SUBJECT INDEX BY CASE: APPELLATE BODY REPORTS

C-D

 

Index: A  B  C-D  E-F  G-H  I  J  K-L  M-S  T  U-Z 


ON THIS PAGE:

> Canada — Aircraft
> Canada — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Brazil)
> Canada — Autos
> Canada — Dairy
> Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US)
> Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US II)
> Canada — Patent Term
> Canada — Periodicals
> Canada — Renewable Energy/Canada — Feed-in Tariff Program
> Canada — Wheat Exports and Grain Imports
> Chile — Alcoholic Beverages
> Chile — Price Band System
> Chile — Price Band System (Article 21.5 — Argentina)
> China — Auto Parts
> China — GOES
> China — Intellectual Property
> China — Publications and Audiovisual Products
> China — Raw Materials
> Dominican Republic — Import and Sale of Cigarettes

Canada — Aircraft (WT/DS70/AB/R)
See also Brazil — Aircraft (WT/DS46/AB/R), Canada — Aircraft (WT/DS70/AB/R)     back to top

burden of proof

contingency in law or in fact (SCM 3.1(a)) B.3.1.8, S.2.12.1–2A, S.2.14.1

prima facie case, panel’s duty not to make case for complaining party S.4.11

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), completion of legal analysis, factual basis, limitation to panel’s findings or undisputed facts in panel record S.3.1.4

inferences from party’s refusal to provide information DSU 13 I.1.1–2

obligation to respond promptly to panel’s requests for information (DSU 13.1) I.1.1, S.4.9–10

panel’s discretion (DSU 11) I.1.1

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13), obligation to respond fully and promptly (DSU 13.1) I.1.1, S.4.8, S.4.9

prompt and satisfactory settlement of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), refusal of party to provide information, effect I.1.1–2

subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II)

actionable subsidies (SCM Part III) distinguished S.2.19A.4

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) S.2.12.1–2A

burden of proof, de jure and de facto contingency distinguished B.3.1.8, S.2.14.3, S.2.14.6

“contingent” S.2.12.1, S.2.15.1

“in fact”, standard for determining/required elements (Footnote 4) S.2.14.1–2

“tied to” S.2.12.2A

“in law or in fact” S.2.12.2

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b))

“benefit”, cost to government, relevance S.2.9.3, S.2.9.6

market benchmark S.2.9A.1, S.2.9A.14, S.2.9B.1

as basis for determining existence of benefit S.2.9.6

seller’s costs/investment costs, relevance S.2.9.7

recipient

“enterprise or industry or group of enterprises or industries” (SCM 2) S.2.9.3

need for S.2.9.1, S.2.9A.1, S.2.9A.7

Canada — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Brazil) (WT/DS70/AB/RW)     back to top

“measures taken to comply” (including panel’s determination of WTO consistency), measure subject of original dispute distinguished R.4.2.1

review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5) R.4.1.1–2

determination of consistency of measure with WTO obligations R.4.2.1

“measures taken to comply” (including panel’s determination of WTO consistency) R.4.1.1–2

examination on basis of facts proved during panel proceedings R.4.1.2

measure subject of original dispute distinguished R.4.1.1, R.4.1.2

as new claim/reassertion of old R.4.2.1

“should ensure” requirement R.4.1.2

subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II)

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) S.2.12.3–4

burden of proof

export-orientation of recipient, relevance S.2.12.4

knowledge or expectation, sufficiency S.2.12.4

“in law or in fact” S.2.12.3

Canada — Autos (WT/DS139/AB/R, WT/DS142/AB/R)     back to top

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis C.4.9–10

in case of panel’s failure to examine applicability of covered agreement G.1.1.7

factual basis, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.9–10

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), correct interpretation and application of covered agreements M.2.2.4

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

judicial economy J.1.10

panel’s obligation to address issues raised by parties (DSU 7.2/12.7) J.1.9

GATS, applicability/interpretation (GATS I) G.1.1.3–7

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1)

“affecting” (GATS I:1) G.1.1.4

examination of wholesale trade service suppliers in their capacity as service suppliers G.1.1.5–7, M.2.2.4

“trade in services” (GATS I:2) G.1.1.4

order of analysis (applicability of GATS/determination of consistency) G.1.1.3, G.1.1.5–7, M.2.2.3, O.2.4

interpretation of covered agreements

absence of provision, relevance S.2.16.1

object and purpose M.2.1.4

same or closely related phrases in different agreements S.2.16.1

judicial economy J.1.9–10

due process J.1.10

interdependent assumptions, reliance on O.2.4

panel’s discretionary power to determine which claims must be examined J.1.10

obligation to address claims not examined J.1.10

MFN treatment (GATS II) M.2.2.3–4

determination of violation, requirements

comparison with like services M.2.2.3

measure covered by GATS M.2.2.3

MFN treatment (GATT I) M.2.1.2–4

“advantage” (GATT I:1) M.2.1.2–3

de facto discrimination M.2.1.2–3

object and purpose M.2.1.4

order of analysis, GATS I:1 (applicability/determination of consistency) G.1.1.3, G.1.1.5–7, M.2.2.3, O.2.4

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7) G.1.1.5–7, M.2.2.4

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, obligation to consider all facts G.1.1.5

subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II)

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a))

“contingent” S.2.15.1

“in law” S.2.13.1–4

implied provision S.2.13.1

“tied to” (Footnote 4) S.2.13.3–4

“contingent upon the use of domestic over imported products” (SCM 3.1(b)) S.2.15.1–2

“in law” S.2.15.1–2

implied provision S.2.15.1

“in law or in fact”, omission, relevance S.2.16.1

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

“government revenue … forgone or not collected” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii))

exemption from or remission of internal taxes upon exportation (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii), Footnote 1) S.2.5.1

“otherwise due”/basis of comparison (“but for” test) S.2.4.3

tax exemption, as circumvention of export subsidy commitments S.2.5.1

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

obligations

to address relevant provisions in covered agreement cited by parties (DSU 7.2) J.1.9

to make such findings as will assist the DSB (DSU 7.1) J.1.9

Canada — Dairy (WT/DS103/AB/R, WT/DS103/AB/R/Corr.1, WT/DS113/AB/R, WT/DS113/AB/R/Corr. 1)     back to top

“government” (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.16.1

“government agency” (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.16.1

interpretation of covered agreements

dictionaries A.1.16.1, A.1.17.1–2

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) I.3.7.4

meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase I.3.7.4

ordinary meaning T.1.1.3

supplementary means (VCLT 32) I.3.10.9

in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32(a)) I.3.10.9

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.17.1–2

“by virtue of” A.1.26.1–2

governmental action as a whole A.1.26.1–2

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.26.2

“financed”/“a charge”, relevance A.1.17.1–2

payment-in-kind (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.15.1, A.1.17.1–2

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II) T.1.1.3

“subject to” (GATT II:1(b)) T.1.1.3

“terms, conditions or qualifications … in Schedule” T.1.1.3

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

commonality of terminology in Agreement on Agriculture A.1.3.1

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) A.1.3.1

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) A.1.3.1

“government revenue … forgone or not collected” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii)) A.1.3.1

transfer of economic resources from grantor to recipient for less than full consideration A.1.3.1, A.1.15.1

Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US) (WT/DS103/AB/RW, WT/DS113/AB/RW)     back to top

AG Agreement

interpretation, context (VCLT 31(2)), SCM Agreement A.1.20.7

SCM Agreement, primacy of AG (SCM 3.1), AG 13(c)(ii) A.1.38.1

burden of proof

completion of legal analysis C.4.15

export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)), reversal of burden of proof A.1.34.1, B.3.4.1–2

budgetary outlay and quantity commitments distinguished B.3.4.2

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis C.4.15–16

burden of proof C.4.15

in case of disagreement with/reversal of panel finding C.4.15

factual basis, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.15–16

upholding, modification or reversal of legal findings and conclusions (DSU 17.13), inability to rule, effect C.4.16

cost of production (AG), measurement

average actual cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.8–9

of products for both domestic and export markets A.1.20.9

marginal cost A.1.20.8

profits as A.1.20.8

domestic support commitments (AG 6)

domestic support, right to provide (AG 3) A.1.20.2

domestic support/export subsidy regimes, need to maintain distinction (AG 3) A.1.20.1–10, A.1.36.1

cost of production test A.1.20.1–10, A.1.36.1

spill-over effect of permitted domestic support A.1.20.3–5, A.1.36.1

export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1))

“export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”

mutual exclusion A.1.31.1, A.1.31.2

residual nature A.1.31.1

export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3), in excess of budgetary outlay and quantity commitment level A.1.20.2

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j)) S.2.39.1

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)) A.1.20.7

failure to cover long-term operating costs and losses (item (k)) A.1.20.7

interpretation of covered agreements, absence of provision, relevance A.1.18.3, A.1.18.4

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.24.1

average total cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.9–10

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

absence of express provision, relevance A.1.18.3, A.1.18.4

domestic market (AG 9.1(b) and (e)) A.1.18.3

domestic price fixed by government A.1.18.5, A.1.20.4

factual and regulatory setting, relevance A.1.18.4

market rate, relevance A.1.18.5

objective standard, need for A.1.18.2

world market price A.1.19.1–2

“by virtue of” A.1.24.1

nexus, need for A.1.27.2

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.18.4, A.1.27.2

cost of production, failure to recoup as A.1.20.1–10, A.1.36.1

SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies, items (j) and (k) and A.1.20.7, S.2.39.1

“financed” A.1.24.1, A.1.27.1–3

“whether or not a charge on the public account” A.1.27.1

forgone income as A.1.18.1

government mandate or direction, relevance A.1.27.3, S.2.3A.2

“governmental action” A.1.24.1

rationale A.1.20.7, S.2.39.1

subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II)

“except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture” (SCM 3.1(a)) S.2.11.1

Agreement on Agriculture as primary test S.2.11.1

Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US II) (WT/DS103/AB/RW2, WT/DS113/AB/RW2)     back to top

burden of proof B.3.1.14

cost of production (AG) A.1.22.4

export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)), reversal of burden of proof A.1.34.2–8

AG 10.3 as special procedural provision A.1.34.3

budgetary outlay and quantity commitments distinguished A.1.34.4, A.1.34.5–7

claim as defensive action (AG 10.3) A.1.34.2

“establish” A.1.34.6

onus probandi actori incumbit as general principle of evidence A.1.34.2, A.1.34.6, A.1.34.8, B.3.1.14

presumption of consistency of measure with WTO obligations A.1.34.2, B.3.1.14

prima facie case B.3.1.14

cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement

average actual cost including fixed and variable costs, disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market A.1.27.4–5

burden of proof A.1.22.4

depreciation A.1.22.4

equity investment A.1.22.4

GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) A.1.22.4

imputed costs A.1.22.1–4

non-monetary costs A.1.22.4

opportunity costs A.1.22.2, A.1.22.3

profits as A.1.22.2

quota costs A.1.23.1

“reasonable” objective methodology A.1.22.4

selling costs A.1.23.1

cross-subsidization (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.28.1

domestic support, right to provide (AG 3)

domestic support commitments (AG 6), export subsidy disciplines, applicability A.1.28.1

domestic support/export subsidy regimes, need to maintain distinction (AG 3) A.1.28.1

spill-over effect of permitted domestic support A.1.26.5–8

export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)), “export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”, mutual exclusion A.1.33.1

export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3), in excess of budgetary outlay and quantity commitment level, quantitative and export subsidization commitments distinguished A.1.34.4–7

interpretation of covered agreements, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase A.1.27.4

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.24.2

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

factual and regulatory setting, relevance A.1.24.2

industry-wide cost of production A.1.21.1

government control, relevance A.1.26.5

motive of government, relevance A.1.28.1

nexus, need for A.1.26.3–4, A.1.27.4

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.26.8

cross-subsidization A.1.28.1

“financed”

disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market A.1.27.4–5

“whether or not a charge on the public account” A.1.27.4

“financing” as mechanism or process A.1.27.4

government mandate or direction, relevance A.1.25.3

AG 9.1(e), SCM 1.1 and SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies distinguished A.1.25.3 n. 113

“governmental action” A.1.24.2, A.1.25.2

act or omission as A.1.25.2

single or series of acts/omissions A.1.25.2

payments by private parties as A.1.24.2, A.1.25.1–4

Member State responsibility A.1.25.1

State responsibility, funding of export subsidy by private parties A.1.25.1

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

“direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a)), payment-in-kind A.1.22.1

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

payments to a funding mechanism or entrustment or direction to a private body (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)) S.2.8.1

private party payments (AG 9.1(c)) distinguished S.2.8.1

payments to a funding mechanism (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)), private party payments under the Agreement on Agriculture (AG 9.1(c)) distinguished A.1.25.3

Canada — Patent Term (WT/DS170/AB/R)     back to top

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) P.3.4.3–P.3.4.4

continuing measures P.3.4.3–P.3.4.4

pre-existing rights, TRIPS Agreement T.9.9.1, T.9.12.1–5, T.9.13.1–3

oral hearing (WP 27), written responses (WP 28) W.2.12.6

TRIPS Agreement

existing rights, applicability to (TRIPS 70.2) P.3.4.3, T.9.9.1, T.9.13.1–3

acts occurring before date of application of TRIPS (TRIPS 70.1) distinguished P.3.4.3, T.9.11.1–2, T.9.12.1–5

patents, term of protection (TRIPS 33) T.9.7.1–4

acquisition (TRIPS 62.2) distinguished T.9.8.1

Canada — Periodicals (WT/DS31/AB/R)     back to top

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact, determination of “likeness” S.3.3.1

completion of legal analysis C.4.2

factual basis, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.2

prompt settlement of disputes (DSU 3.3) P.4A.1

upholding, modification or reversal of legal findings and conclusions (DSU 17.13), panel finding not appealed P.1.2.1

GATS, applicability (GATS I), overlap with GATT 1994 G.2.2.1

interpretation of covered agreements

context (VCLT 31(2)), GATT III:8/GATT III:2 and GATT III:4 N.1.11A.2.1–2, S.2.42.1

object and purpose N.1.11A.2.1–4, S.2.42.1

text/plain language N.1.11A.2.1–4, S.2.42.1

“like product” (GATT III:2)

criteria

consumer preferences N.1.3.2.3

end-uses N.1.3.2.3

physical properties N.1.3.2.3

determination on case-by-case basis N.1.3.2.3, S.3.3.1

determination as legal issue S.3.3.1

directly competitive or substitutable products distinguished N.1.3.1.3, N.1.3.1.5, N.1.5.2

narrow interpretation, need for S.3.3.1

prompt and satisfactory settlement of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), completion of legal analysis considerations P.4A.1

subsidies to domestic producers exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(b))

expenditure of revenue by government, limitation to (GATT III:8(b)) S.2.42.1

national treatment (GATT III:8(b)) S.2.42

tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

determination of violation, requirements

inconsistency of measure with GATT III:1 principles (including non-like products) N.1.2.2

“like product” status N.1.2.2

“directly or indirectly”

imported products N.1.2.1

like domestic products N.1.2.1

“not similarly taxed” N.1.7.3–4

threshold/de minimis differential N.1.7.3

tax on imported product in excess of tax on domestic product N.1.2.2

Canada — Renewable Energy/Canada — Feed-in Tariff Program (WT/DS412/AB/R, WT/DS426/AB/R)     back to top

AB procedure

dates and deadlines, modification at request of parties (WP 16(2)), oral hearing W.2.11.1.1

documents (WP 18), correction of clerical errors in submissions W.2.6A.2.11

AB reports, separate reports for each appealed Panel Report in consolidated proceedings W.2.6.1.18

additional procedures (WP 16(1)), consolidation of proceedings, separate AB reports for each appealed panel proceedings/complainant W.2.6.1.18

Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) (AG 1(a)/Annex 3), substitution subsidies (AG Annex 3(7)/SCM 3.1(b)) S.2.1.8

amicus curiae briefs

NGO/association/private individual briefs A.2.1.21

consultation with participants A.2.1.21

burden of proof

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) B.3.1.24

government procurement exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(a)) B.3.1.23, N.1.11A.1

calculation of subsidy in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14), “benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) S.2.9A.23–6, S.2.23.8–14

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis

due process considerations/complexity of material C.4.56

factual basis, sufficiency of undisputed facts requirement C.4.52–55

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) C.2.9

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

balance between rights and obligations relating to S.2.1.8

as remedy to offset benefits of subsidies S.2.1.8

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), completion of the legal analysis (AB) (DSU 17.6) C.4.56

goods and services/adequacy of remuneration as benefit (SCM 14(d))

alternative market benchmark/proxy S.2.9A.41–3, S.2.23.13–14, S.2.24.13–15

out-of-country benchmark C.4.54, S.2.23.12

standard/burden of proof C.4.54

“market conditions” S.2.23.11, S.2.23.12

private prices/government role in market S.2.23.13

“in relation to”/comparability requirement S.2.23.9–11

SCM 14(b) compared S.2.23.8

government procurement exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(a)) N.1.11A.1–12

burden of proof B.3.1.23, N.1.11A.1

competitive relationship requirement N.1.11A.1.11

consistency with as consistency with GATT III:8 as a whole I.3.7.13

as derogation from GATT III obligations B.3.1.23, N.1.11A.1, N.1.11A.1.10

“governing” N.1.11A.1.3, N.1.11A.1.11

“government” N.1.11A.1.5

“government purposes”

authentic texts (“besoins des pouvoirs publics”/“necesidades de los poderes públicos”) compared I.3.11.7, N.1.11A.1.7

“government services” (GATT XVII:2) compared N.1.11A.1.7

“governmental agency” N.1.11A.1.5, N.1.11A.1.10, S.7A.1.5

“for governmental purposes” N.1.11A.1.7

interpretation

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) I.3.7.15, N.1.11A.2

as holistic exercise I.3.7.15, N.1.11A.1.2, N.1.11A.1.6

“laws, regulations or requirements” N.1.11A.1.3, N.1.11A.1.6, N.1.11A.1.11

“not with a view to commercial resale … use in production for commercial sale” N.1.11A.1.8–9, N.1.11A.1.10

“commercial resale” N.1.11A.1.8

“use in [production for] commercial sale” N.1.11A.1.8

“procurement” N.1.11A.1.4

“purchase” N.1.11A.1.4

TRIMs 2.2/Illustrative List I.3.7.13–15, T.8A.2.2, T.8A.3.1–7

interpretation of covered agreements

context (VCLT 31(2))

GATT III:8(a)/GATT XVII:1 and XVII:2 S.7A.1.5

GATT III:8/TRIMs 2 I.3.7.13–15, T.8A.3.1–7

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM 14 S.2.9A.23–6, S.2.23.8–14

SCM 3.1(b)/GATT III:4/TRIMs, interrelationship S.2.41.6, S.2.45.1, S.2.45.2, T.8A.1.2–3

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) I.3.7.13–16

meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase I.3.7.15, N.1.11A.2

as holistic exercise A.1.2.12, A.3.1A.5, I.3.7.15, M.3.19, N.1.11A.2

SCM 1.1(b)/TRIMs Illustrative List S.2.9.9, S.2.45.2, T.8A.1.3, T.8A.3.7

judicial economy J.1.26–33

anticipatory finding J.1.29, S.7.2A.11

false judicial economy S.7.2.35

order of analysis distinguished J.1.26

“positive solution to dispute” requirement J.1.27

prompt compliance with DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.1) J.1.27

stand-alone claims, need for separate findings J.1.27–32

mootness of panel findings M.3.19, N.1.11A.1.12

findings dependent on error of law S.2.3.9

municipal law, compliance with WTO/international obligations, determination of compliance, relevance of classification of transaction under municipal law M.5.27

national treatment, exceptions (GATT III:8), burden of proof, effect on B.3.1.23

national treatment (TRIMs 2)

GATT III:4/GATT XI:1 and (TRIMs 2.2/Illustrative List) T.8A.3.1–7

GATT III and XI and (TRIMs 2.1) T.8A.2.1–2

SCM 1.1(b) T.8A.3.7

oral hearing (WP 27)

change of date W.2.11.1.5

open oral hearing W.2.11.3.18–W.2.11.3.21

time-limits for oral arguments W.2.11.4.2

order of analysis

GATT III:4 and TRIMs/SCM 3.1(b) O.2.21–22, S.2.41.6, S.2.45.1

more specific agreement as starting point O.2.21–22

SCM 1.1 (characterization of measure/determination of SCM I.1(a)(1) status) S.2.3.8

SCM 1.1(b) (determination of relevant market/analysis of benefit) S.2.9A.27

procurement exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(a)), “not with a view to commercial resale … use in production for commercial sale” N.1.11A.1.8–9

prompt compliance with DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.1), judicial economy considerations J.1.27

regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), TRIMs 2.2/Illustrative List, sufficiency of assessment under for finding of the GATT III:4 violation J.1.28, T.8A.3.1–7

SCM Agreement, object and purpose, balanced framework of rights and obligations relating to countervailing duties S.2.1.8

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it”

discretion to use whatever arguments submitted by the parties it chooses C.2.9

failure to analyze evidence S.2.9A.29–44

“such other findings as will assist the DSB” (DSU 7.1/DSU 11), judicial economy J.1.26

State responsibility, acts or omissions of executive agency or executive branch S.2.7.2

State trading enterprises (GATT XVII) (STEs), “governmental agency” (GATT III:8(a)) S.7A.1.5

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b))

“benefit”

“advantage” (TRIMs Agreement) distinguished S.2.9.9, S.2.45.2, T.8A.3.7

SCM 14 as context S.2.9A.23–6, S.2.23.8–14

market benchmark S.2.9A.23–43

as basis for determining existence of benefit S.2.9A.24–6

burden of proof B.3.1.24

determination of relevant market as preliminary to benefit analysis, order of analysis S.2.9A.27

factors determining demand-side substitutability S.2.9A.28

government intervention in market S.2.9A.29–44

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

by a “public body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) S.2.3A.10

direct transfer of funds (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(i))/provision of goods or services (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)), interrelationship S.2.3.7–9, S.2.7.5

purchase of goods by a government (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii))

characterization of measure (municipal vs. WTO law) S.2.7.4

distribution of functions between government agencies, relevance S.2.7.2

necessity for government involvement, relevance S.2.7.3

third participants (AB proceedings (DSU 17.4/WP 24))

oral hearings, passive participation in W.2.9.17

oral presentation W.2.9.17

TRIMs Agreement

exceptions (TRIMs 3) (applicability of the GATT XX General Exceptions) T.8A.4.1

national treatment/GATT III and GATT XI, interrelationship T.8A.2.1–2

Canada — Wheat Exports and Grain Imports (WT/DS276/AB/R)     back to top

AB procedure, appellee’s submission (WP 22), conditional request to complete analysis W.2.7B.1

burden of proof, party’s obligation to identify relevant provisions of legislation B.3.1.16, E.3.2.5

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact, party’s right to characterize claim D.2.2.19, W.2.7.5.5

completion of legal analysis

in case of agreement with panel finding C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B.1

request for, procedure C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B.1

competence (panels)

objections, requirements

opportunity to cure procedural defect R.2.1.9

timeliness O.1.9–12, R.2.1.7–9

DSB meetings to examine request, relevance O.1.12, R.2.1.8

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), objective assessment of matter before it C.5.3

conditional appeal, request for, procedure C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B.1

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties D.2.2.19

judicial economy, definition J.1.14

“matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1)

identification of specific issues and legal basis of claim/complaint as dual requirements (DSU 6.2) S.7.2A.1–2, W.2.7.5.5

“measure at issue” as W.2.7.5.5

notice of appeal, requirements (WP 20(2))

due process/right to defend interests as purpose/benchmark S.7.2A.1, W.2.7.5.5

statement of allegations of errors on issues of law/legal interpretations (WP 20(2)(d)), requirements, specific reference to allegation of panel’s failure to make objective assessment (DSU 11) S.7.2A.1

order of analysis

assumptions, panel’s right to use, clarity of analysis, risk to O.2.8

failure to follow logical order O.2.7, O.2.8

failure to follow mandatory order O.2.6

GATT XVII:1(a)/GATT XVII:1(b) O.2.8, S.7A.3.4–7

panel’s right to determine O.2.8

panel procedures (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), panel’s discretion O.1.9

request for establishment of panel (requirements) (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, opportunity to cure defect R.2.1.9

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), alleged disregard or distortion of evidence by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”), party’s obligation to argue relevance of evidence B.3.1.16, E.3.2.5, S.7.2A.2

State trading enterprises (GATT XVII) (STEs)

“adequate opportunity … to compete for participation in such purchases or sales” (GATT XVII:1(b)) S.7A.5.1–3

applicability to STEs of the GATT provisions other than GATT XVII S.7A.1.3

prevention of discriminatory behaviour, limitation to S.7A.1.4

“commercial considerations” (GATT XVII:1(b)) S.7A.4.1–4

differential prices for commercial reasons, admissibility (GATT XVII:1, Ad Note) S.7A.2.1

insufficiency of the GATT XVII:1 to prevent all obstacles to trade (GATT XVII:3) S.7A.6.1

obligation to comply with GATT principles of non-discriminatory treatment (GATT XVII:1(a)) S.7A.1.1

as anti-circumvention provision S.7A.1.1

discrimination and justifiable differentiation distinguished S.7A.1.2

GATT XVII:1(b) S.7A.3.1–7

order of analysis O.2.8, S.7A.3.4–7

Working Procedures Appellate Review) (DSU 17.9)

amendment W.2.7A.1

determination by Appellate Body (DSU 17.9) W.2.7A.1

Chile — Alcoholic Beverages (WT/DS87/AB/R, WT/DS110/AB/R)     back to top

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11)

correct interpretation and application of covered agreements and C.3.2.2

not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) C.3.2.2

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7) P.1.1.2

tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

Members’ right to determine basis of taxation subject to compliance with WTO obligations T.3.2

“not similarly taxed” N.1.7.5–6

assessment of differential N.1.7.5–6

Chile — Price Band System (WT/DS207/AB/R)     back to top

AG Agreement

interpretation

conformity with other articles A.1.14.3

context (VCLT 31(2)), surrounding language A.1.14.3

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) A.1.10.2, A.1.14.3

wording and grammar, respect for A.1.9.1

“any measures of the kind” (AG 4.2 and Footnote 1) A.1.10.1–4

“converted into” A.1.10.3

“include” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.10.2

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact

compliance/consistency with treaty obligations S.3.3.10

Party’s classification of measure, relevance S.3.3.10

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) C.2.3

conditional appeal C.5.2

customs duties

“ordinary customs duty” (AG 4.2) A.1.10.4, A.1.13.1

as preferred form of border protection A.1.7.1

transparency/predictability as distinguishing factor A.1.7.1, A.1.13.2

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

amendment of measures during proceedings D.2.2.17, R.2.3.10

opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties R.2.2.13–14, T.6.2.16–17

interpretation of covered agreements

conformity with other articles A.1.14.3

context (VCLT 31(2)), surrounding language A.1.14.3

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase A.1.10.1

grammar, respect for A.1.9.1

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) I.3.11.1

meaning which best reconciles texts (VCLT 33(4)) I.3.11.1

ordinary meaning A.1.10.1

subsequent practice which establishes parties’ agreement on interpretation (VCLT 31(3)(b)) I.3.9.3–4

common practice, need for I.3.9.3–4

consistency of practice, need for I.3.9.3

legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel) R.2.2.13–14

claims and arguments distinguished C.1.8

summary, sufficiency, reference to GATT II R.2.2.13–14, T.6.2.16–17

market access concessions and commitments (AG 4.1), “market access” A.1.7.1

measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2)

customs duties as preferred form of border protection A.1.7.1

failure to convert by due date, effect A.1.9.1

“minimum import price” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.11.1

lower band threshold, relevance A.1.11.1

variable import levies distinguished A.1.11.1

“ordinary customs duty” (AG 4.2) A.1.10.4, A.1.13.1

similar border measures other than ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.12.1

“similar” A.1.12.1

tariff binding, relevance A.1.13.3

time-limit for conversion A.1.9.1

variable import levy” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) (including distinguishability from “ordinary customs duty”) A.1.10.3, A.1.11.1, A.1.13.1–3

“which have been required to be” (AG 4.2) A.1.9.1

notice of appeal, requirements (WP 20(2)), statement of allegations of errors on issues of law/legal interpretations (WP 20(2)(d)), requirements, legal argument in support of claim distinguished C.1.8, W.2.7.2.2

special safeguards (AG 5), measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2), relationship with A.1.14.3

“specific measure at issue” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2)

identification as part of the matter referred to the DSB, need for (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1) R.2.3.9–R.2.3.10

amendment of measure during proceedings D.2.2.17, R.2.3.9–R.2.3.10, R.2.3.25, T.6.3.5–6

implied claims, exclusion R.2.2.14, T.6.2.17

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, ultra petita finding on provision not before it S.7.2.4

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue, legal claim included in terms of reference, limitation of jurisdiction to C.2.3

third participants (AB proceedings (DSU 17.4/WP 24)) W.2.9.6

oral hearings, passive participation in W.2.9.6

third party rights T.8.6, W.2.9.6

panel proceedings (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), claims, exclusion T.8.6

Chile — Price Band System (Article 21.5 — Argentina) (WT/DS207/AB/RW)     back to top

AB procedure, dates and deadlines, extension of deadline for submissions of participants/third participants (WP 16(2)) W.2.10.1.5

burden of proof

allocation, panel’s obligation to specify allocation/moment of determination of allocation B.3.1.18–19, B.3.2.22

DSU 21.5 proceedings B.3.1.18–19, B.3.2.22, R.4.3.15

onus probandi actori incumbit as general principle of evidence B.3.1.18, B.3.3.17–19, G.4.3.1

presumption of consistency of measure with WTO obligations, as general principle of evidence B.3.1.1, B.3.1.18

prima facie case

panel’s duty not to make case for complaining party R.4.3.15

text of legislation, sufficiency B.3.1.18

reversal in case of establishment of prima facie case B.3.1.1–2, B.3.1.18

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis, prompt settlement of disputes (DSU 3.3) P.4A.13

issues of law/legal interpretations, new evidence/evidence not before panel E.3.3.1, S.3.1.8–9

customs duties, transparency/predictability as distinguishing factor A.1.13.5, A.1.13.8–10

DSU, applicability (DSU 1.1), security and predictability as objective (DSU 3.2) P.4A.13

evidence (admissibility and evaluation in appellate proceedings) (DSU 17.6), new evidence/evidence not before panel E.3.3.1, S.3.1.8

interpretation of covered agreements, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) A.1.14.4

measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2)

“any measures of the kind” (AG 4.2 and Footnote 1) A.1.10.5

“converted into” A.1.10.5

minimum import price (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.11.2–4

lower band threshold, relevance A.1.11.2–4

“minimum import price” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1), variable import levies distinguished A.1.11.4

similar border measures other than ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.12.2–6

“other than ordinary customs duties” A.1.12.3–5

separate analysis, relevance A.1.12.5

“similar” A.1.12.4, A.1.12.6

variable import levy” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) (including distinguishability from “ordinary customs duty”) A.1.13.4–10

“which have been required to be” (AG 4.2) A.1.10.5

panel reports

adoption by DSB (DSU 16.4) R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

parties’ obligation to accept P.4A.13, R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

rationale, need for (DSU 12.7)

party’s disagreement with rationale, relevance P.1.1.9

sufficiency to disclose essential or fundamental justification P.1.1.9

review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5), finality of panel/AB report R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

prompt and satisfactory settlement of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), completion of legal analysis considerations P.4A.13

review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5)

as a continuum of events R.4.3.15

finality of panel/AB report, adopted panel reports P.4A.13

special safeguards (AG 5), measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2), relationship with A.1.14.4

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

alleged disregard or distortion of evidence by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”)

discretion to select which evidence to refer to explicitly S.7.3.38

discretion/independence in evaluation of evidence E.3.2.26, S.7.2.16, S.7.3.37–38

obligation to support findings from evidence in panel record E.3.2.26

party’s obligation to raise panel’s alleged factual misunderstanding at interim review stage or appeal S.7.2A.8

claim of failure by panel to comply with DSU obligations as autonomous claim S.7.2.17

“objective assessment of matter before it” R.4.3.16, S.7.2.4, S.7.2A.8

error of law, burden of proof/prima facie case, failure to apply correctly B.3.1.18, B.3.2.22, R.4.3.15–R.4.3.19

China — Auto Parts (WT/DS339/AB/R, WT/DS340/AB/R, WT/DS342/AB/R)     back to top

AB procedure

dates and deadlines, modification (WP 16(2)) W.2.6.2.6

documents (WP 18), correction of clerical errors in submissions W.2.6A.2.8

AB reports, separate reports for each appealed Panel Report in consolidated proceedings W.2.6.1.14

accession protocol (China)

trading rights commitments

enforceability A.0.1.1

interpretation in accordance with VCLT A.0.1.1

additional procedures (WP 16(1)), consolidation of proceedings, separate AB reports for each appealed panel proceedings/complainant W.2.6.1.14

amicus curiae briefs, NGO/association/private individual briefs, discretionary power of panel to accept/reject A.2.1.16

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), classification as issue of law or fact, interpretation of municipal law M.5.17, M.5.22

Harmonized System

as aid to interpretation of covered agreements H.1.8–11, T.1.2.14–15

as basis for classification in Schedules of Concessions/covered agreements H.1.8–11, T.1.1A.3–4

WTO agreements, relationship with H.1.8

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13), parties’ comments on information provided S.4.19

interpretation of covered agreements

context (VCLT 31(2))

any agreement made between the parties (VCLT 31(2)(a)) or accepted by parties (VCLT 31(2)(b))

Harmonized System H.1.8–11, I.3.3.8, T.1.2.14–15

pertinence of language being interpreted I.3.3.8

GATT II/GATT III, interrelationship N.1.1A.2–6

judicial economy, mootness of panel findings M.3.11

mootness of panel findings M.3.11

judicial economy M.3.11

municipal law M.5.17

compliance with WTO/international obligations, panel’s assessment as legal characterization/as matter for appellate review M.5.17, M.5.22, S.3.3.28

as evidence of, compliance with WTO/international obligations S.3.3.28

national treatment (GATT III:1) (general principle), interpretation of the GATT III as a whole, GATT III:5 as context N.1.1A.3

ordinary customs duties, definition, GATT II:1(b) N.1.1A.2–3, T.1.1A.3, T.1.2.15

regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “affecting”, 50% fair market rule N.1.10.3

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b))

GATT III:2, interrelationship H.1.9–11, N.1.1A.2–7, T.1.1A.2–7

“ordinary customs duties” N.1.1A.2–3, T.1.1A.3, T.1.2.15

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “such other findings as will assist the DSB” (DSU 7.1), panel’s right to make alternative findings M.3.11

tax discrimination (GATT III:2), “ïnternal tax” N.1.1A.3

China — GOES (WT/DS414/AB/R)     back to top

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact S.3.3.37–38

compliance/consistency with treaty obligations S.3.3.37, S.7.1.17

difficulty of distinguishing S.3.3.37, S.7.1.17

upholding, modification or reversal of legal findings and conclusions (DSU 17.13), panel finding not appealed P.1.2, S.1.16.3, S.3.1.13

determination of injury (AD 3/SCM 15)

calculation of volume of dumped imports (AD 3.1 and 3.2), “positive evidence”/“objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1), comparability of prices requirement A.3.20.14, S.2.24B.12

consideration of the volume of dumped imports and their effects on prices (AD 3.2/SCM 15.2) S.2.24B.1–15

“consider” A.3.20.3, S.2.24B.1

“effect” A.3.20.4, A.3.20.6, S.2.24B.2

lowering of prices by domestic producers in anticipation of undercutting A.3.20.15

“effect of such imports” in relation to depression or suppression of domestic prices A.3.20.4, A.3.20.6–13, S.2.24B.4–11

evaluation of causal relationship (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5) distinguished A.3.20.10–12, A.3.23A.2, S.2.24B.8–10

sufficiency of either import volume or prices A.3.20.17, S.2.24B.15

elements relevant to “significant price undercutting” and significant price depression distinguished A.3.20.5, A.3.23A.2, S.2.24B.3

“essential facts” (AD 6.9/SCM 12.8) A.3.36A.3–4

parallel price trends, possible explanations A.3.20.16

evaluation of causal relationship (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5)

demonstration of injury, need for (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5) A.3.15.3–4, S.2.24A.3–5, S.2.24B.7, S.2.25A.8–9

demonstration of injury, relevance (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5) A.3.23.5

“examination of all relevant evidence” A.3.23A.2, S.2.25A.9

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4/SCM 15.4), evaluation of causal relationship (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5) distinguished A.3.23.5

framework/disciplines A.3.15.3–4, S.2.24A.3–5, S.3.20.9

evidentiary rules (AD 6/SCM 12)

disclosure of essential facts prior to determination (AD 6.9/SCM 12.8)

“before a final determination”/“which form the basis” A.3.36A.2, S.2.21D.2–4

determination of injury (AD 3.2/SCM 15.2) requirements A.3.36A.3–4

“essential” A.3.36A.2–3, S.2.21D.2–4

public notice of conclusion or suspension of investigation (AD 12.2.2/SCM 22.5) distinguished A.3.36A.2, A.3.53A.2–5, S.2.21D.2, S.2.34.5

interpretation of covered agreements, context (VCLT 31(2), AD 3.1 and SCM 15.1/AD 3 and SCM as a whole) S.3.1.13

judicial economy, ruling on one element of dispute rendering consideration of other elements moot, finding of compliance with legal standard/objective assessment of the facts S.3.3.38, S.7.2.34

public notice of conclusion or suspension of investigation in case of affirmative determination (AD 12.2.2/SCM 22.5)

disclosure of essential facts prior to determination (AD 6.9/SCM 12.8) distinguished A.3.36A.2, A.3.53A.2–5, S.2.34.5

“matters of fact” leading to final measures A.3.53A.2, S.2.34.5–7

non-confidential summaries A.3.53A.5, S.2.34.8

“relevant information”/elements demonstrating causality as required by AD 3/SCM 15 A.3.53A.3, S.2.34.0.5–7

as basis for judicial review (AD 13/SCM 23) A.3.53A.4

method for providing/choice of form A.3.53A.5, S.2.34.8

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, finding of compliance with legal standard/objective assessment of the facts S.3.3.38, S.7.2.34

China — Intellectual Property (WT/DS362/R)     back to top

municipal law, interpretation, authority of Member State/burden of proof M.5.21, S.7.2A.9

China — Publications and Audiovisual Products (WT/DS363/AB/R)     back to top

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7), security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), aid to C.3.1.5

accession protocol (China)

right to trade (Art. 5), “without prejudice to China’s right to regulate trade [consistently] with the WTO Agreement” (Art. 5.1) A.0.2.1, A.0.2.5, A.0.2.9

trading rights commitments, “goods” and “services”, distinguishability A.0.1.2, A.0.2.1, T.8A.1.1

burden of proof, necessity test (GATT XX(a)) G.3.3A.15

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), completion of legal analysis, ad arguendo arguments, problems relating to C.3.1.5

GATS, applicability (GATS I)

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1), “trade in services” (GATS I:2) G.1.2.1.10–11

overlap with GATT 1994 A.0.1.2, G.2.2.3

“supply of a service” (GATS XXVIII(b)) G.1.2.1.4–16

“goods” and “services”, distinguishability A.0.1.2, A.0.2.1

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), choice of means at Member’s discretion G.3.3A.17

interpretation of covered agreements

applicable law, customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in the VCLT] G.1.2.1.17

changes of meaning over time G.1.2.1.15–17

context (VCLT 31(2))

any agreement made between the parties (VCLT 31(2)(a)) or accepted by parties (VCLT 31(2)(b)), Harmonized System I.3.3.9

different elements of “context” leading to different conclusions G.1.3.3.2–3, I.3.3.9

dictionaries I.3.2.13

as holistic exercise G.1.3.3.2–3

in dubio mitius principle I.3.8.2–3

parties’ intentions (VCLT 31(1)), common intention I.3.10.5, I.3.10.32

supplementary means (VCLT 32) I.3.10.5

in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32(a)) I.3.10.30–32, W.2.3A.3

panel’s use to confirm preliminary conclusion based on VCLT 31 I.3.10.31–32

judicial economy I.3.8.3

municipal law

compliance with WTO/international obligations

determination of compliance and interpretation of legislation distinguished M.5.19

panel’s assessment as legal characterization/as matter for appellate review M.5.19–20

AB’s right to examine provisions/structure of the law not considered by panel M.5.20

necessity test (GATT XX(a) and GATT XX(b)) G.3.3A.8–17

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure G.3.3A.15–17

burden of proof G.3.3A.15

“reasonably available”/“reasonably be expected” G.3.3A.15–16

order of analysis G.3.3A.8–10

as weighing and balancing process G.3.3A.8–14

order of analysis

assumptions, panel’s right to use

clarity of analysis, risk to O.2.13

obligation to avoid misleading a priori assumptions C.3.1.5

unsuitability in respect of jurisdictional issues/preliminary questions O.2.13

necessity test (GATT XX(a) and GATT XX(B)) G.3.3A.8–10

regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “less favourable treatment”, restrictions on traders as A.0.2.1

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX), interpretation

applicable law (customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in the VCLT]) G.1.2.1.17

context (VCLT 31(2))

different elements of “context” leading to different conclusions G.1.3.3.2–3, I.3.3.9

object and purpose of agreement (GATS, Preamble) G.1.2.1.13

other parts of same schedule G.1.2.1.7–8

progressive liberalization principle G.1.2.1.14

“sectors”, “audiovisual” G.1.2.1.4–17

trading rights commitments, “goods” and “services”, distinguishability A.0.1.2

TRIMs Agreement, exceptions (TRIMs 3) (applicability of the GATT XX General Exceptions) A.0.2.1, T.8A.1.1

China — Raw Materials (WT/DS394/AB/R, WT/DS395/AB/R, WT/DS398/AB/R)     back to top

AB procedure, dates and deadlines, modification at request of parties (WP 16(2)) W.2.6.2.7

AB reports

timing of circulation (DSU 17.5/WP 26), modification

exceptional complexity W.2.10.2.11

exceptional workload W.2.10.2.11

AB/panel recommendations for bringing inconsistent measure into conformity (DSU 19.1)

expired measures I.0.14

limitation to measures within panel’s terms of reference I.0.11–13, T.6.3.28

accession protocol (China)

General Exceptions (GATT XX), applicability A.0.1.11, A.0.2.4–10

as integral part of WTO Agreement (Art. 1.2)/interpretation in accordance with VCLT A.0.1.9

interpretation [in accordance with VCLT], preparatory work (VCLT 32) (Accession Working Party Report) I.3.12.5

products subject to export duty (Annex 6) including Note

elimination of export charges unless specifically provided for in Annex 6 or in conformity with GATT VIII (Art. 11.3) A.0.1.10

“maximum levels which will not be exceeded” A.0.1.10

right to increase applied tariffs

consultation “with a view to finding a mutually acceptable solution” A.0.1.10

“under exceptional circumstances” A.0.1.10

right to trade (Art. 5), “without prejudice to China’s right to regulate trade [consistently] with the WTO Agreement” (Art. 5.1) A.0.2.5

taxes and charges on imports and exports (Art. 11)

“administered in conformity with GATT” (Art. 11.2) A.0.2.6

“applied in conformity with [GATT VIII]” (Art. 11.3), relevance A.0.2.8

“applied in conformity with [GATT VIII]” (Art. 16.3), relevance A.0.2.5

“shall ensure that customs fees or charges … shall be in conformity with GATT” (Art. 11.1) A.0.2.6

“without prejudice to China’s right to regulate trade [consistently] with the WTO Agreement” (Art. 5.1) A.0.2.5, A.0.2.9

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), request for establishment of panel (DSU 6.2) R.2.2.27

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1)), by a “public body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) I.3.4.3

General Exceptions (GATT XX), accession protocol (China) A.0.1.11, A.0.2.4–10

interpretation of covered agreements

applicable law, customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in the VCLT], accession protocols A.0.1.9

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase Q.1.2.7

legislative history (domestic)/domestic law as aid I.3.4.3

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33), use as confirmation of interpretation G.3.8.3

preparatory work (VCLT 32), Accession Working Party Report (China) I.3.12.5

title I.3.3.12, Q.1.1.1

legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel)

due process R.2.2.27

summary, sufficiency R.2.2.26–R.2.2.28

“matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1)

identification of specific issues and legal basis of claim/complaint as dual requirements (DSU 6.2) T.6.1.29, T.6.1.30

terms of reference (DSU 7) as determining factor I.0.11

measures essential to the acquisition or distribution of products in short supply (GATT XX(j)), GATT XI:2(a) (temporary measures to relieve critical shortages) distinguished G.3.10A.1, Q.1.2.4, Q.1.2.9–10

measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources (GATT XX(g))

GATT XI:2(a) (temporary measures to relieve critical shortages) distinguished G.3.7.4

“made effective in conjunction with”

as balance between conservation and domestic production/consumption G.3.8.3–5

“in conjunction with” G.3.8.3–5

“made effective” G.3.8.3

mootness of panel findings M.3.16

oral hearing (WP 27), time-limits for oral arguments W.2.11.4.1

prompt and satisfactory settlement of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), strict compliance with request for panel P.4A.28, R.2.1.19

quantitative restrictions, general elimination (GATT XI:1)

exclusions (GATT XI:2) Q.1.2.1–10

interpretation

“critical shortage” Q.1.2.4–7

“general or local short supply” (GATT XX(j)) distinguished G.3.10A.1, Q.1.2.4, Q.1.2.9–10

“essential” Q.1.2.5

“foodstuff” Q.1.2.5

GATT XI:1/GATT XI:2(a) Q.1.2.2

“limited time” Q.1.2.8

meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase (effectiveness principle) Q.1.2.7

“prevent or relieve” Q.1.2.6

“prohibitions” Q.1.2.1–2

“restrictions” Q.1.2.1–2

“temporarily” (GATT XI:2(a)) Q.1.2.3, Q.1.2.8

“quantitative restrictions” Q.1.1.1

title as aid to interpretation I.3.3.12, Q.1.1.1

request for establishment of panel (requirements) (DSU 6.2)

compliance, importance of

opportunity to cure defect R.2.2.27, T.6.1.30

prompt settlement of disputes (DSU 3.3) P.4A.28, R.2.1.19

scrutiny by panel, timeliness of ruling R.2.2.27

“specific measure at issue” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2), identification as part of the matter referred to the DSB, need for (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1), “specific”, “sufficient to present the problem clearly” M.3.16, R.2.2.26–R.2.2.28, T.6.1.29, T.6.1.30

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

alleged disregard or distortion of evidence by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”)

discretion in selection of relevant evidence S.7.3.66

discretion/independence in evaluation of evidence S.7.3.66

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis I.0.11, T.6.3.28

third participants (AB proceedings (DSU 17.4/WP 24)), oral hearings, passive participation in, notification of intention (WP 24(4)) W.2.9.14

WTO Agreement, object and purpose (preamble), balance between trade- and non-trade-related concerns A.0.2.10

Dominican Republic — Import and Sale of Cigarettes (WT/DS302/AB/R)     back to top

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), issues of law/legal interpretations, issues not raised by parties S.7.2.8

legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel), claims and arguments distinguished C.1.9

legislation as such, right to challenge L.1.16

evidence of, whether limited to the text M.5.14–15

normative instrument L.1.16

municipal law, interpretation, text of legislation, sufficiency M.5.14–15

necessity test (GATT XX(d))

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure G.3.6.8–9

contribution to realization of end pursued (objective-pursued test) G.3.6.8–9

as weighing and balancing process G.3.6.8–9

regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “less favourable treatment”, detrimental effect N.1.11.10, N.1.11.17

request for establishment of panel (requirements) (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, non-compliance, effect R.2.1.12

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

alleged disregard or distortion of evidence by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”)

discretion in assessment of evidence M.5.14

discretion/independence in evaluation of evidence M.5.14, S.7.3.26–27

inferences that differ from party’s reasons for adducing evidence C.2.7, S.7.3.26

insufficiency of evidence, relevance M.5.14, M.5.15

“objective assessment of matter before it”

“matter” (factual and legal aspects) S.7.2.8

obligation to consider all arguments/address in report S.7.2.9

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis R.2.1.12


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