Parties, observers and accessions

The Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) consists of parties covering WTO members (counting the European Union and its 27 member states, and the United Kingdom, all of which are covered by the Agreement, as one party). Another WTO members/observers and four international organizations participate in the GPA Committee as observers. of these members with observer status are in the process of acceding to the Agreement. One of these observers, the United Kingdom, is seeking to accede to the revised GPA in its own right for the period after the transition period (provided for under the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement) during which the United Kingdom is treated as a member State of the European Union (GPA/CD/2).


Most parties have been bound by the Agreement since its entry into force. Some acceded to the Agreement at a later date, as shown below. The table also shows the date of entry into force of the revised GPA for each party.


Date of entry into force/accession

GPA 1994

Revised GPA


15 Sep 2011

6 June 2015


5 May 2019

5 May 2019


1 Jan 1996

6 Apr 2014

European Union
with regard to its 27 member states and the United Kingdom:

6 Apr 2014

Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom

1 Jan 1996

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia

1 May 2004

Bulgaria and Romania

1 Jan 2007


1 Jul 2013

Hong Kong , China

19 Jun 1997

6 Apr 2014


28 Apr 2001

6 Apr 2014


1 Jan 1996

6 Apr 2014


1 Jan 1996

16 Apr 2014

Korea, Republic of

1 Jan 1997

14 January 2016


18 Sep 1997

6 Apr 2014

Moldova, Republic of

14 July 2016

14 July 2016


15 July 2015

15 July 2015

Netherlands with respect to Aruba

25 October 1996

21 August 2014

New Zealand

12 August 2015

12 August 2015


1 Jan 1996

6 Apr 2014


20 Oct 1997

6 Apr 2014


1 Jan 1996


Chinese Taipei

15 Jul 2009

6 Apr 2014


18 May 2016

18 May 2016

United States

1 Jan 1996

6 Apr 2014


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Accession to the GPA 

All WTO members are eligible to accede to the GPA. At present, WTO members are in the process of acceding ().   The United Kingdom is seeking to accede to the revised GPA in its own right for the period after the transition period (provided for under the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement) during which the United Kingdom is treated as a member State of the European Union (GPA/CD/2). Four other WTO members have undertaken commitments, in their WTO accession protocols, to initiate accession to the GPA. They are Afghanistan, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia and Seychelles.

The accession process starts with the submission of an application for accession and has two main aspects: negotiations between the acceding member and parties of the GPA on the former's coverage offer, and verification that the acceding member's procurement legislation is consistent with the GPA's requirements — for example, regarding transparency, procedural fairness for suppliers and domestic review.

Pursuant to Article V of the revised GPA, special and differential treatment for developing countries in the form of transitional measures such as offsets, price preference programmes, initially higher thresholds and phasing-in of entities can be negotiated by a developing acceding country in the accession process, subject to the agreement of the other parties and the acceding member's development needs.

Once the terms of accession have been agreed between the GPA parties and the acceding WTO member, the Committee adopts a decision inviting the member to accede to the Agreement. The decision specifies the agreed terms and provides a timeframe for the acceding member to deposit its instrument of accession with the WTO Director-General (typically three to six months).

The WTO Secretariat provides technical assistance to assist developing country WTO members interested in learning more about the GPA and/or acceding to the GPA. Where appropriate and desired by accession candidates, other intergovernmental organizations (e.g. regional development banks) or governance-focused institutes may also provide technical assistance with regard to GPA accession.


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Any WTO member or observer may submit a written request to the Government Procurement Committee to participate in the Committee as an observer, and may be accorded observer status. The process of becoming an observer is set out by a Decision of the Committee on Government Procurement GPA/1, Annex 1.

WTO members/observers with observer status in the GPA Committee

Observer government

Date of acceptance by Committee as observers


18 October 2017


2 October 2001


24 February 1997


9 December 2008


27 June 2018


18 October 2017


3 May 2001


29 September 1997

China *

21 February 2002


27 February 1996

Costa Rica

3 June 2015

Côte d’Ivoire

21 July 2020


26 June 2019

Georgia *

5 October 1999


10 February 2010


31 October 2012

Jordan *

8 March 2000


19 October 2016

Kyrgyz Republic *

5 October 1999


18 July 2012


23 February 1999

North Macedonia*

27 June 2013

Oman *

3 May 2001


29 September 1997


11 February 2015


27 February 2019


26 June 2019

Russian Federation *

29 May 2013

Saudi Arabia

13 December 2007


16 September 2015

Sri Lanka

23 April 2003


25 June 2014


3 June 2015


4 June 1996

United Kingdom*

26 February 2020

Viet Nam

5 December 2012

* Negotiating accession.

International intergovernmental organizations granted observer status in the GPA Committee

Note: The United Kingdom has communicated that as a member State of the European Union until 31 January 2020, the instrument of acceptance of the European Union for the Government Procurement Agreement also covers participation by the United Kingdom whilst it was a member State of the European Union, and will continue to do so during the transition period afforded under Withdrawal Agreement. See WT/GC/206 and the EU note verbale (WT/LET/1462) for more information.