Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

calculation of subsidy in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

see also subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

“benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) S.2.9.3 S.2.9A.6–8 S.2.9A.13–14 S.2.9A.23–6 S.2.23.6–7 S.2.23.8–14

broad interpretation, need for S.2.1.3

calculation of subsidy in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14) S.2.22

debt to equity swaps/dilution of ownership S.2.22.4–5

goods and services/adequacy of remuneration (SCM 14(d)) S.2.23 see goods and services/adequacy of remuneration as benefit (SCM 14(d))

government loan (SCM 14(b)) S.2.9A.7 S.2.9A.8 S.2.22.3 S.2.22B

see also government loan (SCM 14(b)), benchmark elements

government provision of equity capital (SCM 14(a)) S.2.9A.7 S.2.22.3 S.2.22A

see also government provision of equity capital (SCM 14(a))

loan guarantee (SCM 14(c)) S.2.9A.7 S.2.22.3

mandatory nature of SCM 14 guidelines/investigating authorities’ right to choose S.2.22

obligation to include method in implementing regulations S.2.22.6

market vs. inside investor test S.2.22.3 S.2.23.2

causation requirement (genuine and substantial relationship)/non-attribution A.3.13 A.3.23A.1 C.4.49 S.1.30.1 S.1.30.2 S.2.19B.5.22 S.2.19B.4.14 S.2.19B.5.10 S.2.19B.5.12 S.2.19B.5.13 S.2.19B.5.14 S.2.19B.5.16 S.2.19B.5.17 S.2.19B.5.19 S.2.19B.6.10 S.2.19B.11.2 S.2.19B.11.5 S.2.19B.11.6 S.2.19B.11.7 S.2.19B.11.8 S.2.19B.11.9 S.2.19B.11.11 S.2.19B.11.13 S.2.19B.11.14 S.2.19B.11.15 S.2.25A.1 S.3.3.33

see also determination of injury (AD 3/SCM 15), evaluation of causal relationship (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5); determination of serious injury or threat thereof (SG 4) (requirements), evaluation of all relevant factors (SG 4.2(a)), “factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)); imposition and collection of AD duties (AD 9), prior determination of dumping margins, injury and causal link (AD 2 and 3), need for (AD 9.1); risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1–5.3 and Annex A(4)), specificity of assessment, need for (SPS 5.1 and 5.2), causal relationship, need to identify

“c.i.f. import price” (AG 5.1(b)) A.1.14.1 A.1.14.2

claims and arguments C.1

see also burden of proof; consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17); legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2); “matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1); notice of appeal, requirements (WP 20(2)); panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, obligation to consider all arguments/address in report; standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7); third party rights

closed session: see confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2)


for adverse effects of safeguard measures (SG 8.1) S.1.38.2 S.1.42.4

as temporary measure in case of impracticality of immediate compliance with DSB recommendations (DSU 3.7/DSU 22.4) ARB.3.1.2

compensatory adjustment for modification of schedules (GATT XXVIII:2) T.1.5.1

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

see also competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11); standard/scope of review (AB) (AD 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact

compliance/consistency with treaty obligations M.5.5 S.3.2.5 S.3.3.3 S.3.3.8 S.3.3.10 S.3.3.12 S.3.3.18 S.3.3.37 S.7.1.17 S.7.3.1 S.7.3.21 S.7.3.23

credibility and weight of evidence S.3.3.3–7 S.7.3.1

de facto discrimination S.3.3.2

determination of “likeness” S.3.3.1

difficulty of distinguishing S.3.3.33 S.3.3.37 S.7.1.16 S.7.1.17

interpretation of municipal law M.5.17

market shares S.3.3.2

nationality of majority of operators S.3.3.2

ownership, control and nationality of company S.3.3.2

panel’s application of law S.2.39.5 S.3.3.17 S.7.3.24

panel’s classification of measure, relevance S.3.3.10

party’s right to characterize claim D.2.2.19 S.3.3.25 S.3.3.30 S.7.2A.1 S.7.3.50 W.

procedural and administrative requirements, differences S.3.3.2

world market, existence and competition in S.3.3.13–14

compétence de la compétence C.6.4 W.–9

completion of legal analysis C.4

see also conditional appeal; judicial economy

in absence of full argumentation of legal issues A.1.38.15 C.4.27–28

in absence of objective analysis by panel W.2.3A.6

in absence of request from party C.4.25 C.4.28 S.3.2.5 S.3.2.10 S.3.3.12

ad arguendo arguments, problems relating to A. C.3.1.5 C.4.22–23 O.2.13 O.2.17–19 P.4A.29 S.2.10A.1.1

burden of proof and B.3.1.17 C.4.15 C.4.25 C.4.31

in case of agreement with panel finding C.4.6 C.4.18–19 C.4.21 C.5.3 W.2.7B

in case of disagreement with/reversal of panel finding C.4.1 C.4.3–5 C.4.14–15 P.4A.21–22 P.4A.27

in case of panel’s failure to examine applicability of covered agreement C.4.30 C.4.34 G.1.1.7

due process considerations/complexity of material C.4.56

factual basis

alternative factual findings prepared by panel C.4.20

contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.7–20 C.4.35

insufficient argument on novel issue C.4.12 C.4.17

limitation to panel’s findings or undisputed facts in panel record C.4.5 C.4.7 C.4.22–24 C.4.27 C.4.31–34 S.3.1.4 S.3.1.5 S.3.3.11 T.6.3.8

sufficiency of undisputed facts requirement A.1.32.7–8 A.1.38.15 C.4.27 C.4.29 C.4.34 C.4.37 C.4.39–44 P.4A.3 P.4A.4 P.4A.5 P.4A.9 P.4A.23 P.4A.24 P.4A.30 S.2.19.5 S.2.19.13

interdependent assumptions, effect of panel’s reliance on O.2.5

partial completion as aid to prompt settlement (DSU 3.3) S.3.1.11

pending review proceedings and C.4.38

prompt settlement of disputes (DSU 3.3) C.4.45 O.2.19 P.4A

request for, procedure C.4.6 C.4.18–19 C.4.21 C.5.3 W.2.7B

issues of fact not raised by parties S.1.16.3 S.3.3.31 S.3.3.33 S.7.1.15

issues of law/legal interpretations C.3.1.3 C.4.12 S.3.1.3 S.8.5

alleged failure of panel to make objective assessment (DSU 11) S.3.2

clarification of covered agreements as prime function of AB W.2.3.4

“covered in the Panel Report” S.3.1.5 S.3.1.6

“developed by the panel” S.3.1.5 S.3.1.6

inclusion in notice of appeal: see notice of appeal, requirements (WP 20(2)), statement of allegations of errors on issues of law/legal interpretations (WP 20(2)(d))

issues not examined by panel C.4.27

issues not raised by parties C.4.3 S.2.10A.4.2 S.3.1.5 S.7.2.8

legal representation in government delegation, importance P.4.2

limitation to (DSU 17.6) P.3.4.2

new arguments S.3.1.7

new evidence/evidence not before panel E.3.3.1 S.3.1.8–9

obligation to address each of issues raised under DSU 17.6 during appellate proceedings (DSU 17.12) S.3.1.6 S.3.3

judicial economy S.1.32.3

prompt and satisfactory settlement of disputes (DSU 3.3), need to respect obligation C.4.45 S.3.1.11

upholding, modification or reversal of legal findings and conclusions (DSU 17.13) C.3.1.3 S.3.1.2 S.3.1.3 S.8.5

inability to rule, effect C.4.16

panel finding not appealed P.1.2 S.1.16.3 S.3.1.13

competence (panels)

see also judicial economy; standard of review (panels) (DSU 11); terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

alternative forum, availability T.6.1.15

amendment or expiry of “specific measure” during proceedings T.6.3.17

claims against legislation as such

see also legislation as such, right to challenge

mandatory/discretionary nature of challenged measure, obligation to examine M.1.7

compétence de la compétence J.2.1.16 T.6.1.12 W.3.8

limitation on, need for express provisions T.6.3.17

objections, requirements

notice of appeal, inclusion in J.2.1.15 O.1.8 T.6.1.11

opportunity to cure procedural defect R.2.1.9

specificity/explicitness D.2.2.13 O.1.1 O.1.5–6 P.3.1.7

timeliness D.2.2.13 D.2.2.15 D.2.2.18 J.2.1.8 J.2.1.14 J.2.1.24 O.1.2 O.1.5–6 O.1.9–16 P.3.1.7 R.2.1.7–9 T.6.1.8

DSB meetings to examine request, relevance O.1.12 R.2.1.8

waiver of right, implied D.2.2.15 O.1.6

objective assessment: see competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), issues of law/legal interpretations, alleged failure of panel to make objective assessment (DSU 11); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”

obligation to examine

at any stage during proceedings D.2.2.18 J.2.1.8 J.2.1.14 J.2.1.24 T.6.1.8 W.

ex proprio motu C.7.10 D.2.2.12 J.1.13 J.2.1.12–14 O.1.7 T.6.1.28

standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7) R.5.4

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11) C.3.1

see also judicial economy; terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

clarification of existing provisions C.3.1.1 C.3.1.3 C.3.1.6

additional procedures (WP 16(1)) B.4.7

“clarification” C.3.1.3 S.8.5

outside context of particular dispute S.3.4.5

correct interpretation and application of covered agreements C.3.1.3 C.3.2.2 C.3.2.4 I.3.1.3 I.3.10.10 M.2.2.4 S.8.5

determination of violation of non-WTO agreement, exclusion C.3.1.2 C.3.2.4 J.2.1.20 J.2.1.22 P.3.8.1

panel’s obligation to explain use of document as “supplementary means” (VCLT 32) I.3.10.17

provisions relating to the functioning of the DSB or dispute settlement process C.3.1.6

obligation not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) C.3.2 I.3.1.3

refusal to exercise jurisdiction as diminishment C.3.2.3 J.2.1.16–22 P.4A.12 R.5.8 S.7.2.12 T.6.1.11–17

preservation of rights and obligations of Members, additional procedures (WP 16(1)) B.4.7 B.4.8 C.3.1.6

review of DSB actions in a particular dispute, exclusion D.1A.1

in relation to SCM Annex V procedure C.3.1.6 S.2.40A.9 S.2.40A.15

right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) C.2.1–6 C.2.9 P.3.2.1 S.7.2.6

completion of legal analysis: see competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), completion of legal analysis

compliance: see good faith compliance with WTO obligations (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)); implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21); measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure (GATT XX(d)); municipal law; request for establishment of panel (requirements) (DSU 6.2); request for establishment of panel (requirements) (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance; review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5)

composition of panels (DSU 8)

citizens of parties to dispute (DSU 8.3) D.2.2.31

determination by Director-General (DSU 8.7), discretion/consultation with parties D.2.2.31

concurring opinion (DSU 17.11/WP 3(2)) W.2.3

conditional appeal C.5

non-fulfilment of condition C.5.4–5 M.3.10

procedure C.5.3 W.2.7A.1

withdrawal of appeal (WP 30(1)) W.

confidential information (AD 6.5) A.3.32A

see also business confidential information (BCI); inferences from party’s refusal to provide information under DSU 13

“by nature” confidential A.3.32A.1

“good cause” A.3.32A.2

assessment as matter of fact A.3.32A.8

authorities’ obligations in relation to A.3.32A.3

risk of adverse effect, sufficiency A.3.32A.8

“shown” A.3.32A.3

information provided by “parties to investigation” A.3.32A.4

“interested parties” (AD 6.11) distinguished A.3.32A.4

non-confidential summaries (AD 6.5.1)

compliance obligation/absence of sanction for non-compliance A.3.32A.7

obligation to state reasons for “exceptional circumstances” A.3.32A.6–7

“sufficient detail to permit reasonable understanding of the substance” A.3.32A.6–7

transparency/due process requirements A.3.32A.5–6

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2) C.6

see also additional procedures (WP 16(1)); business confidential information; consultations (DSU 4), confidentiality (DSU 4.6); evidentiary rules (AD 6/SCM 12); oral hearing (WP 27), open oral hearing

AB’s right to lift DSU 17.10 confidentiality requirement C.6.4 W.–9

access by participants and outside legal advisers to information on AB Secretariat premises B.4.8

applicability to individuals on Members’ delegations (including non-government employees) B.4.2–3 C.6.2

Members’ responsibility for ensuring compliance C.6.2–3

closed session meetings C.6.4

disclosure of parties’ own statements (DSU 18.2) C.6.4 W. W.

due process (dispute settlement proceedings) C.6.4 W.

interrelationship between DSU 17.10 and DSU 18.2 C.6.4 W. W. W. W.

non-confidential summary C.6.4 W. W. W.

open oral hearing (WP 27) C.6.4 W.2.11.3 W.

“proceedings” (DSU 17.10) C.6.1 C.6.4 W.

provision of BCI to third participants with request to treat as confidential, applicability of DSU 18.2 B.4.12 C.6.5

as relational and time-bound concept C.6.4 W. W. W. W.

Rules of Conduct, para. VII:1


AB Members B.4.3 C.6.2 W.2.4

experts D.2.2.27 R.6

need for additional detail in special situations B.4.7 B.4.8 B.4.16

conformity of domestic laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD provisions, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4) A.3.62 L.1.7 W.4.3

dispute settlement procedures, applicability to A.3.62.1 L.1.8

“laws, regulations and administrative procedures” A.3.62.2–3 A.3.62.5 L.1.8 M.1.9

characterization by domestic authorities, relevance A.3.62.3 L.1.8

determination of legal status as by reference to WTO law A.3.62.3 A.3.62.5 L.1

line of computer code for incorporation into AD proceeding, whether L.1.20

written instrument, need for L.1.17–19 S.7.2.13

conformity of domestic laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4) W.4.3

consistency and coherence in decision-making: see SPS measures, appropriate level of protection (SPS 5.5-5.6), consistency in application (SPS 5.5)

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

see also consultations (DSU 4)

GATT XXII and XXIII compared A.3.54.1 A.3.55.1–2 L.1.2

legal basis (AD 17.3): see legal basis of claim (AD 17)

“matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4): see “matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1)

special or additional rule and procedure (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), whether A.3.55.1 S.5.1–4

standard/scope of review (AB) (AD 17.6): see standard/scope of review (AB) (AD 17.6)

consultations (DSU 4) C.7

see also consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

agreed solution, possibility of C.7.5

benefits C.7.5

clarification of issues and/opportunity to define scope of dispute C.7.5 C.7.14 C.7.18 R.2.1.11

SCM 4.3 C.7.2 R.2.4.1 S.2.17.1

confidentiality (DSU 4.6) C.7.16

see also confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2)

due process, disclosure obligation C.7.1 D.2.2.4 T.6.1.3

establishment of panel as prerequisite C.7.4 C.7.6 O.1.2 R.2.4.1–2 T.6.1.7

exceptions R.2.4.2

agreement within 60-day period that consultations have failed to settle dispute (DSU 4.7) C.7.7

party’s failure to respond to request for or enter into consultations (DSU 4.3) C.7.6 C.7.7 C.7.9

recognition of possibility (DSU 6.2) C.7.8–9

panel’s obligation to address absence of consultations C.7.10 T.6.1.4

scope of request for establishment of panel and request for consultations distinguished C.7.18

fruitfulness of resort to dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.7) L.1.10 M.1.7 P.3.1.13

good faith requirement (DSU 3.10) L.1.10 M.1.7 P.3.1.17

measure at issue (DSU 4.4)

expired measure C.7.12–15 R.2.3.13–14 T.6.3.9–10

as identified in request for establishment of panel (DSU 6.2), need for identity with C.7.2 C.7.18 R.2.1.11 R.2.2.21–22 R.2.3.7 S.2.17.1 T.6.1.19 T.6.1.21

measure affecting the operation of covered agreement (DSU 4.2) C.7.12 R.2.3.13 R.2.3.24 T.6.3.9

“affecting” C.7.11–13

measure subsequent to request for consultations C.7.4

request for (DS 4.4)

as determinant of scope C.7.16 R.2.1.11

identification of measures at issue C.7.17

degree of precision C.7.24 T.6.1.21

notification to DSB C.7.16

writing, need for C.7.16

SCM 4.2, relationship with S.2.18.2

consultations (SCM 4.1-4.4)

DSU 4.4, relationship with S.2.18.2

measure at issue (DSU 4.4), as identified in request for establishment of panel (DSU 6.2), need for identity with C.7.2 C.7.18 C.7.21–22 R.2.2.21–22 R.2.3.7 S.2.17.1 T.6.1.20

need for S.2.17.1

object and purpose, clarification and development of facts/agreed solution C.7.2 R.2.4.1 S.2.17.1

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2) C.7.3 E.3.1.11 E.3.2.8 O.1.2 S.2.18

“contingent”: see subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II)

control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8/Annex C) S.6.24A


annex S.6.24A.1

title S.6.24A.1

interrelationship between SPS 8 and Annex C S.6.24A.1

“operation of” (SCM 8) S.6.24A.1

as procedural obligations S.6.24A.1

“undertaken and completed without undue delay” (Annex C(1)(a)) S.6.24A.1

delay caused by measures other than “procedures” S.6.24A.3

risk assessment (SPS 5) distinguished S.6.24A.4

“undue delay” S.6.24A.2

cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement

see also determination of dumping (AD 2), calculation of administrative, selling and general costs and profits (AD 2.2.2); payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

average actual cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.8–9

disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market A.1.27.4–5

of products for both domestic and export markets A.1.20.9

burden of proof A.1.22.4

depreciation A.1.22.4

equity investment A.1.22.4

GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) A.1.22.4

imputed costs A.1.22

marginal cost A.1.20.8

non-monetary costs A.1.22.4

opportunity costs A.1.22.2 A.1.22.3

profits as A.1.20.8 A.1.22.2

quota costs A.1.23

“reasonable” objective methodology A.1.22.4

selling costs A.1.23

costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d)) A.1.29

general business costs distinguished A.1.29.1

income tax, whether A.1.29.1

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

aggregate investigation, sufficiency (SCM 19.3) S.2.27.1–2

applicable law, entry into force of WTO Agreement, relevance S.2.41.2

balance between rights and obligations relating to S.2.1.1 S.2.1.5 S.2.1.6–8 S.2.3A.5 S.2.8.7

calculation of subsidy (SCM 14): see calculation of subsidy in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) S.2.27.8 S.2.29.1 S.2.41

permissible responses to countervailable subsidy S.2.36.10

continued imposition: see duration and review of AD duties and price undertakings/CV measures (AD 11/SCM 21); sunset review (SCM 21.3)

double remedies: see double remedies (concurrent imposition of AD and CV duties) (GATT VI:5)

duration (SCM 21.1) S.2.29.1 S.2.30.1


limitation to amount of existing subsidy S.2.29.1 S.2.30

calculation on a per unit basis (SCM 19.4) S.2.28

“to the extent necessary” (SCM 21.1) S.2.29.1 S.2.30

non-discriminatory basis (SCM 19.3) S.2.27

expedited review, right to S.2.27.3

preconditions (SCM 19.1)

benefit S.2.26.1–2 S.2.29.1 S.2.30.1

injury to domestic industry S.2.1.4

standard of proof (SCM 22.1) S.2.33.1

privatization, relevance S.2.9B.3 S.2.9B.5 S.2.31.6–7

public notice and explanation of determinations (SCM 22): see public notice and explanation of determinations (AD 12/SCM 22)

as remedy to offset benefits of subsidies S.2.1.1 S.2.1.4 S.2.1.6–8

termination, automaticity (SCM 21.3) I.3.10.11 S.2.31.5 S.2.32

cross-referencing, role A.3.49.1 I.3.3.2 S.2.21.2 S.2.32.2

cross-subsidization (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.20.13 A.1.28

“customs” P.

customs duties

conversion of measures to: see measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2)

as preferred form of border protection A.1.7.1

transparency/predictability as distinguishing factor A.1.7.1 A.1.13.2 A.1.13.5 A.1.13.8–10 P.

customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV) R.1

“duties … not on the whole higher … than the general incidence … prior to the formation of [customs] union” R.1.3

bound/applied rates distinguished R.1.3.1

“other regulations of commerce” R.1.3.1

Understanding on Article XXIV of the GATT 1994 R.1.3.1

“shall not be more restrictive” R.1.3.1

elimination of duties and other trade restrictions on “substantially all” internal trade (GATT XXIV:8(a)(1)) R.1.4.1 R.2.4.1

flexibility R.1.4.1

“substantially” R.1.4.1

as exception to GATT provisions (GATT XXIV:5, chapeau) R.1.2.1–2

as exception to GATT provisions (GATT XXIV:5, chapeau), requirements

conformity with GATT XXIV: 5(a) and 8(a) R.1.2.2

necessity of measure to establishment of customs union R.1.2.2 R.1.6.1

object and purpose (GATT XXIV:4)

GATT XXIV as a whole, applicability to R.1.1.1

Understanding on Article XXIV of the GATT 1994 R.1.1.1

regional trade agreements and covered trade agreements, interrelationship R.1.6


“substantially the same” duties and other regulations on external trade R.1.5

flexibility R.1.5.2

“substantially” R.1.5.1–2

Abbreviations used on this page