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Promover el acceso a las tecnologías y la innovación en medicina: Intersecciones entre la salud pública, la propiedad intelectual y el comercio



Abbott, F.M. y Van Puymbroeck, R.V. (2005), Compulsory Licensing for Public Health: A Guide and Model Documents for Implementation of the Doha Declaration Paragraph 6 Decision, Washington, DC, Banco Mundial.

Abbott, F.M. y Correa, C.M. (2007), World Trade Organization Accession Agreements: Intellectual Property Issues, Ginebra, QUNO.

Abbott, F.M. y Reichman, J.H. (2007), "The Doha Round's Public Health Legacy: Strategies for the Production and Diffusion of Patented Medicines under the Amended TRIPS Provisions", Journal of International Economic Law 10(4): 921-87.

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Banco Mundial (2005), A Guide to Competitive Vouchers in Health, Washington, DC, Banco Mundial.

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Berndt, E., Blalock, N. y Cockburn, I. (2011), "Diffusion of New Drugs in the Post-TRIPS Era", International Journal of the Economics of Business 18(2): 203-24.

Beyer, P. (2012), "Developing Socially Responsible Intellectual Property Licensing Policies: Non-Exclusive Licensing Initiatives in the Pharmaceutical Sector", En: De Werra, J. (ed.), La propriété intellectuelle dans l'industrie pharmaceutique: Intellectual Property in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Zurich, Schulthess Verlag.

BIO Ventures (2010), The Diagnostics Innovation Map: Medical Diagnostics for the Unmet Needs of the Developing World, Washington, DC, BIO Ventures for Global Health.

Blouin, C., Drager, N. y Smith, R., (eds.) (2006), International Trade in Health Services and the GATS: Current Issues and Debates, Washington, DC, Banco Mundial.

Bregonje, M. (2005), "Patents: A Unique Source for Scientific Technical Information in Chemistry Related Industry?", World Patent Information 27(4): 309-15.

Cameron, A. et al. (2009), "Medicine Prices, Availability, and Affordability in 36 Developing and Middle-Income Countries: A Secondary Analysis", The Lancet 373(9659): 240-49.

Cameron, A. y Laing, R. (2010), "Cost Savings of Switching Private Sector Consumptions from Originator Brand Medicines to Generic Equivalents", World Health Report Background Paper No. 35.

Cameron A. et al. (2011), "Differences in the Availability of Medicines for Chronic and Acute Conditions in the Public and Private Sectors of Developing Countries", Bulletin of the World Health Organization 89(6): 412-21.

Chaudhuri, S., Goldberg, P.K. y Jia, P. (2006), "Estimating the Effects of Global Patent Protection in Pharmaceuticals: A Case Study of Quinolones in India", American Economic Review 96(5): 1477-1514.

CIOMS (2002), Pautas éticas internacionales para la investigación biomédica en seres humanos, Ginebra, Consejo de Organizaciones Internacionales de Ciencias Médicas.

Clift, C. (2010), "Combating Counterfeit, Falsified and Substandard Medicines: Defining the Way Forward?", Chatham House Briefing Paper.

Cohen, W.M., Nelson, R.R. y Walsh, J.P. (2000), "Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why US Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not)", NBER Working Paper 7552.

Comanor, W.S. (1986), "The Political Economy of the Pharmaceutical Industry", Journal of Economic Literature 24(3): 1178-1217.

Comisión Europea (2003), Vaccines Research Relief: Introduction of a New Scheme and Modification of State Aid N 802/99, Comisión Europea (2003) 1398.

Comisión Europea (2009), Pharmaceutical Sector Inquiry: Final Report, Comisión Europea.

Comisión Europea (2010), Reports on EU Customs Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights: Results at the EU Border - 2010, Luxemburgo, Comisión Europea.

Comisión Europea (2012), "Medical Devices: European Commission Calls for Immediate Actions - Tighten Controls, Increase Surveillance, Restore Confidence", Press release IP/12/119 of 9 February 2012.

Commission on Health Research for Development (1990), Health Research: Essential Link to Equity in Development, Nueva York, Oxford University Press.

Competition Bureau (2000), Intellectual Property Enforcement Guidelines, Ottawa, Competition Bureau.

Cornish, W. (2003), Intellectual Property: Patents, Copyright, Trade Marks and Allied Rights, 4th Edition, Reino Unido, Sweet and Maxwell.

Correa, C.M. (2004), Implementation of the WTO General Council Decision on Paragraph 6 of the DOHA Declaration on the Trips Agreement and Public Health, Health Economics and Drugs Series No. 016, Ginebra, OMS.

Correa, C.E. (2009), "Case 2. The SARS Case: IP Fragmentation and Patent Pools", in Van Overwalle, G. (ed.), Gene Patents and Collaborative Licensing Models, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 33-41.

Creese, A., (2011), "Working Paper 5: Sales Taxes on Medicines", Review Series on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions.

Danzon, P.M., Mulcahy, A.W. y Towse, A.K. (2011), "Pharmaceutical Pricing in Emerging Markets: Effects of Income, Competition and Procurement", NBER Working Paper 17174.

DiMasi, J.A., Hansen, R.W. y Grabowski, H.G. (2003), "The Price of Innovation: New Estimates of Drug Development Costs", Journal of Health Economics 22(2): 151-85.

DiMasi, J.A. y Grabowski, H.G. (2007), "The Cost of Biopharmaceutical R&D: Is Biotech Different?" Managerial and Decision Economics 28: 469-79.

EDCTP (2011), 2011 Annual Report, La Haya, Asociación de Europa y los países en desarrollo para la realización de ensayos clínicos.

El Said, M.K. (2010), Public Health Related Trips-Plus Provisions in Bilateral Trade Agreements: A Policy Guide for Negotiators and Implementers in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, Ginebra, OMS/ICTSD.

EMA (2012), Access to Clinical-Trial Data and Transparency: Workshop Report, Agencia Europea de Medicamentos.

Espin, J., Rovira, J., Olry de Labry, A., (2011), "Working Paper 1: External Reference Pricing", Review Series on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions.

Fink, C. (2011), "Intellectual Property Rights", En: Chauffour, J.P. y Maur, J.C. (eds.), Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development: A Handbook, Washington, DC, Banco Mundial, pp. 387-406.

Fondo Mundial (2010a), Procurement and Supply Management (PSM) Plan: Guide to Writing PSM Plans.

Fondo Mundial (2010b), Servicios de apoyo a las adquisiciones. Proceso de adquisiciones conjuntas voluntarias (VPP).

Frost, L.J., y Reich, M.R. (2010), "How Do Good Health Technologies Get to Poor People in Poor Countries", Massachusetts, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies.

Ganslandt, M. y Maskus, K.E. (2004), "Parallel Imports and the Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products: Evidence from the European Union," Journal of Health Economics 23(5): 1035-57.

Garrido, M.V. et al. (2008), Health Technology Assessment and Health Policy-Making in Europe: Current Status, Challenges and Potential, WHO-Europe/European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.

GE Healthcare (2011), "Market-Relevant Design: Making ECGs Available Across India", Newsroom, 30 September 2011.

GHTF (2005), Information Document Concerning the Definition of the Term "Medical Device", Global Harmonization Task Force document GHTF/SG1/N29R16:2005.

Gottret, P. y Schieber, G. (2006), Health Financing Revisited: A Practitioner's Guide, Washington, DC, Banco Mundial.

Government of India (2012), Guidelines on Similar Biologics: Regulatory Authorization Requirements for Marketing Authorization in India, Nueva Delhi, Government of India.

Grabowski, H.G. y Kyle, M. (2007), "Generic Competition and Market Exclusivity Periods in Pharmaceuticals", Managerial and Decision Economics 28(4-5): 491-502.

Grabowski, H.G., Ridley, D.B. y Moe, J.L. (2008), "Priority Review Vouchers to Encourage Innovation for Neglected Diseases", North Carolina, Duke University.

Grace, C. (2010), "Product Development Partnerships (PDPs): Lessons from PDPs Established to Develop New Health Technologies for Neglected Diseases", Department for International Development, Reino Unido.

Greene, J. (2010), "When Did Medicines Become Essential?", Bulletin of the World Health Organization 88(7): 483.

Hawkins, L. (2011), "Working Paper 4: Competition Policy", Review Series on Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions.

Helble, M. (2012), "More Trade for Better Health? International Trade and Tariffs on Health Products", WTO Staff Working Paper ERSD-2012-17.

Hendriks, J. et al. (2011), "An International Technology Platform for Influenza Vaccines," Vaccine, 29(Suppl. 1): A8-A11.

Hogerzeil, H.V. et al. (2006), "Is Access to Essential Medicines as Part of the Fulfilment of the Right to Health Enforceable Through the Courts?", Lancet 368: 305-11.

Hogerzeil, H.V. y Mirza, Z. (2011), The World Medicines Situation: Access to Essential Medicines as Part of the Right to Health, Ginebra, OMS.

Holloway, K. y Van Dijk, L. (2011), The World Medicines Situation: Rational Use of Medicines, Ginebra, OMS.

ICTSD/UNCTAD/OMS (2007), Pautas para el examen de patentes farmacéuticas. Una perspectiva desde la salud pública, Ginebra..

IFPMA (2011), The Pharmaceutical Industry and Global Health: Facts and Figures, Ginebra, IFPMA.

IFPMA (2013), Pharmaceutical R&D Projects to Discover Cures for Patients with Neglected Conditions: 2012 Status Report on Pharmaceutical R&D to Address Diseases that Disproportionately Affect People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, Ginebra, IFPMA.

Immelt, J.R., Govindarajan, V. y Trimble, C. (2009), "How GE is Disrupting Itself," Harvard Business Review, October.

Institute of Medicine (2012), "Ensuring Safe Foods and Medical Products Through Stronger Regulatory Systems Abroad", Report Brief, National Academy of Sciences.

IPO (2011), Patent Thickets: An Overview, Newport, Intellectual Property Office.

Kanavos, P. et al. (2010), "The Impact of Health Technology Assessments: An International Comparison 2010", Euro Observer 12(4): 1-7.

Kaplan, W. y Laing, R. (2005), "Local Production of Pharmaceuticals: Industrial Policy and Access to Medicines", HNP Discussion Paper, Washington, DC, Banco Mundial.

Ker, U. (2012), "Advance Market Commitment: Saving Lives Through Vaccine Delivery - UPDATE," Case Studies for Global Health.

Khor, M. (2007), "Patents, Compulsory Licences and Access to Medicines: Some Recent Experiences", TWN Intellectual Property Series 10.

King, D.R. y Kanavos, P. (2002), "Encouraging the Use of Generic Medicines: Implications for Transition Economies", Croatian Medical Journal 43(4): 462-69.

Krasovec, K. y Connor, C. (1998), Using Tax Relief to Support Public Health Goals, Partners for Health Reformplus.

Krattiger, A. (2007a), "The Use of Nonassertion Covenants: A Tool to Facilitate Humanitarian Licensing, Manage Liability, and Foster Global Access", En: Krattiger, A. et al. (eds.), Intellectual Property Management in Health and Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook of Best Practices, Oxford, MIHR and Davis, PIPRA, pp. 739-45.

Krattiger, A. et al. (eds.), (2007b) Intellectual Property Management in Health and Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook of Best Practices, Oxford, MIHR and Davis, PIPRA, pp. 1317-27.

LaMattina, J.L. (2011), "The Impact of Mergers on Pharmaceutical R&D", Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 10: 559-60.

Lanjouw, J.O. (2005), "Patents, Price Control, and Access to New Drugs: How Policy Affects Global Market Entry", NBER Working Paper No. 11321.

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Levison, L. y Laing, R. (2003), "The Hidden Costs of Essential Medicines", Essential Drugs Monitor 033.

Lichtenberg, F. (2012), "Pharmaceutical Innovation and Longevity Growth in 30 Developing and High-Income Countries, 2000-2009", NBER Working Paper No. 18235.

Light, D.W. y Warburton, R. (2011), "Demythologizing the High Costs of Pharmaceutical Research", BioSocieties 6: 34-50.

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Mackey, T.K. y Liang, B.A. (2012), "Patent and Exclusivity Status of Essential Medicines for Non-Communicable Disease", PLoS ONE 7(11): e51022.

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Masum, H. y Harris, R. (2011), Open Source for Neglected Disease: Magic Bullet or Mirage?, Washington, DC, Results for Development Institute.

Mathers, C.D. et al. (2006), "The Burden of Disease and Mortality by Conditions: Data, Methods and Results for 2001", in Lopez, A.D. et al. (eds.), Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors, Nueva York, Oxford University Press, pp. 45-240.

Mathers, C.D. y Loncar, D. (2006), "Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030", PLoS Medicine 3(11): e442.

Matthijs, G. y Van Ommen, G.J. (2009) "Gene Patents: From Discovery to Invention. A Geneticist's View", in Van Overwalle, G. (ed.), Gene Patents and Collaborative Licensing Models, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 311-30.

Maurer, S. (2007), "Open Source Drug Discovery: Finding a Niche (or Maybe Several)", UMKC Law Review 75: 1-31.

Mendis, S., et al. (2007), "The Availability and Affordability of Selected Essential Medicines for Chronic Diseases in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries", Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85(4): 279-87.

Milstien, J.B., Batson, A. y Wertheimer, A.I. (2005), "Vaccines and Drugs: Characteristics of Their Use to Meet Public Health Goals", HNP Discussion Paper, Washington, DC, Banco Mundial.

Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (2008), Mapping of Partners and Financial Flows in the Medicines Supply System in Tanzanía, Dar es Salaam, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare.

Mirza, Z. (2008), "Thirty Years of Essential Medicines in Primary Health Care", East Mediterranean Health Journal 14 (Suppl): S74-S81.

Mohiuddin, M. y Imtiazuddin, O. (2007), "Socially Responsible Licensing: Model Partnerships for Underserved Markets", Acumen Fund Concepts.

Moran, M. et al. (2005), The New Landscape of Neglected Disease Drug Development, The London School of Economics and Political Sciences.

Moran, M. et al. (2012), Neglected Disease Research And Development: A Five Year Review, G-Finder Report 2012, Londres, Policy Cures.

Morgan, S. et al. (2011), "The Cost of Drug Development: A Systematic Review", Health Policy 100(1): 4-17.

MSH (2012), Managing Access to Medicines and Health Technologies, Arlington, Management Sciences for Health.

Müller, A.C. y Pelletier, P. (en preparación), "Competition Policy and Government Procurement, Two Missing Links in the Debate on Public Health", WTO Staff Working Paper.

Munos, B. (2009), "Lessons from 60 Years of Pharmaceutical Innovation," Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 8: 959-68.

Murray, C.J.L. y Lopez, A.D. (eds.) (1996), The Global Burden of Disease, Cambridge, Harvard School of Public Health.

Naciones Unidas (2011a), Declaración Política sobre el VIH/SIDA: intensificación de nuestro esfuerzo para eliminar el VIH/SIDA, Informe de 2011 del Grupo de Tareas sobre el desfase en el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, Nueva York, Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas.

Naciones Unidas (2011b), Objetivo de Desarrollo del Milenio 8. La alianza mundial para el desarrollo: es hora de cumplir, Nueva York, Naciones Unidas.

Naciones Unidas (2012), Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio: Informe de 2012, Nueva York, Naciones Unidas.

NCD Alliance (2011), "Access to Essential Medicines and Technologies for NCDs", NCD Alliance Briefing Paper.

Newman, D.J. et al. (2008), "Medicines from Nature", En: Chivian, E. y Bernstein, A. (eds.) Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Niëns, L. et al. (2010), "Quantifying the Impoverishing Effects of Purchasing Medicines: A Cross-Country Comparison of the Affordability of Medicines in the Developing World", PLoS Medicine 7(8): e1000333.

NIH (2001), Glossary of Terms for Human Subjects Protection and Inclusion Issues, National Institutes of Health.

Noor, W. (2009), "Placing Value on FDA's Priority Review Vouchers", IN VIVO 27(8): 1-8.

Nunn, A. et al. (2007), "Evolution of Antiretroviral Drug Costs in Brazil in the Context of Free and Universal Access to AIDS Treatment", PLoS Medicine 4(11): e305.

Nwaka, S. et al. (2010), "Developing ANDI: A Novel Approach to Health Product R&D in Africa," PLoS Medicine 7(6): e1000293.

Obrist, B. et al. (2007), "Access to Health Care in Contexts of Livelihood Insecurity: A Framework for Analysis and Action", PLoS Medicine 4(10): e308.

OCDE (2003), Transparency in Government Procurements: The Benefits of Efficient Governance and Orientations for Achieving It, París, OCDE.

OCDE (2008), Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies in a Global Market, París, OCDE.

OCDE (2011), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011: Innovation and Growth in Knowledge Economies, París, OCDE.

OECS (2001), Pharmaceutical Procurement Service Annual Report 2001, Saint Lucia, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States.

Office of Technology Assessment (1993), Pharmaceutical R&D: Costs, Risks and Rewards, Washington, DC, US Congress.

Olcay, M. y Laing, R. (2005), "Pharmaceutical Tariffs: What is Their Effect on Prices, Protection of Local Industry and Revenue Generation?", Study prepared for the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health, OMS.

Olson, S. y Berger, A. (2011), Establishing Precompetitive Collaborations to Stimulate Genomics-Driven Drug Development, National Academies Press.

Ombaka, E., (2009), "Current Status of Medicines Procurement", American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 66(Suppl 3): S20-S28.

OMC (2001), Workshop on Differential Pricing and Financing of Essential Drugs: Background Note Prepared by Jayashree Watal, consultora de la Secretaría de la OMC, Ginebra, OMC.

OMC (2009), "Services Liberalization from a WTO/GATS Perspectives: In Search of Volunteers", WTO Staff Working Paper ERSD-2009-05.

OMC (2010), Examen anual de la Decisión sobre la aplicación del párrafo 6 de la Declaración de Doha relativa al Acuerdo sobre los ADPIC y la Salud Pública, Informe al Consejo General, Ginebra, OMC.

OMC (2011), Informe sobre el comercio mundial 2011, Ginebra, OMC.

OMPI (2001), Conocimientos tradicionales: necesidades y expectativas en materia de propiedad intelectual. Informe relativo a las misiones exploratorias sobre propiedad intelectual y conocimientos tradicionales (1998-1999), Ginebra, OMPI.

OMPI (2008), SCP/12/3 Rev.2, Anexo III Comentarios de los Miembros y Observadores del SCP acerca del Informe sobre el sistema internacional de patentes, Ginebra, OMPI.

OMPI (2009), The Economics of Intellectual Property, Ginebra, OMPI.

OMPI (2010), OMPI (2010), Guías para bases de datos tecnológicas, Ginebra, OMPI.

OMPI (2011a), Informe de 2011 sobre la propiedad intelectual en el mundo, Ginebra, OMPI.

OMPI (2011b), WIPO Survey on Patenting Strategies in 2009 and 2010, Ginebra, OMPI.

OMPI (2011c), WIPO Patent Search Report on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP)-Related Patents and Patent Applications, Ginebra, OMPI.

OMPI (2012), Reseña anual del PCT 2012: El Sistema Internacional de Patentes, Ginebra, OMPI.

OMS (2000a), Informe sobre la Salud en el Mundo 2000: Mejorar el desempeño de los sistemas de salud, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2000b), Pautas generales para las metodologías de investigación y evaluación de la medicina tradicional, Ginebra, OMS.

OOMS (2001a), Macroeconomía y salud: Invertir en salud en pro del desarrollo económico, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2001b), Legal Status of Traditional Medicine and Complementary/Alternative Medicine: A Worldwide Review, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2001c), "Adquisición de los medicamentos: principios de una actuación correcta", Boletín de Medicamentos Esenciales No. 30, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2001d), Cómo desarrollar y aplicar una política farmacéutica nacional, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2002a), "The Selection and Use of Essential Medicines: Report of the WHO Expert Committee," WHO Technical Report Series 914.

OMS (2002b), Estrategia de la OMS sobre medicina tradicional 2002-2005, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2003a), Medical Device Regulations: Global Overview and Guiding Principles, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2003b), " Cómo desarrollar y aplicar una política farmacéutica nacional", Perspectivas políticas de la OMS sobre medicamentos, No. 06, enero de 2003.

OMS (2004a), WHO Guidelines on Safety Monitoring of Herbal Medicines in Pharmacovigilance Systems, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2004b), Priority Medicines for Europe and the World, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2004c), "Acceso equitativo a los medicamentos esenciales: Un marco para la acción colectiva", Perspectivas políticas de la OMS sobre medicamentos, No. 8, marzo de 2004.

OMS (2005a), Remuneration Guidelines for Non-Voluntary Use of a Patent on Medical Technologies, Health Economics and Drugs TCM Series No. 18.

OMS (2005b), National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicines: Report of a WHO Global Survey, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2006a), Fortieth Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations, WHO Technical Report Series 937.

OMS (2006b), Salud Pública, innovación y derechos de propiedad intelectual: Informe de la Comisión de Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual, Innovación y Salud Pública, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2007), Everybody's Business: Strengthening Health Systems to Improve Health Outcomes - WHO's Framework for Action, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2008), The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update, Ginebra, OMS

OMS (2009), Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2010a), Dispositivos médicos: La gestión de la discordancia. Un resultado del Proyecto sobre Dispositivos Médicos Prioritarios, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2010b), Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2010c), Assessment of Medicines Regulatory Systems in Sub-Saharan African Countries: An Overview of Findings from 26 Assessment Reports, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2010d), "World Health Organization Good Governance for Medicines Programme: An Innovative Approach to Prevent Corruption in the Pharmaceutical Sector", World Health Report (2010) Background Paper 25

OMS (2010e), "New Progress and Guidance on HIV Treatment", WHO Fact Sheet.

OMS (2010f), Working to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases: First WHO Report on Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2010g), Coordinación y financiación de la investigación y el desarrollo: Informe del Grupo de Expertos, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2010h), Informe sobre la salud en el mundo. Financiación de los sistemas de salud: el camino hacia la cobertura universal, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2011a), Estadísticas sanitarias mundiales, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2011b), Survey of the Quality of Selected Antimalarial Medicines Circulating in Six Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, Ginebra, OMS

OMS (2011c), Increasing Access to Vaccines Through Technology Transfer and Local Production, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2011d), WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, 17th list, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2011e), Pharmaceutical Production and Related Technology Transfer, Ginebra, OMS

OMS (2011f), WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children, 3rd list, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2011g), Local Production for Access to Medical Products: Developing a Framework to Improve Public Health, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2011h), Función de la OMS en la prevención y el control de productos médicos deficientes en cuanto a su calidad, seguridad y eficacia tales como los de calidad subestándar, espurios, de etiquetado engañoso, falsificados o de imitación, Ginebra, OMS (A/SSFFC/WG/3 Rev.1). Puede consultarse en:

OMS (2012a), Investigación y desarrollo para atender las necesidades sanitarias de los países en desarrollo: fortalecimiento de la financiación y coordinación mundiales, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2012b), The Strategic Use of Antiretrovirals to Help End the HIV Epidemic, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS (2012c), Estadísticas Sanitarias Mundiales 2012, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS/HAI (2008), Measuring Medicine Prices, Availability, Affordability and Price Components, Ginebra, OMS, y Ámsterdam, HAI.

OMS y OMC (2002), Los Acuerdos de la OMC y la salud pública: un estudio conjunto de la OMS y la Secretaría de la OMC

OMS y ONUSIDA (2002), Accelerating Access Initiative: Widening Access to Care and Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS, Ginebra, OMS/ONUSIDA.

OMS, ONUSIDA y UNICEF (2011), Global HIV/AIDS Response: Epidemic Update and Health Sector Progress Towards Universal Access: Progress Report 2011, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS y UNICEF (2006), Essential Medicines for Children Expert Consultation Report of the Joint WHO-UNICEF Consultation on Essential Medicines for Children, Ginebra, OMS.

OMS, UNICEF y Banco Mundial (2009), Vacunas e inmunización: situación mundial, Ginebra, OMS.

ONUSIDA (2012), Hoja Informativa Mundial, Día Mundial del Sida, Ginebra, ONUSIDA.

ONUSIDA, OMS, PNUD (2011), "Aprovechar las flexibilidades de los ADPIC para mejorar el acceso al tratamiento del VIH." Nota informativa.

Oxfam/MSF (2010), Giving Developing Countries the Best Shot: An Overview of Vaccine Access and R&D, Ginebra, MSF.

Pateriya, S. et al. (2011), "Regulatory Aspects of Pharmaceuticals' Exports in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries", Journal of Young Pharmacists 3(2): 155-62.

Perehudoff, S.K. (2008), Health, Essential Medicines, Human Rights and National Constitutions, Ginebra, OMS.

PhRMA (2007), Drug Discovery and Development: Understanding the R&D Process, Washington, DC, PhRMA.

Pray, L. (2008), "Personalized Medicine: Hope or Hype?," Nature Education 1(1).

PwC (2008), Pharma 2020: Virtual R&D - Which Path Will You Take?, PricewaterhouseCoopers.

PwC (2012), Pharma 2020: From Vision to Decision, PricewaterhouseCoopers.

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