Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.


air transport services: see air transport services (GATS Annex)

annexes as integral part (GATS XXIX)

balance of payments restrictions: see balance of payments, restrictions to safeguard (GATS XII)

business practices (GATS IX): see business practices (GATS IX)

consultation and cooperation with UN, specialized agencies and other intergovernmental organizations (GATS VII:5 and GATS XXVI)

denial of benefits: see denial of benefits (GATS XXVII)

developing country Members: see developing country Members (GATS IV)

dispute settlement and enforcement (GATS XXIII): see balance of payments restrictions, consultations (BOPU 13/GATT XII:4/ GATT XVIII:12/GATS XXII:5); dispute settlement and enforcement (GATS XXIII)

domestic regulation (GATS VI): see domestic regulation (GATS VI)

economic integration: see economic integration agreements (GATS) (GATS V)

emergency safeguard measures: see emergency safeguard measures (GATS X); progressive liberalization, negotiation of specific commitments (GATS XIX)

exemptions: see MFN treatment (GATS II), exemptions, Annex on (GATS II.2)

financial services: see Committee on Trade in Financial Services; financial services (GATS Annex); financial services (GATS Annex (Second))

general exceptions: see General Exceptions (GATS XIV)

government procurement: see government procurement (GATS XIII)

international transfers and payments: see international transfers and payments, restrictions (GATS XI)

market access: see market access (GATS XVI)

monopolies and exclusive service providers (GATS VIII): see monopolies and exclusive service providers (GATS VIII)

national treatment: see national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII)

object and purpose (Preamble)

balance of rights and obligations/due respect for national policy objectives

developing country Members and: see also developing country Members (GATS IV)

economic growth

multilateral framework of principles and rules

progressive liberalization


progressive liberalization: see progressive liberalization, negotiation of specific commitments (GATS XIX)

recognition of qualifications: see recognition of qualifications (GATS VII)

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX): see progressive liberalization, negotiation of specific commitments (GATS XIX); Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX)

technical assistance/cooperation (GATS XXV)

telecommunications: see telecommunications (GATS provisions, applicability and supplementary provisions (GATS Annex on telecommunications))

transparency (GATS III): see transparency (GATS III)

GATS, applicability and definitions: see also air transport services (GATS Annex); financial services (GATS Annex); telecommunications (GATS provisions, applicability and supplementary provisions (GATS Annex on telecommunications)), definitions

“commercial services” (GATS XXVIII(d))

“direct taxes” (GATS XXVIII(o))

“juridical person of another Member” (GATS XXVIII(m))

“juridical person” (GATS XXVIII(l))

“juridical person” (GATS XXVIII(n))

“measure” (GATS XXVIII(a))

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS 1:1)

“measures by Member affecting trade in services” (GATS XXVIII(c))

“measures by Members” (GATS I:3(a))

“monopoly supplier of a service” (GATS XXVIII(h))

“natural person” (GATS XXVIII(j))

“person” (GATS XXVIII(j))

“sector” (GATS XXVIII(e))

“service of another Member” (GATS XXVIII(f))

“service consumer” (GATS XXVIII(i))

“service supplied in the exercise of governmental authority”

Annex on financial services, para. 1(b)

GATS I:3(c)

“service supplier” (GATS XXVIII(g))

“services”, “services” (GATS I:3(b)), Annex on financial services and (Annex, para. 1(c) and (d))

“services” (GATS I:3(b))

“supply of service” (GATS XXVIII(b))

“trade in services” (GATS I:2)

GATS, MFN treatment: see MFN treatment (GATS II)

GATS, progressive liberalization (GATS Part IV), obligation to undertake negotiations (GATS XIX:1), GATS Preamble

GATT 1947 (including amendments): see also subject-matter headings for matters treated at greater length


deposit (GATT XXVI:4)

eligibility (GATT XXVI:2)

Ministerial Decision

territorial application and (GATT XXVI:5)

accession (GATT XXXIII)

amendments (GATT XXX)

Annexes as integral part (GATT XXXIV)

“contracting parties” (GATT XXXII)

“CONTRACTING PARTIES”, as designation for purposes of joint action (GATT XXV:1)

as “WTO” (GATT 1994, 2(a))

date (GATT XXVI:1)

“developed contracting parties” (GATT Ad Part IV)

entry into force (GATT XXVI:6 and Annex H)

exemption from provisions of Part II under pre-existing mandatory legislation relating to ship in national waters or EEZ: see foreign vessel, use, sale or lease in national waters or EEZ, exemption from GATT, Part II (GATT 1994, 3)

Havana Charter and (GATT XXIX and Ad Article)

joint action under: see joint action under GATT 1947 (GATT XXV)

language/authentic texts (GATT XXVI:3)

“less-developed contracting parties” (GATT Ad Part IV)

non-applicability (GATT XXXV)

protocols of accession to GATT 1947 and (GATT 1994, 1(b)(ii))

registration (GATT XXVI:7)

territorial application

acceptance and (GATT XXVI:5)

customs territories (GATT XXIV:1)

“customs territory” (GATT XXIV:2)

customs unions: see customs unions (GATT XXIV:5(a))

frontier traffic (GATT XXIV:3(a))

provisional arrangements

regional trade agreements: see regional trade agreements (GATT XXIV:5(b))

Trieste, countries contiguous to Free Port of, applicability of GATT (GATT XXIV:3(b))

waiver of obligations by CONTRACTING PARTIES (GATT XXV:5)

withdrawal (GATT XVIII:12(e))

withdrawal (GATT XXX), nullification or impairment and (GATT XXIII:2)

withdrawal (GATT XXXI)

WTO continuity with

decision-making procedure (WTO IX:1)

decisions, procedures and customary practices (WTO XVI:1): see decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1)

financial regulations and (WTO VII:2)

Preparatory Committee, role

Secretariat (WTO XVI)

transitional arrangements, Director-General (WTO XVI:2)

WTO/GATT 1994 continuity with, transition (MD 6)

GATT 1947/GATT 1994, legal distinction

GATT 1994

applicable date

for purposes of GATT II:1(b) and (c)

Marrakesh Protocol (MP 5)

Understanding on GATT II:1(b) (paras. 2 and 8)

for purposes of GATT II:6(a) (MP 5(b))

constituent elements (GATT 1994, 1)

inclusion of 1947 provisions as rectified, amended or modified before the entry into force of WTO Agreement (GATT 1994, 1(a))

inclusion of provisions of legal instruments under GATT 1947 entering into force before entry into force of WTO Agreement (GATT 1994, 1(b))

“other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (GATT 1994, 1(b)(iv)): see also decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1)

Understandings (GATT 1994, 1(c))

waivers under GATT 1947, Article XXV (GATT 1994, 1(b)(iii))

WTO Agreement, incorporation into (WTO Annex 1A), WTO Preamble

GATT (BOPU 13/GATT XII:4/GATT XVIII:12/GATS XXII:5) applicable date

for purposes of GATT II:1(b) and (c), Understanding on GATT II:1(b) (paras. 2 and 8)

for purposes of GATT II:6(a) (MP 5(b))

General Council (WTO IV:2)

on behalf of Ministerial Conference


decision-taking procedures

adoption of financial regulations and annual budget estimate (WTO VII:3)

as DSB (WTO IX:1)

as DSB (Dispute Settlement Body): see DSB (Dispute Settlement Body)


approval of rules of procedure of Committees under WTO IV:7

Balance of Payments consultations (BOPU 13)

budget, approval/adoption (WTO VII:1/WTO VII:3)

consultation and cooperation arrangements with NGOs (WTO V:2)

cooperation agreements with intergovernmental organizations (WTO V:1)

financial regulations (WTO VII:3)

guidance of councils established under Art. IV:5, requests for extension of transition periods (TRIMs Art. 5.3) and

interpretation of covered agreements (WTO IX:2)

notification obligations relating to, balance of payments restrictive measures (BOPU 9)

rules of procedure, responsibility for establishing

as TPRB: see Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB), General Council as (WTO IV:4)

General Exceptions (GATS XIV)

application of measure as means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination (chapeau), “between countries where like conditions prevail”

“disguised restriction on trade in services” (chapeau)

double taxation agreements and (GATS XIV(e))

measures aimed at ensuring the equitable or effective imposition or collection of direct taxes (GATS XIV(d))

examples of measures (footnote 6)

measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health (GATS XIV(b))

sufficiency (Ministerial decision relating to)

measures necessary to protect public morals or to maintain public order (GATS XIV(a))

measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent laws or regulations (GATS XIV(c)) relating to

effects of default and (GATS XIV(c)(i))

prevention of deceptive and fraudulent practices (GATS XIV(c)(i))

protection of privacy and (GATS XIV(c)(ii))

safety (GATS XIV(c)(iii))

General Exceptions (GATT XX)


application of measure as means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, “between countries where the same conditions prevail”

“disguised restriction on international trade”

export restrictions as part of government stabilization plan (GATT XX(i))

importation or exportation of gold or silver (GATT XX(c))

measures relating to

acquisition of goods in short supply (GATT XX(j))

conservation of exhaustible natural resources (GATT XX(g))

“made effective in conjunction with”, as balance between conservation and domestic production/consumption

human, animal or plant life or health (GATT XX(b)): see also SPS Agreement, basic rights and obligations (SPS 2), as balance between promotion of international trade and protection of human, animal or plant life or health (SPS 2.2)

SPS Preamble

intergovernmental commodity agreement (GATT XX(h))

commodity agreements conforming to Economic and Social Council resolution 30(IV) of 28 March 1947 (Ad Article)

prison labour products (GATT XX(e))

public morals (GATT XX(a))

securing compliance with GATT-consistent measure (GATT XX(d))

measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources (GATT XX(g)), “exhaustible natural resources”: see “exhaustible natural resources” (GATT XX(g))

national treasures of artistic, historic or archaeological value (GATT XX(f))

Geneva Ministerial Conference/Declaration, TPRM: see Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM)

geographical indications (TRIPS 22): see also marks of origin (GATT IX); wines and spirits, protection against use of geographical indication other than true place of origin (TRIPS 23)

definition (TRIPS 22.1)

false representation/literal truth (TRIPS 22.4)

geographical indications no longer protected in country of origin or fallen into disuse (TRIPS 24.9)

legal means, obligation to provide for prevention of

unfair competition under PC 10 bis (TRIPS 22.2(b))

use indicating origin in area other than true place of origin (TRIPS 22.2(a))

wines and spirits, use of geographical indication other than true place of origin (TRIPS 23)

person’s name, right to use (TRIPS 24.8)

refusal or invalidation of trademark in case of misleading indication of place of origin (TRIPS 22.3)

time-limits for request under TRIPS 22-3 (TRIPS 24.7)

global economic cooperation, establishment of WTO and (MD 2)

global economic policymaking: see International Monetary Fund (IMF)/WTO relationship, Declaration on Coherence in Global Economic Policymaking (1994)

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VC 26))

Director-General, right to offer (DSU 5.6)

dispute settlement procedures, engagement in (DSU 3.10)

good offices, conciliation and mediation (DSU 5)

confidentiality (DSU 5.2)

least-developed countries and (DSU 24.2)

panel proceedings and (DSU 5.3-5)

termination/right to request panel (DSU 5.3)

timing (DSU 5.3)

as voluntary procedures (DSU 5.1)

“without prejudice” (DSU 5.2)

good offices, right of resort to (SPS 11.3)


AG 9.1(a)

EU as, LIC 1.4(a) and footnote 3

LIC 1.4(a) and footnote 3

“government agency” (AG 9.1(a))

Government Procurement Agreement (GPA)

accession (GPA XXIV:2), Ministerial Decision on


government purchasing specifications (TBT 1.4)

non-application clause (GPA XXIV:11)

government procurement (GATS XIII)

as exception to national treatment requirements (GATT III:8)

Financial Services, Understanding on Commitments in and

GATS II, XVI and XVII, non-applicability (GATS XIII:1)

multilateral negotiations, need for (GATS XIII: 2)

government service programmes, exemption from domestic support commitments (AG Annex 2, para. 2)

“governmental authority”, service supplied in the exercise of (GATS I:3(c))


Abbreviations used on this page