Issues covered by the WTO’s committees and agreements


AMS Aggregate Measure of Support, the preferred calculation of domestic support used for reduction commitments

c.i.f. cost, insurance, freight (included in the price)

EMS Equivalent Measure of Support, used when AMS is not practicable

f.o.b. free on board (price, excluding insurance and freight)

GATT The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, established in 1947. The abbreviation is used for both the legal text and the institution

GATT 1947 The text of GATT as used until amended by the WTO Agreements which came into force in 1995

GATT 1994 The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, as revised in 1994, which is part of the WTO Agreements. GATT 1994 includes GATT 1947 together with amendments.

MFN Most-favoured nation, in the WTO, the principle of treating trading partners equally

MTO Multilateral Trade Organization — the proposed name of the new organization that eventually became the WTO, used during Uruguay Round negotiations (appears in negotiating documents such as "Modalities" for agricultural commitments)

SPS Sanitary and phytosanitary (measures)

SSG Special safeguard

TQ Tariff-quota

TRQ Tariff-rate-quota, same as TQ

UMRs Usual marketing requirements, a system in FAO principles for food aid

WTO The World Trade Organization, established as the successor to the GATT on 1 January 1995

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