: ‘Fast Track’ Accession by a Least Developed Country
Samnang Chea and Hach Sok


Canada and the WTO: Multilevel Governance, Public Policy-Making and the WTO Auto Pact Case
Jacqueline D. Krikorian


The SPS Agreement and Crisis Management: The Chile-EU Avian Influenza Experience
Claudia Orozco

11 Shanghai’s WTO Affairs Consultation Center: Working Together to Take Advantage Of WTO Membership
Gong Baihua
12 Costa Rica’s Challenge to US Restrictions on the Import of Underwear
John Breckenridge
13 Fiji: Preparing for the End of Preferences?
Andrew L. Stoler
14 The Road to Cancún: The French Decision-Making Process and WTO Negotiations
Jean-Marie Paugam
15 Decision-Making Processes in India: The Case of the Agriculture Negotiations
Shishir Priyadarshi
16 Protecting the Geographical Indication for Darjeeling Tea
S.C. Srivastava
17 The Indian Shrimp Industry Organizes to Fight the Threat of Anti-Dumping Action
B. Bhattarcharyya
18 Indonesia’s Shrimp Exports: Meeting the Challenge of Quality Standards
Rina Oktaviani and Erwidodo
19 Patents, Parallel Importation and Compulsory Licensing of HIV/AIDS Drugs: The Experience of Kenya
Ben Sihanya
20 Kenya's Participation in the WTO: Lessons Learned
Walter Odhiambo, Paul Kamau and Dorothy McCormick
21 Learning by Doing: The Impact of a Trade Remedy Case in Korea
Junsok Yang
22 Laos: The Textile and Garment Industry in the Post-ATC Era
Banesaty Thephavong, Khouanchay Iemsouthi and Buavanh Vilavong
23 Malawi in the Multilateral Trading System
Tonia Kandiero
24 Malaysia: Labelling Regulations on Natural Rubber Condoms and the WTO TBT Agreement
Noma Mansor, Noor Hasniah Kasim and Yong Sook Lu
25 Malaysia: Strategies for the Liberalisation of the Services Sector
Lim Chze Cheen
26 Mauritius: Co-operation in an Economy Evolving for the Future
Andrew L. Stoler
27 How Regional Economic Communities can Facilitate Participation in the WTO: The Experience of Mauritius and Zambia
Sanoussi Bilal and Stefan Szepesi
28 Mexico’s Agricultural Trade Policies: International Commitments and Domestic Pressure
Isidro Morales-Moreno
29 Mongolia's WTO Accession: Expectations and Realities of WTO Membership
Damedin Tsogtbaatar
30 Nepal: The Role of an NGO in Support of Accession
P. R. Rajkarnikar
31 Nepal: Exports of Ayurvedic Herbal Remedies and SPS Issues
Bijendra Shakya
32 Import Prohibition as a Trade Policy Instrument: The Nigerian Experience
Ademola Oyejide, A. Ogunkola and A. Bankole
33 The Pacific Island Nations: Towards Shared Representation
Chakriya Bowman
34 Victory in Principle: Pakistan's Dispute Settlement Case on Combed Cotton Yarn Exports to the United States
Turab Hussain
35 Pakistan: The Consequences of a Change in the EC Rice Regime
Amir Muhammed and Wajid H. Pirzada
36 Philippines: Stakeholder Participation in Agricultural Policy Formation
Donah Sharon Baracol
37 Philippines: Adopting the Transaction Basis for Customs Valuation
Ramon L. Clarete
38 The Reform of South Africa’s Anti-Dumping Regime
Niel Joubert
39 The Impact of GATS on Telecommunications Competition in Sri Lanka
Malathy Knight-John and Chethana Ellepola
40 Thailand: Conciliating a Dispute on Tuna Exports to the EC
Nilaratna Xuto
41 Uganda’s Participation in the WTO Negotiations: Institutional Challenges
Nichodemus Rudaheranwa and Vernetta Barungi Atingi-Ego
42 Uruguay in the Services Negotiations: Strategy and Challenges
Soledad Salvador and Paola Azar (with the collaboration of Claudia Rucci)
43 Vanuatu's Suspended Accession Bid: Second Thoughts?
Daniel Gay
44 Public and Private Participation in Agricultural Negotiations: The Experience of Venezuela
Rita Giacalone and Eduardo Porcarelli
45 Preparation by Vietnam’s Banking Sector for WTO Accession
Phan Van Sam and Vo Thanh Thu