The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z



national treatment, extension to permanent residents of Member (GATS xxviii(k)(ii)) GATS 230


national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1)


measures imposed at the time or point of importation (“internal measures”) (Ad Article)

GATT practice GATT 212

imposition on like domestic product requirement GATT 2089, 407

QRs (GATT XI) distinguished GATT 40610


products not subject of tariff concession under GATT II GATT 205

competition law compared GATT 206

as context for interpretation of GATT III:2–5 GATT 2259, 328

GATT practice GATT 224, 229, SCM 207

interpretation of GATT III as a whole and

consistency of interpretation GATT 342

effectiveness principle GATT 218, 226

GATT III:1 as context GATT 226

interpretation of WTO Agreement as a whole as a whole and GATT 413

“no less favourable manner” (SPS Annex C(1)(a)) SPS 5756

publication and administration of regulations (GATT X) and GATT 590

“so as to afford protection”

2.201–4: see also national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “so as to afford protection”, national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2), “so as to afford protection”

equality of competitive conditions GATT 203, 204

GATT practice GATT 222

protection of competitive relationship GATT 2202

GATS II and XVII distinguished GATS 34

omission from GATT III:2, first sentence, relevance GATT 237


national treatment, payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers as exception (GATT III:8(b)) GATT 38993

expenditure of revenue by government, limitation to GATT 389

formal recipient and ultimate beneficiary, distinguishability GATT 392

GATT practice GATT 393

object and purpose GATT 389

SCM Agreement and GATT 390, 41922

targeted aid scheme, applicability to GATT 3912


national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“affecting” GATT 35968

actual impact, relevance GATT 360

GATS 1:1 compared GATT 362

GATT practice GATT 368

hurricane licences GATT 378

licensing procedures GATT 359

nature of advantage, relevance GATT 361

ordinary meaning GATT 360, 362

purpose of measure, relevance GATT 359

ratio requirement (net sales value of locally-produced product/locally sold product) GATT 364

anti-dumping (GATT VI) and GATT 4004

applicability to direct taxes [on individual] GATT 420

burden of proof GATT 3256

determination of violation, elements/test GATT 3224

General Exceptions (GATT XX) and GATT 3846, 8624

general principle (GATT III:1) and GATT 225, 227, 323, 359

“in excess of those applied” (GATT III:2, first sentence), methodology of comparison, individual transactions basis GATT 310

“laws, regulations or requirements”

domestic purchase GATT 324

English, French, Spanish versions of Ad Article III compared GATT 4067

GATT practice GATT 358

identity of measure, relevance GATT 407

“measures” (GATT XXIII:1(b)) distinguished GATT 350

non-mandatory measures GATT 3514

private action and GATT 46 n. 45, 355

“requirements” GATT 3567

“less favourable treatment”

discriminatory system for allocation of import licences GATT 165, 214, 398

equality of competitive conditions as test GATT 36972

GATT XXIII:1(b) compared GATT 387

“equally overall” argument GATT 381

formal differences in treatment, relevance GATT 3769

formal equality GATT 373

GATT practice GATT 388

grouping approach GATT 3012, 372

market effect as test GATT 379

methodology of comparison GATT 37582

“overall equality” GATT 382

as requirement for violation finding GATT 3457

standard of proof GATS 131

“treatment accorded to similarly situated domestic parties”, relevance GATT 380

“like product”: see “like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

“restrictions made effective through state-trading organizations” (Ad Articles XI, XI, XIII, XIV and XVIII) GATT 406

“so as to afford protection” (GATT III:1), relevance GATT 323

TRIMs and GATT 409 n. 596, 4236, TRIMs 6, 917, 19

Illustrative List GATT 423, TRIMs 3, 1011


national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII)

“commercial presence” (GATS XXVIII(d)) and GATS 227

conditions and qualifications (GATS XVII:1) GATS 127

determination of violation, requirements

aims and effects test GATT 217, GATS 38, 132

GATT practice GATT 219

electronic commerce GATS 126

elements of claim GATS 125

foreign character of services (SG XVII footnote 10), relevance GATS 133

“like service and service supplier” (GATS XVII:1), wholesale transactions GATS 1289

MFN treatment (GATT II) distinguished GATS 34

“treatment no less favourable” (GATS XVII:2) GATS 1301

burden of proof GATS 131


national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

see also directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2); “like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

applicability, indirect taxes [taxes on products] GATT 420

“charge of any kind” GATT 2614

GATT practice GATT 264

customary rules of interpretation of public international law and WTO 8, GATT 314

determination of violation, elements, discrimination between resellers of imported and domestic product GATT 270

determination of violation, elements (GATT III:2, first sentence)

aims and effects test/policy purpose GATT 206, 21319

GATT practice GATT 219

directly competitive or substitutable product: see directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2)

economic impact GATT 204

“like product” and “in excess of” GATT 2379

determination of violation, elements (GATT III:2, second sentence)

burden of proof GATT 2845

GATT III:2, first sentence test distinguished GATT 283

as separate elements GATT 183

“directly or indirectly” (GATT III:2, first sentence) GATT 27781

GATT practice GATT 81, 281

discrimination or disguised restriction of trade resulting from inconsistency of SPS measure (SPS 5.5) distinguished SPS 2402

first and second sentences distinguished GATT 204, 2304, 283, 32930, DSU 416 n. 698

general principle (GATT III:1) and GATT 206, 218, 226, 2379

“in excess of those applied” (GATT III:2, first sentence) GATT 26576

actual tax burden GATT 266

balancing of tax burden, exclusion GATT 267

burden of proof GATT 240

duration of tax differential, relevance GATT 272

GATT practice GATT 273

“in excess of” GATT 238

methodology of comparison

individual transactions basis GATT 26671

timing/point of collection, relevance GATT 269

“not similarly taxed” distinguished GATT 3067

regulatory objectives, relevance GATT 2746

Interpretative Note Ad Article III:2, legal status/relevance GATT 236, 282, 2912, 329 n. 476

“not similarly taxed” (Ad Article III) GATT 270, 283, 30610

threshold/de minimis differential GATT 3067, 313

“so as to afford protection” (GATT III:2, second sentence)

as application of general principle (GATT III:1) GATT 239

design and structure of measure as evidence of protective application GATT 250, 312, 317, 319, RO 5

GATT practice GATT 321

intention of legislators/regulators, relevance GATT 31621, RO 5

necessity of tax, relevance GATT 319

“not similarly taxed” (Ad Article III, para. 2) distinguished GATT 311

tariff roles as evidence of GATT 315

tax differentials as evidence of protective application GATT 313

as strict standard GATT 265


national treatment (TRIPS 3)

applicability to intellectual property rights addressed in TRIPS (TRIPS 3.1 footnote 3) TRIPS 578

“each member” /delegation of responsibility (TRIPS 3.1) TRIPS 34

“interested parties” (TRIPS 22.2) and TRIPS 4

“nationals of other members” (TRIPS 1.3/3.1) TRIPS 35

“own nationals” (TRIPS 3.1), determination in accordance with international law TRIPS 523

as reflection of pre-existing conventions and GATT 1994 TRIPS 2

“treatment no less favourable” (TRIPS 3.1) TRIPS 3651

difference of treatment between EU and non-EU members TRIPS 4451, 54

“enjoy the advantages” (PC 2(1)) distinguished TRIPS 201

GATT III:4 compared GATT 41617, TRIPS 39, 50, 614

GATT practice TRIPS 61

offset TRIPS 3943, 66

applicability to all trademark owners requirement TRIPS 401

discretionary administrative procedure as TRIPS 423

TRIPS 20 (special requirements) and TRIPS 57, 147


“nationals”, determination in accordance with international law TRIPS 15, 523


“natural person of another Member” (GATS XXVIII(k)(ii)) GATS 230


Negotiating Group on Basic Communications, establishment GATS 216


Negotiating Group on Basic Telecommunications, establishment GATS 170, 216


Negotiating Group on Maritime Services, establishment GATS 216


Negotiating Group on Market Access: see market access for nonagricultural products (Doha 16), Negotiating Group on Market Access


Negotiating Group on Natural Persons, establishment GATS 216


Negotiating Group on Rules

establishment WTO 155, 156

responsibilities WTO 156



negotiations concerning multilateral trade relations, WTO as forum for (WTO III:2): see “forum for negotiations” (WTO III:2)


“New Strategy for WTO Technical Cooperation for Capacity Building, Growth and Integration”, endorsement (Doha) WTO 111


New Zealand

Enabling Clause notifications

GSP schemes GATT 63

special treatment of least-developed countries GATT 79


NFIDC, implementation (AG 16)

see also Food Aid Convention (1999); Inter-Agency Panel on Short-Term Difficulties in Financing Normal Levels of Commercial Import of Basic Foodstuffs; international food aid (AG 10.4)

Agriculture Committee and AG 118, 120

consultation opportunities (AG 16.2) AG 165

differential treatment within agreement on agricultural export credits AG 218

Doha recommendations AG 1558, 215

effectiveness, recommendations for improvement AG 1668

Inter-Agency Panel: see Inter-Agency Panel on Short-Term Difficulties in Financing Normal Levels of Commercial Import of Basic Foodstuffs

list of net food-importing countries AG 15960

countries included as at 30 September 2011 AG 161

criteria AG 160

effect of inclusion AG 160

monitoring (AG 16.2) AG 1638

notifications AG 1737

report on implementation (15 October 2010) AG 213

Singapore Ministerial Conference recommendations AG 154

Special Session of Agriculture Committee

establishment WTO 156

responsibility for negotiations WTO 156


NGOs (non-governmental organizations)

General Council relations with (WTO V:2) WTO 166

observer status WTO 167


non-actionable subsidies (SCM 8)

arbitration procedures (SCM 8.5) SCM 347

assistance for research activities (SCM 8.2(a)), government purchases of R&D services and SCM 343

Decision on implementation-related concerns (2000) and SCM 342

notifications (SCM 8.3)

Format for Notification Updates (997) SCM 346

Format for Notifications (1995) SCM 345

legal requirements (SCM 8.2) and SCM 344

Format for Updates of Notifications (1997) SCM 346


non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII)

see also quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

adjustment of quota allocation (GATT XIII:4), new Member rights and GATT 676

administrative distinctions, relevance GATT 655, 6589

allocation of quotas (GATT XIII:2(d))

GATT I:1 (“advantage”) and GATT 35

GATT XIII:1/GATT XIII:2 chapeau and GATT 672

GATT XIII:4 and GATT 672, 676

GATT practice GATT 675

inclusion of non-Member imports GATT 666, 674

“may seek agreement” GATT 6701

to Members not having a substantial interest GATT 660, 666 n. 937, 6723

“representative period” GATT 672 n. 945

compensation negotiations (GATT XVIII) and GATT 687, 1074

concessions on agricultural products and (AG 4.1 and 21.1) GATT 656, 689, AG 1, 190

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions (GATT XIII:2 chapeau) GATT 6627

as general rule (Ad Article XIII:2) GATT 6624

historical trade patterns, relevance GATT 6634

inclusion of non-Member imports in calculation of tariff quota shares GATT 666

elimination of QRs (GATT XI) and GATT 399

exceptions (GATT XIV)

GATT practice GATT 693

IMF/WTO cooperation agreement and GATT 692

State trading organizations and: see State trading enterprises (STEs) (GATT XVII), “quantitative restrictions made effective through state-trading organizations” (Ad Articles XI, XI, XIII, XIV and XVIII)

finding as factual matter DSU 842

GATT practice GATT 661, 675, 688

import licensing schemes (GATT XIII:2(b)) GATT 669

“importation … is similarly restricted” (GATT XIII:1) GATT 65860

inclusion of inconsistent allocations in Schedule of Concessions, relevance GATT 169

market access (AG 4.1) and: see market access, concessions and commitments (AG 4.1), consistency with GATT XIII

object and purpose (GATT XIII:2) GATT 655, 659, 672

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X:3(a)) GATT 56279

“reasonable” (risk of disclosure of confidential information) GATT 573

“quotas representing the total amount … shall be fixed” (GATT XIII:2(a)) GATT 668

safeguard measures (SG 5) and: see safeguard measures, application (SG 5), non-discrimination (GATT XIII) and

tariff quotas

applicability of



tariff measures distinguished GATT 690 n. 968


non-market economies (NMEs)

Accession Protocol (China) and GATT 459, AD 166

Accession Working Party (Vietnam) GATT 458, AD 715

collection of mandatory duties (AD 9.2) AD 660

disclosure (AD 6.10) and AD 477, 624

Note 2 Ad Article VI:1 and GATT 4559, 458, AD 1556, 1667, 715

sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 624

separate legal entities, treatment of AD 62731


non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28)

2.451, 17.1521–8: see also retroactivity, retroactivity (provisional measures and anti-dumping duties) (AD 10), retroactivity (trade measures) (ATC 6.10)

in absence of different intention DSU 15224

“any relevant rules of international law …” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) and DSU 1601

continuing measures SCM 256, DSU 15234, 15268

as general principle of international law DSU 59, 1521, 1526, 1601

pre-existing rights

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) GATT 451

countervailing duties (SCM 32.3) GATT 451, SCM 5901


non-tariff measures: see quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)


non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))

any measure” GATT 959

government measures, limitation to GATT 972

measure currently in force, limitation to GATT 973

non-binding action GATT 971

non-commercial measure GATT 964

“benefit” /legitimate expectation of improved market access as GATT 97884, DSU 1551

customary international law and GATT 991, GPA 30

MFN treatment as alternative GATT 974 n. 1381

non-commercial measure and GATT 964

reasonable anticipation and GATT 97883, 986, 988

resulting from negotiations GATT 9747, GPA 301

burden of proof GATT 96770, DSU 134951

constituent elements GATT 9656

as exceptional remedy GATT 9601, DSU 1349

GATT XXIII:1(a) distinguished GATT 959

GATT practice GATT 995

GPA claims distinguished GATT 98991, GPA 30


affecting the competitive relationship, GATT III:4 compared GATT 374

government action, limitation to DSU 24752

“law, regulations or requirements” (GATT III:4) compared GATT 350

nullification or impairment, need for GATT 98691

causality and GATT 9867

competitive relationship as key factor GATT 986

government assistance to economic development (GATT XVIII) and GATT 7557

measures in force, limitation to GATT 973

object and purpose GATT 962


non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)) (DSU 26.1) DSU 134754

burden of proof/ “detailed justification” (DSU 26.1(a)) DSU 134951

remedies (DSU 26.1(b)) DSU 13524

table of complaints DSU 1348


non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(c)) (DSU 26.2), GATT practice distinguished GATT 992, DSU 1355


non-violation claims (GPA XXII:2) GPA 2936

burden of proof GPA 33



Enabling Clause notifications

GSP schemes GATT 63

special treatment of least-developed countries GATT 79


Norway — Trondheim Toll Ring (GATT Panel), GPR.DS2/R, BISD 40S/319, affirmative obligations, GPA tendering procedures (GPA VII) as GPA 21


notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

amendment (WBWP 23 bis)/clarification DSU 14213, 143941

AB explanations (April and October 2004) DSU 143940

authorization of requested amendment DSU 1441

continuing relevance of rule DSU 1410

demonstration of need for DSU 1439, 1474

amendments to ABWP 20(2)(d) (2005/2010)

amendment to notice of appeal (WBWP 23 bis)

continuing relevance DSU 1410

introduction DSU 1422

due process and DSU 1409

explanations DSU 1409, 1410

justification for retaining requirement for a notice of appeal DSU 1409, 1410

timing changes DSU 1410

claims and arguments distinguished

17.1411–14, 17.1429 n. 2228: see also legal basis of claim/ “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), arguments distinguished

DSU 6.2 compared DSU 1412

clear allegation of panel’s failure to make objective assessment (DSU 11) DSU 142830

due process and DSU 368, 14089

amendment (2005) and DSU 1409

failure to meet

consequences DSU 141518, 1426

omission of claim of error relating to jurisdiction as special case DSU 141920

formal deficiencies/absence of prejudice DSU 1424

preliminary ruling on DSU 1421, 1423

notification of challenge to the jurisdiction DSU 368, 1415

statement of allegation of error on issues of law/legal interpretations (ABWP 20(2)(d)) DSU 1423

“for example”, sufficiency DSU 1426

generic statement, sufficiency DSU 1414, 1427

identification of facts requiring panel to draw inferences DSU 1411

indication of appropriate factual or legal inferences DSU 1411

legal argument in support of claim distinguished DSU 1411

paragraph numbers/extracts from panel report, sufficiency DSU 1423, 1425

statement of grounds (ABWP 21:2) DSU 14324

as trigger for appeal process (ABWP 20(1)) DSU 1408


notification and consultation (SG 12) SG 25798

“adequate opportunity for prior consultations” (SG 12.3) SG 2858

level of concessions (SG 8.1) and SG 23940

as “sufficient time for meaningful exchange” SG 240

“all pertinent information” (SG 12.2) SG 2802

injury factors (SG 4.2(a)) and SG 2802, 290

objective test SG 2801

precise description of proposed measure sufficient for prior consultation under SG 12.3 SG 287, 28990

content of SG 1(a) notification SG 276, 2789

elimination of pre-existing GATT measures (SG 10/SG 12.7) SG 24950, 2967

calculation of deadline (SG 12.7) (“date of this agreement” (WTO XVI:2)) SG 254, 296

signatories entitled to become original Members of WTO and SG 297

formats SG 2579, 2769, 292, 293, 297

non-binding nature SG 279

termination of measure SG 277


SG 12.1 SG 2614

SG 12.1(a) SG 2657

SG 12.1(b) SG 26870

SG 12.1(c) SG 2715

translation delays SG 261, 264

“initiation of investigation and reasons for it” (SG 12.1(a)), limitation to SG 2789

AD 5 and SCM 11 distinguished SG 279

SG 3.1 and 4.2 distinguished SG 279

laws, regulations and administrative procedures (SG 12.6)

accession protocols and SG 298

compliance record SG 295

format SG 293

notifications SG 303

review procedures SG 294

modifications reducing restrictiveness of measure (SG 7.4),

limitation to SG 237, 291

notifications, availability SG 260

object and purpose SG 281

right to request additional information (SG 13.1(f)), relevance SG 282, 289

Technical Cooperation Handbook on Notification Requirements, relevance SG 257

timeliness (SG 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3) SG 283


notification of enquiry/contact points




notification of implementing laws and regulations (PSI 5) PSI 22


notification obligations (LIC 1.4 and 5) LIC 14

duplication or overlapping of notifications LIC 37

reversal of notifications (LIC 5.5) LIC 39

notifications as at 30 September 2011 LIC 38

procedures, agreement on (1995) LIC 16, 52

reverse/counter notifications (LIC 5.5) AG 139


notification obligations and procedures

GPA Agreement GPA 16, 1819, 25, 40

SPS Agreement, see also transparency of SPS regulations (SPS 7 and Annex B)

Technical Cooperation Handbook on Notification Requirements, relevance SG 257


notification obligations and procedures (TRIMs 2.1), notification formats (TRIMs 5.5) TRIMs 36


notification obligations and procedures (TRIPS)

enquiry/contact points (TRIPS 69) TRIPS 306

laws and regulations, final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application (TRIPS 63.2) TRIPS 59, 73, 27980

notification formats TRIPS 59, 73


Notification Obligations and Procedures Working Group WTO 92


notification obligations (SCM 25)

13.514–24: see also non-actionable subsidies (SCM 8), notifications (SCM 8.3)

effect of notification (SCM 25.7) SCM 517

frequency of submission and review SCM 515

nil notifications (SCM 25.11 and 25.12) SCM 523

“nil” notifications SCM 524

notification formats SCM 345, 514, 571, 573

“report … all preliminary or final actions” (SCM 25.11)

minimum information SCM 51920

semi-annual reports SCM 5212

transparency and SCM 518

written procedure SCM 516


notification procedures (TBT 2.9)

comments on notified regulations

procedures for handling TBT 945

time limits TBT 923


processing of requests for TBT 91

streamlining of follow-up notifications, amendments etc. TBT 989

translation (TBT 10.5) TBT 90, 124

electronic availability of notified draft regulation TBT 96

electronic transmission TBT 87

labelling requirements TBT 88

listing of notifications TBT 97

notification of agreement on technical regulations, standards or conformity assessment procedures which may have a significant effect on trade (TBT 2.10) TBT 1256

notification format and guidelines TBT 867

notification of proposed regulations (TBT 2.9.2)

French and Spanish texts compared TBT 101

as inherent obligation TBT 101

provision on request of copy of proposed regulation (TBT 2.9.3) distinguished TBT 101

provision on request of proposed regulation, timing (TBT 2.9.3) TBT 102

publication requirement TBT 845

“significant effect on trade of other members” (TBT 2.9 and 5.6) TBT 83, 100

TBT Committee recommendations and decisions relating to TBT 8199

timing TBT 89, 101

“urgent problems … arise or threaten to arise” (TBT 22.10) and TBT 103


notification requirements (AG 18.2) AG 1738

developing countries AG 1778

information systems AG 1756

notification formats AG 173

report on Members’ compliance with notification obligations AG 174


notification requirements (ATC 2) ATC 57

mandatory 60 day period (ATC 2.1) ATC 8

unnotified measures ATC 7, 11


notification requirements (ATC 3) ATC 6


notification requirements (ATC 6), provisional application of restraint measures authorized under ATC 10 (ATC 11) and ATC 81


notification requirements (STEs) (GATT XVII:4/Understanding on the Interpretation of GATT XVII) GATT 73643

frequency GATT 742

GATT practice GATT 738

questionnaire GATT 737, 740

time limits GATT 736


notification of rules of origin, judicial decisions and administrative rulings (RO 5)

in language other than WTO working language RO 21

notifications as of 31 December 2010 RO 23

procedure for dealing with queries in respect of national legislation RO 22


notification and transitional arrangements (TRIMs 5)

elimination of TRIMs notified under TRIMs 5.1 (TRIMS 5.2)

developed and developing countries TRIMs 30


format TRIMs 25

notification of LDC temporary measures (Hong Kong) TRIMs 289

notifications by original Members (TRIMs 5.1) TRIMs 26

notifications under TRIMs 5.1 TRIMs 27


nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8)

adverse impact/prejudice, relevance AD 3923, 456, DSU 908

direct or indirect benefits (DSU 3.3) DSU 1223

GATS XXIII (dispute settlement and enforcement), distinguished GATS 2034, DSU 99100

inconsistency with covered agreement as prima facie evidence of, rebuttal SCM 225

legal interest requirement (DSU 3.7) distinguished DSU 87

lost opportunities, relevance DSU 1223

nature and purpose of countermeasures (DSU 22) DSU 117782

presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement AD 390, DSU 908, 1223, 1225

adverse effects (SCM 5) distinguished SCM 261, DSU 95

evidence of level of nullification or impairment distinguished DSU 98, 1231

SCM 3 and 4 (prohibited subsidies) distinguished SCM 225, DSU 12813

SCM 5 (adverse effects) SCM 225, 2345

SCM 7.9 and 10 (commensurate with degree and nature of adverse effects) distinguished SCM 235


nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4): see suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4)


nullification or impairment (GATT XXIII): see non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), nullification or impairment, need for