There has been a sharp increase in prices for some natural resources as
well as on the number of restrictions imposed on the export of these
natural resources. This, in turn, has drawn the attention of policy
makers and business people to the issue of free trade of natural
resources and has raised a number of questions: What is the rationale
behind these measures? Are price increases the outcome or the cause of
export restrictions? How do these measures affect exporting and
In October 2009, OECD organized a workshop on raw materials with the
objective to improve understanding of the economic aspects and the
policy objectives of export restrictions. The presentations and
discussions amongst academics and representatives of the business
community, OECD members and several non-OECD countries such as
Argentina, Chile and the Russian Federation identified a number of
issues outlined below.
Natural resources and undistorted trade
In view of the high level of interdependence between exporting and
importing countries, the issue of export restrictions on natural
resources is significant for the world economy. No individual economy is
fully self-sufficient in every resource and the uneven distribution of
natural resources across countries increases the importance of world
markets and free trade. Recognizing the importance of undistorted trade,
a discussion ensued in the Workshop on whether the current multilateral
trade system provided enough disciplines.
Policy objectives of export restrictions
Governments apply export restrictions to achieve several policy
objectives. These include fiscal revenue, development and social
policies. Specifically, several governments have applied export
restrictions on metals and minerals for objectives such as environmental
protection and the conservation of natural resources. Policies can seek
to reduce the negative externalities caused by pollution associated with
mining or processing. Assuming there is a fixed supply of non-renewable
resources, governments can also justify their interventions on the basis
that they must guarantee resources for future generations.
Not all countries, however, rely on these measures to achieve these
objectives and there are alternative policy options with different trade
impacts. In addition, uncoordinated application of export restrictions,
combined with additional policy responses from other countries, can lead
to unexpected outcomes, and thus the original export restriction policy
to fail in meeting its objective. This leads to two questions: (1) how
do the effectiveness and the economic cost of export restrictions
compare to the alternatives? and (2) how can coordinated responses that
minimize economic distortions be encouraged?
Economic impacts of export restrictions
Export restrictions lead to a decrease in export volumes, which has
economic impacts on the domestic and foreign markets. Such restrictions
may divert supply to the domestic market, thus leading to a downward
pressure on domestic prices but higher international prices due to
reduced supplies on these markets. Through this supply-side effect,
export restrictions can create a differential between the domestic price
and the price charged to foreign customers.
The question was raised at the Workshop as to whether export
restrictions affect domestic production as expected by policy makers.
For example, a number of governments apply measures to reduce domestic
production with a view to conserving natural resources under the
assumption that limited exports will result in reduced exploitation of
these natural resources. Such an outcome is not guaranteed since these
measures affect only foreign demand. For this reason, many policies
applied by several countries focus instead on regulation and taxation at
the production level.
Behind the recent proliferation of export restrictions are policy
concerns associated with the recent high prices of natural resources.
Nevertheless, export restrictions can lead to even higher international
prices, and they can increase price volatility. The lack of transparency
regarding the application of export restrictions creates uncertainty for
alternate suppliers of raw materials. This uncertainty, in turn, can
delay long-term business decisions on investment, leading to lagged
responses of the supply.
back to top
Please let us know your views on the submitted articles. Your comments
may take a few minutes to be displayed on the page. Accented characters
may not display correctly. By participating in this forum you are deemed
to have accepted the
Rules for participation in WTO on-line forums.
report of the raw materials workshop
Guide to downloading files