The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z



panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP))

see also composition of delegation; evidence (panel) (DSU 12); executive summaries (panel working procedures); margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3); special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2)

access to dispute settlement process (DSU 12.6) DSU 516, 697

applicable law

agreement of parties to alternative procedure DSU 622

panel’s right to determine DSU 622

confidentiality of proceedings: see confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3)

departure from after consultation with/agreement of parties (DSU 12.1) DSU 479

experts, applicability to SPS 417, DSU 1487

high quality reports/avoidance of delay, flexibility in achieving balance (DSU 12.2) DSU 678, 694

panel proceedings as two-stage process DSU 622

“rebuttal submissions” DSU 628, 698

separate opinion (DSU 14.3) GATT 626, DSU 771

submission, right of (DSU 12.6 and WP 4) DSU 516, 697

order of submission (DSU 12.6 and WP 12), arbitration (DSU 21.5), applicability to DSU 699

text (Appendix 3) DSU 1360 (Section XXX)

time limits for filing of written submissions (DSU 12.5 and WP),

modification by agreement DSU 721

timetable (DSU 12.3)

flexibility DSU 696

preliminary ruling on DSU 696


panel reports

see also dispute settlement, special provisions relating to developing countries; legal status of panel reports; standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

adoption of report/notice of appeal (DSU 16.4) DSU 82734

circumvention of deadline DSU 833

extension of deadline DSU 82732

AB workload and DSU 832

parties’ procedural agreement on DSU 8301

high quality/flexibility of panel procedures balance (DSU 12.2) DSU 465, 678, 681, 685, 6945, 734

rationale/reasons, need for (DSU 12.7)

Article 21.5 proceedings and DSU 704

in case of mutually agreed solution DSU 7068

direct quotation from previous report, desirability DSU 703

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and GATT 314, DSU 51, 703

sufficiency SCM 310, DSU 7008

reference to previous panel report (DSU 21.5) DSU 703

separate opinions GATT 626, DSU 771

table of appealed reports (DSU 4) DSU 839


panel, request for establishment: see request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2)



see also composition of panel (DSU 8)

independence and impartiality (RoC II and III:2) DSU 1482

Rules of Conduct (RoC), applicability to DSU 1482, 1487


parallelism (safeguard measures): see safeguard measures, conditions (SG 2), parallelism between investigation (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c)) and application of measure (SG 2.2)


Paris Convention (PC)/TRIPS

see also intellectual property conventions (TRIPS 2); trade names, obligation to comply with PC 8 as incorporated by TRIPS 2.1; trademarks (Paris Convention) (PC)

applicability of Paris Convention, obligation to argue/make prima facie case TRIPS 22

assimilation to nationals “of the Union” (PC 3) TRIPS 24

“criteria for eligibility for protection” TRIPS 16

incorporation (TRIPS 2.1) TRIPS 1933, DSU 870

“interested party” (PC 10(2)) TRIPS 32

national treatment (PC 2(1)) TRIPS 202

“nationals of other Members” (TRIPS (1.3)), 16.15–16, 16.18:

see also TRIPS Agreement, applicability to “nationals of other Members” (TRIPS 1.3)

trademark registration (PC 6): see trademarks (Paris Convention (PC))


patents (TRIPS part II Section 5)

see also copyright and related rights (TRIPS Part II Section 1), limitations and exceptions (TRIPS 13)

exclusive rights (TRIPS 28) TRIPS 188

plimited exceptions (TRIPS 30)

applicability of TRIPS 27.1 TRIPS 1845

balance of agreement as a whole and TRIPS 191

compensatory adjustment TRIPS 203

conditions/criteria (“limited”)

Berne 9(2) as basis TRIPS 202

cumulative nature TRIPS 189

curtailment of owner’s rights TRIPS 1924

economic impact TRIPS 1934

“exploitation of patent” TRIPS 1957

“legitimate interests” TRIPS 198203

legal rights distinguished TRIPS 200

“normal exploitation” TRIPS 1956

patentable subject matter (TRIPS 27)

as context for interpretation of TRIPS 70 (protection of existing subject matter) TRIPS 311

“discrimination” (TRIPS 27.1)

applicability to TRIPS 30 and 31 TRIPS 1845

de facto discrimination TRIPS 1778

“fields of technology” TRIPS 180

non-discriminatory terminology in other GATT/WTO

agreements distinguished TRIPS 1778

exceptions (TRIPS 30), applicability TRIPS 1845

policy considerations underlying TRIPS 185

review (TRIPS 27.3(b)), information-gathering TRIPS 181

work programme (Doha 19/Hong Kong Declaration) TRIPS 1823

term of protection (TRIPS 33)

“available” TRIPS 212

“effectiveness”, relevance TRIPS 213

“existing subject matter” (TRIPS 70.2) and TRIPS 317

freedom to choose method of implementation (TRIPS 1.1) and, “filing date” TRIPS 211

unwarranted curtailment, prohibition (TRIPS 62.2) as distinct and cumulative provision TRIPS 8, 276

use without authorization (TRIPS 31)

compulsory licences (Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health) TRIPS 205

pharmaceutical product, waiver of TRIPS 31(f) and (h) requirement (TRIPS 31 bis) TRIPS 20610


payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

see also determination of dumping (AD 2), calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4); export subsidy commitments (AG 9); export subsidy commitments (AG 9), “direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a)); export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II), “contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a))

applicability to scheduled and unscheduled commitments (AG 3.3) AG 312

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

absence of express provision, relevance AG 92

domestic price fixed by government AG 93

factual and regulatory setting, relevance AG 923

industry-wide production costs AG 96

market intervention AG 3

market rate, relevance, world market price AG 945

objective standard, need for AG 945

“budgetary outlays” (AG 1(c)), “revenue foregone” AG 10

“by virtue of” AG 99, 1001, 106

“but for” test AG 100

link, need for AG 1007

“financed” AG 99

“whether or not a charge on the public account” AG 87, 99

“government action” AG 98


cross-subsidization as/as cross-subsidization AG 91, 106

payment-in-kind as AG 8790

transfer of economic resources, need for AG 87

payments by private parties as AG 102


payments and transfers (GATS XI)

absence of jurisprudence GATS 70

importance of provision GATS 70


Permanent Group of Experts (PGE) (SCM 4.5) SCM 197, 50910


permanent resident, equality of treatment with nationals GATS 230


pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products, patent protection (TRIPS 70.8)

see also patents (TRIPS part II Section 5)

developing countries’ right to delay (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 186, 293


Philippines — Distilled Spirits (Panel), WT/DS396/R, WT/DS403/R

dispute settlement, special provisions relating to developing countries, extension of periods established under DSU 4.7 and 8 (DSU 12.10) DSU 715

interim review (DSU 15), contested factual issues DSU 777

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate panel reports (DSU 9.2), structure DSU 457


Plurilateral Agreements

see also Aircraft Agreement (AIR); Government Procurement Agreement (GPA); International Bovine Meat Agreement; International Dairy Agreement (IDA)

accession to (WTO XX:3) WTO 2558

additions and deletions (WTO X:9) WTO 21718

amendments (WTO X:10) WTO 21922

DSU applicability and AIR 31

reporting procedures WTO 75

reservations (WTO XVI:5) WTO 3003

subsidiary bodies (WTO IV:8), reporting procedures WTO 75

withdrawal (WTO XV:2) WTO 272


Poland, ATC safeguard measures (ATC 6), TMB discussion ATC 34, 73


practice prior to ATC 2


pre-shipment inspection: see PSI Agreement, review/monitoring (PSI 6); PSI obligations


precautionary principle (SPS Agreement)

consistency of measures with SPS Agreement requirement SPS 8, DSU 1730

control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8 and Annex C) and SPS 570

as customary international environmental law SPS 2, 67, DSU 17301

harmonization of measures (SPS 3.3/preamble) and SPS 91

measures which result in a higher level of protection than international standards (SPS 3.3) SPS 8, DSU 1730

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) and SPS 8, DSU 1730

as “rule of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) DSU 1594, 17301

scientific basis of measures, panel assessment SPS 181

SPS preamble SPS 68, DSU 1730

sufficient scientific evidence (SPS 5.7) and SPS 8, 23, 37, 32830



see also GATT 1947/WTO continuity, decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1); legal status of adopted AB reports

AB jurisprudence, importance of following DSU 53, 68, 835, 903, 1701

distinguishability of cases and AD 779, DSU 825

ECJ decisions GATT 206

GATT panel reports GATT 239 n. 348

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 53, 823, 835, 903, 1701

as source of rule of international law DSU 1590


Preferential Trade Arrangements (2010), Transparency Mechanism

(2010) WTO 121


preliminary rulings on

adequacy of consultation (DSU 4) DSU 161

compliance with ABWP 20(2)(d) DSU 1421, 1423

composition of delegation/private counsel DSU 914

composition of panel (DSU 8.7) DSU 437, 1494

confidentiality issues DSU 917

establishment of new panel during preparation of, good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 129

executive summaries DSU 735

identity of measures specified in requests for consultations and establishment of panel DSU 417, 427

multiple panels (DSU 9.3) DSU 462

panel composition DSU 1494

specificity of request for panel (DSU 6.2) DSU 2367, 23940, 344, 345, 373, 462

terms of reference DSU 418

third party rights DSU 471, 505

timetable for panel proceedings DSU 696

timing of submission of evidence DSU 6238


preliminary rulings (procedural aspects)

absence of requirement/established practice DSU 3489

circulation to DSB as WTO documents DSU 350

issue to parties/third parties DSU 351

regulation of request for DSU 3467

reproduction in final report DSU 351

request for, typical requirements DSU 720

third parties’ rights relating to DSU 5012

timing DSU 670

working procedures, need for DSU 3467


preparatory work (VCLT 32) DSU 163943

AD 1 AD 5

AD 2.4.2 AD 128 n. 178

AD 3.4 AD 247, 249

AD 5/SCM 11 SCM 371

AD Annex II AD 533

AG 4.2 AG 37

ambiguity and (VCLT 32(1)) TRIPS 229

Berne 9(2) TRIPS 118 n. 121

BOP Understanding footnote 1 GATT 755, DSU 1640

Enabling Clause GATT 84


GATT II:1(b) GATT 148


GATT III:8 GATT 389, 390, 422, DSU 1639

GATT VI:1 Ad Article GATT 459


GATT VI:6(b) and (c) GATT 486



improper use of DSU 58

Oilseeds Agreement as DSU 1635

RO 2(c) RO 12 n. 22

Scheduling Guidelines as GATS 115, 121

1993 Guidelines GATS 179, 180

Document W/120 GATS 179, 185

SCM 1.1(a)(1) SCM 12, 14, 48

SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)/SCM 14(d) DSU 1643

SCM 4 SCM 236

SCM 11 SCM 371

SCM GATS 7, DSU 1642

SG SG 83

TRIPS 13 TRIPS 118 n. 123



Preshipment Inspection Agreement: see PSI Agreement


price undertakings (AD 8)/undertakings (SCM 18)

AD 8 and SCM 18 distinguished AD 655, SCM 458

practicality, relevance (AD 8.3/SCM 18.3) AD 654, SCM 457


prima facie case: see burden of proof (general rules), prima facie case requirement


private action as justification for breach of obligation GATT 46, 355, SCM 213, 241


private counsel, inclusion in delegation

appellate review DSU 7227

confidentiality and: see confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/ DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27), private counsel/ advisers not part of delegation and

panel proceedings DSU 91416

Rules of Conduct (RoC), non-applicability DSU 148890


privileges and immunities (WTO VIII)

see also Headquarters Agreement (WTO–Switzerland) (1995)

Convention on Privileges and Immunities of Specialized Agencies (1947) as model (WTO VIII:4) WTO 192

Members’ obligation to respect international character of WTO (WTO VI:4) and WTO 191

WTO staff and representatives of Members (WTO VIII:3)

functional nature WTO 191

obligation of Secretariat officials to observe host State laws WTO 191

waiver by Director-General WTO 191

WTO (WTO VIII:2), functional nature WTO 191


procedure, see also AB procedures (DSU, 17.9 and ABWP); panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP))


progressive liberalization (GATS XIX), decisions and agreements relating to

see also government procurement (GATS XIII); judicial and administrative assistance, non-applicability of GATS II (MFN) provisions; market access (GATS XVI); “measure” (GATS XXVIII(a)); “measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1); “measures by Members” (GATS I:3); MFN treatment (GATS II); monopolies and exclusive service providers (GATS VIII); Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services under the Agreement (GATS, Annex); national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII); payments and transfers (GATS XI); progressive liberalization (GATS XIX); decisions and agreements relating to; progressive liberalization negotiations (GATS XIX:3 and Doha 15); recognition of qualifications (GATS VII)

Decision on Commitments in Basic Telecommunications (GATS, Fourth Protocol) GATS 170

financial services

GATS: Second Protocol GATS 167

GATS: Fifth Protocol GATS 168

movement of natural persons (GATS: Third Protocol) GATS 166

obligation (GATTS XIX:1), information exchange (Singapore) GATS 161


progressive liberalization negotiations (GATS XIX:3 and Doha 15)

guidelines and procedures (GATS XIX:3/Doha 15)

assessment of trade in services as on-going exercise GATS 165

Guidelines and Procedures for Negotiations (2001) GATS 164

obligation (GATTS XIX:1) GATS 1613

Special Session of the Council for Trade in Services

establishment WTO 156

responsibility for negotiations WTO 156


prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) DSU 638, 345

ABWP and SCM 196, DSU 120, 306, 1367

amicus curiae briefs and DSU 743

change of AB composition and SG 115, DSU 1385

arbitration (DSU 25) and DSU 1330, 1343

determination of “measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), and DSU 404

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 115

impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3)

arbitration (DSU 21.5) and DSU 1136

“Member considers” DSU 6970

“measure taken by another Member”, nexus DSU 241

multiple complainants (DSU 9) and

joint meetings with experts DSU 488

separate panel reports DSU 65

multiple proceedings, avoidance of DSU 667

prompt compliance with DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21) and DSU 1029

“satisfactory settlement” (DSU 3.4 and 3.7) DSU 73

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) as aid to

DSU 68, 826

timeliness of request for separate panel reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 448


proper parties, 17.516: see also amicus curiae briefs



attribution of damage (ATC 6.4) ATC 65

countermeasures ATC 63, SCM 226, 22830, 236, 253, DSU 12901, 1674 n. 2617, 16958

“other remedies” (TRIPS 46) TRIPS 230

risk based on scientific evidence SPS 30

safeguard measures (ATC 6.4) and ATC 63

safeguard measures (SG 5.1) (“to the extent necessary”) and SG 1315, 2247

State responsibility and ATC 63, SCM 221, SG 227, DSU 1286, 1674 n. 2617, 1694, 16967

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) and ATC 63, SCM 22830, 2367, DSU 12901


provisional adoption of SPS measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7) SPS 527

assessment period SPS 3067

“available pertinent information” SPS 309

burden of proof

consolidation of SPS 2.2 and SPS 5.7 requirements SPS 327

limitation of Article 21.5 review to insufficiencies identified by Member adopting measure DSU 1278 n. 2005

SPS 5.7 as alternative defence, relevance SPS 326

SPS 5.7 as autonomous right, effect SPS 3245, 335

cumulative requirements SPS 2934

impossibility of reaching objective conclusion and SPS 292

“insufficient” SPS 2959

international standard as evidence of sufficiency SPS 3002

precautionary principle and SPS 32830

provisional measure falling outwith scope of SPS 5.7 SPS 291

as qualified exemption/autonomous right SPS 36, 526, 28790, 3325

burden of proof and SPS 3245, 335

rational and objective relationship between SPS measure and scientific evidence, need for SPS 309

review within “a reasonable period of time” SPS 293, 31719

availability of objectively sufficient evidence and SPS 320

evolution of scientific evidence subsequent to adoption of provisional measure and SPS 3213

relevance of Member’s ALOP SPS 320, 538

risk assessment (SPS 1) and SPS 308

scientific uncertainty/controversy, relevance SPS 296, 299

“seek to obtain additional information” for more objective assessment of risk SPS 31016

SPS 5.1/Annex A(4) and SPS 31112

standard of insufficiency SPS 3035


provisional measures (AD 7)

duration (AD 7.4) AD 648

claim relating to as claim relating to definitive anti-dumping duty (AD 10) AD 8945

judicial economy in case of overlap with previous determination relating to definitive measure AD 647

as “measure” (AD 17.4) AD 8945

“not in excess of” (AD 7.2) AD 649

preliminary affirmative determination (AD 7.1(ii)), retroactive measures (AD 10.7) and AD 729

specific action against dumping (Note Ad Article VI:2–3) AD 653


provisional measures (SCM 17)

date of commencement (SCM 17.3) SCM 455

duration (SCM 17.4) SCM 456

retroactivity (SCM 20) and SCM 455, 466, 4735, 477


provisional restraint measures: see transitional safeguards (ATC 6), provisional application of restraint measures authorized under ATC 10 (ATC 11)


provisional safeguard measures (SG 6), tariff measures (GATT XI) and GATT 597, SG 235


PSI Agreement

scope of Agreement PSI 2

as transitional arrangement/alternatives to PSI 45


PSI Agreement, review/monitoring (PSI 6)

see also Independent Entity (IE) (PSI 4); PSI Working Party

Customs Valuation Committee and VAL 64, PSI 3, 29

first review (1996–1999) PSI 235

second review (2006) PSI 26


PSI companies

government contracts with PSI 1

history and role PSI 1


PSI obligations

business confidential information (PSI 2.9–2.13) PSI 89

consultation (PSI 7) PSI 27

dispute settlement (PSI 8) PSI 28

exporter Members (PSI 3), technical assistance activities (PSI 3.3) PSI 16

notification of implementing laws and regulations (PSI 5) PSI 22

user Members (PSI 2)

conflicts of interest (PSI 14) PSI 11

delays (PSI 2.15–2.19) PSI 10

price verification (PSI 2.20) (PSI/VAL relationship)

independent review procedure (2006) PSI 1415

PSI Working Party’s 1997 report PSI 12

PSI Working Party’s final report PSI 13

protection of confidential business information (PSI 2.9–2.13) PSI 89

price databases and PSI 9

transparency (PSI 5 and 6), PSI Working Party report (1997) PSI 7

uniform application (PSI 2.2), model contract PSI 6


PSI Working Party

establishment WTO 66, PSI 23

extension of mandate PSI 25

reports PSI 245

final report (1999) PSI 25


“public body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) SCM 8, 1617, DSU 1683

“private body”, attempt to distinguish (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)) SCM 17 n. 28


public health: see TRIPS Agreement, Declaration on Public Health (2001)


public hearings (panel)

special or additional procedures (DSU 12.1) DSU 68990, 9245 table DSU 925


public international law: see international law


public notice and explanation of determinations (AD 12)

AD 3.4 factors, written record of analysis and AD 268

confidential information (AD 6.5) and AD 599, 646

as due process requirement AD 186, 268

judicial economy in case of substantive inconsistency with AD Agreement AD 831, 83840

notification to government of exporting Member (AD 5.5) distinguished AD 421

as procedural requirement AD 268


public notice and explanation of determinations (SCM 22), standard of proof (SCM 22.1) SCM 503


public notice of initiation of investigation (AD 12.1)

compliance with other obligations, dependence on AD 831

harmless error principle AD 827

“interested parties”, obligation to in absence of contact details AD 825

“known exporters” (AD 6.1)/ “interested parties known” (AD 12.1) AD 436, 451

non-compliance as “harmless error” AD 827

notification and public notice distinguished AD 824

separate report (AD 12.1.1)

need for reference to AD 826

notice of preliminary or final determination distinguished AD 829

summary of factors (AD 12.1.1(iv)) AD 8289

time-limits for making views known (AD 12.1.1(vi)) AD 429

timing (AD 12.1)

initiation of investigation and AD 8223

satisfaction as to sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.3), relevance AD 823


public notice of preliminary or final determination (AD 12.2)

AD 12.2.2, SCM 22.4 and SCM 22.5, close similarity SCM 504

“all relevant information on the matters of fact and law and reasons” for measures (AD 12.2.2) AD 186, 248

change of legal basis, obligation to inform interested parties (AD 12.2) AD 4334, 462, 618

compliance with other obligations, dependence on AD 83840

data collection period, inclusion of reasons for (AD 12.2.2) AD 13, 830

explanations for initiation of investigations (AD 12.2.2), relevance/sufficiency AD 8337


public observation of oral hearing/ “passive participation” (ABWP 27(3)) DSU 1442, 14434

AB authority to agree to DSU 1442, 1449, 1450

amendment of ABWP 24 and 27(3) (2003) DSU 14434, 1449

confidentiality considerations (RoC VII:1) DSU 1483

as legal right DSU 743

methodology DSU 1451

reasons for allowing DSU 888

table showing DSU 1452


publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

AD Agreement and GATT 5956

burden of proof GATT 516, 519

“confidential information” (GATT X:1) GATT 538

“date of this Agreement” (GATT X:3(c))/GATT practice GATT 5878

“effecting an advance …” (GATT X:2) GATT 5446

“effecting” GATT 544

enforcement prior to publication as violation of GATT X:2 GATT 547

“uniform practice” GATT 545

GATT practice (GATT X:1) GATT 539

GATT practice (GATT X:3(b)) GATT 579

independent tribunals (GATT X:3(b)) GATT 5846

“laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings” (GATT X:1) GATT 51217

failure to fix quota as GATT 517

“made effective” GATT 5268

“of general application” GATT 554

“pertaining to the classification” GATT 529

measure of general application (GATT X:2) GATT 543

measures of general application (GATT X:1)

absence of written rules and GATT 514, 516

due process and GATT 511

government involvement in price determination, need for GATT 515

“of general application” GATT 51825

“prompt review and correction” (GATT X:3(b)) GATT 5802

disproportionate delay and GATT 582

due process considerations GATT 5801

independent review requirement GATT 582

relationship with other GATT provisions see also under separate subject headings such as national treatment (GATT X:1) above

retroactivity of trade measures (ATC 6.10) and GATT 5412

“shall be published” (GATT X:1) GATT 5302

“in such a manner as to enable …” GATT 5357

“promptly” GATT 5334

transparency and due process

GATT X:2 and GATT 540

GATT X:3 and GATT 548

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a))

applicability to individual traders GATT 563

applicability to licensing regulations GATT 549

appointment to monopoly as application of customs laws GATT 559, 570

burden of proof GATT 5578

consistency of administration with Member’s domestic law, relevance GATT 562

due process requirement GATT 552 n. 774

general impact on overall administration, need for GATT 521

“impartial” GATT 56970

absence of guidelines or standards and GATT 571

conflict of interest and GATT 572

dual function officials GATT 559, 570

presence of private parties during customs process GATT 569, DSU 251

“reasonable” GATT 5738

absence of guidelines or standards and GATT 577

disproportionate delay GATT 576

dual function officials and GATT 575, 578

relationship with other GATT provisions GATT 5513, 589

“shall administer” /applicability to substantive rule GATT 55161, 565

significant impact on overall administration of law requirement for violation GATT 564

timing of acts of administration, relevance to admissibility as evidence GATT 561, DSU 630

transparency between WTO members and with respect to individual traders distinguished GATT 563

“uniform” GATT 562, 5667, 591

discrimination between Members and GATT 553, 591

“uniform”, “impartial” and “reasonable” as independent elements GATT 550


publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1)

2.806–7, 2.814, 14.95, 14.99: see also reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG)

absence of claim relating to, effect on possibility of SG 4 claims SG 91

application of safeguard measures (SG 5.1), Members’ right to choose method and SG 979

application of safeguard measures (SG 5.1), parties’ right to choose method and SG 979

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)) SG 99, 109

confidential information (SG 3.2) and, 14.110–11: see also confidential information (SG 3.2)

format of report, relevance SG 104

multiple findings SG 95

non-compliance with SG 3.1 as violation of SG 2.1/SG 4 SG 99

“pertinent issues”, unforeseen developments as SG 103

“publish” / “make publicly available”, equivalence SG 100

“reasoned conclusions”. SG 1012

timing of report, relevance SG 105


publication of SPS measures: see transparency of SPS regulations (SPS 7 and Annex B)


publication of technical regulations/entry into force (TBT 2.12), “reasonable interval” TBT 1047