Index:  A  B  C-D  E-F  G-H  I  J  K-L  M-S  T  U-Z 


Korea — Alcoholic Beverages
Korea — Dairy
Korea — Various Measures on Beef

Korea — Alcoholic Beverages (WT/DS75/AB/R, WT/DS84/AB/R)     back to top

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), classification as issue of law or fact, credibility and weight of evidence S.3.3.5

directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2) D.1.1-9


consumer preferences D.1.8, N.1.6.1-7

cross-price elasticity D.1.7, N.1.6.5

interchangeability D.1.2, N.1.6.1

determination on case-by-case basis D.1.8-9, N.1.6.6-7

as dynamic relationship (including possibility of latent demand) D.1.1-2, D.1.4-5, N.1.6.1-3

potential to compete as determining factor N.1.6.1

object and purpose of provision D.1.4, D.1.6, N.1.6.2, N.1.6.4

objective assessment, need for D.1.8-9, N.1.6.7

ordinary meaning D.1.2, N.1.6.1

interpretation of covered agreements

narrow/broad interpretation D.1.3

object and purpose D.1.4, D.1.6, N.1.6.2, N.1.6.4

ordinary meaning N.1.6.1

“like product” (GATT III:2)

directly competitive or substitutable products distinguished N.1.5.3

directly competitive or substitutable products distinguished (Ad Note) D.1.3

narrow interpretation, need for D.1.3, N.1.5.3

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1)

“so as to afford protection”

equality of competitive conditions N.1.6.1, N.1.6.2, N.1.6.4

protection of competitive relationship N.1.6.1, N.1.6.2

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7) P.1.1.1

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

evidence, alleged disregard or distortion by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”) S.7.3.6

discretion/independence in evaluation of evidence S.7.3.6

egregious error, need for S.7.3.6

Korea — Dairy (WT/DS98/AB/R)     back to top

burden of proof

prima facie case B.3.2.6

examination of respondent’s defence and evidence, timing B.3.2.6

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis C.4.7-8

factual basis

contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.7-8

limitation to panel’s findings or undisputed facts in panel record C.4.7

consultations (DSU 4), establishment of panel, as prerequisite T.6.1.7

determination of serious injury or threat thereof (SG 4), requirements, evaluation of all relevant factors (SG 4.2(a)), inclusion of all listed factors in notification to Committee on Safeguards (SG 12.2) S.1.41.2

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance T.6.2.7-8

GATT 1947, continuing relevance under WTO G.2.1.3

GATT 1994, WTO Agreement, incorporation into (WTO Annex 1A) G.2.1.3

GATT as integral part of WTO (WTO II:2) G.2.1.3

interpretation of covered agreements

context (VCLT 31(2)), treaty/treaties as a whole I.3.7.7

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat / effet utile) I.3.7.7

legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel) R.2.2.6-7

arguments distinguished C.1.6, R.2.2.6-7

due process and T.6.2.7-8

evidence to support claim distinguished C.1.6

summary, sufficiency R.2.1.5, T.6.1.7

listing of articles of agreement allegedly breached R.2.2.6-7, T.6.2.7-8

proportionality, safeguard measures (SG 5.1) (“to the extent necessary”) and S.1.34.1

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2)

consultations, indication as to whether held T.6.1.7

writing R.2.1.5, T.6.1.7

safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX)

application of measures (SG 5), proportionality (“to the extent necessary”) (SG 5.1) S.1.34.1


exceptional nature of remedy S.1.45.1

relationship between Safeguards Agreement and GATT XIX S.1.44.3-4

WTO Agreement, Safeguards Agreement as integral part of (WTO II:2) G.2.1.3, S.1.44.3-4

notification and consultation (SG 12)

adequate opportunity for prior consultations (SG 12.3), meaningful exchange, need for S.1.41.1

of all pertinent information (SG 12.2) S.1.41.1-2

all factors listed in SG 12.2 and 4.2(a), need for S.1.41.2

date of introduction of measure S.1.41.1

precise description of proposed measure S.1.41.1

safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), conditions (SG 2)

“such increased quantities”

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)) S.1.50.2

as pertinent issue of fact and law S.1.50.2

“specific measure at issue” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2), identification as part of the matter referred to the DSB, need for (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1) R.2.1.5, T.6.1.7

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), evidence, alleged disregard or distortion by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”), obligation to examine and evaluate evidence S.7.3.11

WTO Agreement, integral parts (WTO II) G.2.1.3, I.3.7.7

Korea — Various Measures on Beef (WT/DS161/AB/R, WT/DS169/AB/R)     back to top

Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) (AG 1(a)/Annex 3)

Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) (AG 1(a)/Annex 3), Current Total AMS A.1.2.2

Base Total AMS/commitment levels (AG 1(a)/Annex 3), absolute nature A.1.1.1

“constituent data and methodology”, beef, absence A.1.2.2

market price support (AG Annex 3, paragraph 8), “production eligible” A.1.35.1

“provisions of Annex 3” / “constituent data and methodology” (AG 1(a)(ii)), priority A.1.2.2

Agreement on Agriculture (AG), Schedules of Commitments (AG 3) [and AG Annex 3] R.2.2.11

beef, AMS calculation, “constituent data and methodology”, absence A.1.2.2

“in accordance with”, AG 1(a)(ii) A.1.2.1

interpretation of covered agreements, ordinary meaning A.1.2.1

legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel) R.2.2.11

summary, sufficiency, reference to AG 3 and 6 as incorporating Schedule of Commitments and AG Annex 3 R.2.2.11, T.6.2.11

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1), “so as to afford protection”, equality of competitive conditions N.1.11.3-4

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“less favourable treatment” N.1.11.3-6

equality of competitive conditions as test N.1.11.3-4

formal differentiation in treatment, relevance N.1.11.3-5

market effect as test N.1.11.5-6

necessity test (GATT XX(d)) G.3.6.1-4

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and, enforcement of WTO-consistent laws and regulations, Members’ right to determine level G.3.5.1

“indispensable” and “necessary” distinguished G.3.6.1, G.3.6.3

order of analysis G.3.3A.8

relevant factors

contribution to realization of end pursued and (objective-pursued test) G.3.6.3-4

importance of common interests protected by the law or regulation to be enforced G.3.6.2, G.3.6.4

restrictive effect on international commerce / imported goods G.3.6.3-4

as weighing and balancing process G.3.6.4

order of analysis, necessity test (GATT XX(d)) G.3.3A.8


The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.