Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

causation: see determination of injury (AD 3), evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4), evaluation of causal relationship (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5); determination of injury (AD 3), evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4), examination of other known factors (AD 3.5/SCM 15.5), dumping and injury analysis / causality analysis, distinguishability; determination of serious injury or threat thereof (SG 4), requirements, evaluation of all relevant factors (SG 4.2(a)), “factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)); imposition and collection of anti-dumping duties (AD 9), prior determination of dumping margins, injury and causal link, need for (AD 9.1); risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1-5.3 and Annex A, para. 4), specificity of assessment, need for (SPS 5.1 and 5.2), causal relationship, need to identify; safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), application of measures (SG 5), proportionality (“to the extent necessary”) (SG 5.1), limitation to share of injury caused by increased imports and “such increased quantities”, sufficient to cause serious injury or threat; serious prejudice (SCM 6), price suppression as effect of subsidy (SCM 6.3(c)), “effect of subsidy” (causal link)

“c.i.f. import price” (AG 5.1(b)) A.1.14.1, A.1.14.2

claims and arguments C.1

see also notice of appeal, requirements (AB/WP 20(2)); legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, all arguments, need to consider; standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7); third party rights

claim as defensive action (AG 10.3) A.1.34.2

distinction C.1.9

closed session: see confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2)


for adverse effects of safeguard measures (SG 8.1) S.1.38.2, S.1.42.4

compensatory adjustment for modification of schedules (GATT XXVIII:2) S.1.38.2, S.1.42.4

as temporary measure in case of impracticality of immediate compliance with DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 3.7/DSU 22.4) ARB.3.1.2

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact

compliance/consistency with treaty obligations M.5.5, S.3.2.5, S.3.3.3, S.3.3.8, S.3.3.10, S.3.3.12, S.3.3.18, S.7.3.1, S.7.3.21, S.7.3.23

credibility and weight of evidence S.3.3.3-7, S.7.3.1

de facto discrimination S.3.3.2

determination of “likeness” S.3.3.1

interpretation of municipal law M.5.17

market shares S.3.3.2

nationality of majority of operators S.3.3.2

ownership, control and nationality of company S.3.3.2

panel’s application of law S.2.39.5, S.3.3.17, S.7.3.24

panel’s classification of measure, relevance S.3.3.10

procedural and administrative requirements, differences S.3.3.2

world market, existence and competition in S.3.3.13-14

compétence de la compétence C.6.4, W.

completion of legal analysis C.4

see also conditional appeal; judicial economy

in absence of full argumentation of legal issues A.1.38.15, C.4.27-8

in absence of request from party C.4.25, C.4.28, S.3.2.5, S.3.3.12

burden of proof and B.3.1.17, C.4.15, C.4.25, C.4.31

in case of agreement with panel finding C.4.6, C.4.18-19, C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B

in case of disagreement with panel finding C.4.1, C.4.3-5, C.4.14-15

in case of panel’s failure to examine applicability of covered agreement C.4.30, C.4.34, G.1.1.7

factual basis

alternative factual findings prepared by panel C.4.20

contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.7-20, C.4.35

insufficiency A.1.38.15, C.4.27, C.4.29, C.4.34, S.2.19.5, S.4.37

insufficient argument on novel issue C.4.12, C.4.17

limitation to panel’s findings or undisputed facts in panel record C.4.5, C.4.7, C.4.22-4, C.4.27, C.4.31-4, S.3.1.4, S.3.1.5, S.3.3.11, T.6.3.8

inter-dependent assumptions, effect of panel’s reliance on O.2.5

pending proceedings and C.4.38, S.4.38

pending review proceedings and C.4.38

request for, procedure C.4.6, C.4.18-19, C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B

issues of law / legal interpretations C.3.1.3, C.4.12, S.3.1.3, S.8.5

alleged failure of panel to make objective assessment (DSU 11) S.3.2

clarification of covered agreements as prime function of AB W.2.3.4

“covered in the panel report” S.3.1.5, S.3.1.6

“developed by the panel” S.3.1.5, S.3.1.6

inclusion in notice of appeal: see notice of appeal, requirements (AB/WP 20(2)), statement of allegations of errors on issues of law / legal interpretations (AB/WP 20(2)(d))

issues not examined by panel C.4.27

issues not raised by parties C.4.3, S.3.1.5, S.7.2.8

legal representation in government delegation, importance P.4.2

limitation to (DSU 17.6) P.3.4.2

new arguments S.3.1.7

new evidence / evidence not before panel E.3.3.1, S.3.1.8-9

obligation to address each of issues raised under DSU 17.6 during appellate proceedings (DSU 17.12) S.3.1.6, S.3.3

judicial economy and S.1.32.3

upholding, modification or reversal of legal findings and conclusions (DSU 17.13) C.3.1.3, S.3.1.2, S.3.1.3, S.8.5, W.1.4

inability to rule, effect C.4.16

panel finding not appealed and P.1.2., S.1.16.3

competence (panels)

see also judicial economy; review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5), competence of Art. 21.5 panel; standard of review (panels) (DSU 11); terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

alternative forum, availability and T.6.1.15

amendment or expiry of “specific measure” during proceedings T.6.3.17

claims against legislation as such

see also legislation as such, right to challenge

mandatory/discretionary nature of challenged measure, obligation to examine M.1.7

compétence de la compétence J.2.1.16, T.6.1.12, W.3.8

limitation on, need for express provisions T.6.3.17

objections, requirements

notice of appeal, inclusion in J.2.1.15, O.1.8, T.6.1.11

opportunity to cure procedural defect and R.2.1.9

specificity/explicitness D.2.2.13, O.1.1, O.1.5-6, P.3.1.7

timeliness D.2.2.13, D.2.2.15, D.2.2.18, J.2.1.8, J.2.1.14, O.1.2, O.1.5-6, O.1.9-16, P.3.1.7, R.2.1.7-9, T.6.1.8

DSB meetings to examine request, relevance O.1.12, R.2.1.8

waiver of right, implied D.2.2.15, O.1.6

objective assessment: see competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), issues of law / legal interpretations, alleged failure of panel to make objective assessment (DSU 11); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”

obligation to examine

at any stage during proceedings D.2.2.18, J.2.1.8, J.2.1.14, T.6.1.8, W.

ex proprio motu C.7.10, D.2.2.12, J.1.13, J.2.1.12-14, O.1.7

standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7) R.5.4

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11)

see also judicial economy; terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

clarification of existing provisions C.3.1.1, C.3.1.3

“clarification” C.3.1.3, S.8.5

outside context of resolving particular dispute S.3.4.5

correct interpretation and application of covered agreements and C.3.1.3, C.3.2.2, C.3.2.4, I.3.1.3, I.3.10.10, M.2.2.4, S.8.5

determination of violation of non-WTO agreement, exclusion C.5.2, J.2.1.20, J.2.1.22, P.3.8.1

panel’s obligation to explain use of document as “supplementary means” (VCLT 32) I.3.10.17

not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) C.3.2.2, I.3.1.3

refusal to exercise jurisdiction C.3.2.3, J.2.1.16-22, R.5.8, S.7.2.12, T.6.1.11-17

right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) C.2.1-6, P.3.2.1, S.7.2.6

completion of legal analysis: see competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), completion of legal analysis

compliance, see also General Exceptions (GATT XX), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure (GATT XX(d)); implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21); municipal law; request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance; review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5)

composition of panels (DSU 8)

citizens of parties to dispute (DSU 8.3) D.2.2.31

determination by Director-General (DSU 8.7), discretion/consultation with parties D.2.2.31

concurring opinion: see Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9), concurring opinion (WP 3(2))

conditional appeal C.5

non-fulfilment of condition C.5.4-5

request for, procedure C.5.3, W.2.7A.1

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2)

see also consultations (DSU 4), confidentiality (DSU 4.6)

AB’s right to lift DSU 17.10 confidentiality requirement C.6.4, W.

applicability to individuals on Members’ delegations (including non-government employees) B.4.2-3, C.6.2

Members’ responsibility for ensuring compliance C.6.2-3

business confidential information

additional procedures, need for B.4.1-3

panel’s obligation to respect rights of third parties B.4.3

Procedures Governing Business Confidential Information B.4.1-3, W.2.6.3-5

closed session meetings C.6.4

disclosure of parties’ own statements (DSU 18.2) C.6.4, W., W.

due process (dispute settlement proceedings) and C.6.4, W.

interrelationship between DSU 17.10 and DSU 18.2 C.6.4, W., W., W., W.

non-confidential summary C.6.4, W., W., W.

open oral hearing (WP 27) and C.6.4, W.2.11.3

“proceedings” (DSU 17.10) C.6.1, C.6.4, W.

as relational concept C.6.4, W., W., W.

as relative and time-bound concept C.6.4, W., W., W.

Rules of Conduct, Art. VII:1 and


AB Members B.4.3, C.6.2, W.2.4

experts D.2.2.26, R.6

conformity of domestic laws, regulations and administrative procedures: see WTO-conformity of domestic laws, regulations and administrative procedures, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4)

consistency and coherence in decision-making: see sanitary and phytosanitary measures, appropriate level of protection (SPS 5.5-5.6), consistency in application (SPS 5.5)

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

see also consultations (DSU 4)

GATT XXII and XXIII compared A.3.54.1, A.3.55.1-2, L.1.2

legal basis (AD 17.3): see legal basis of complaint (AD 17)

“matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4): see “matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1)

special or additional rule and procedure (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), whether A.3.55.1, S.5.1-4

standard/powers of review (AB) (AD 17.6): see standard/powers of review (AB) (AD 17.6)

consultations (DSU 4) C.7

see also consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

agreed solution, possibility of C.7.5

benefits C.7.5

third parties C.7.5

clarification of issues and / opportunity to define scope of dispute C.7.5, C.7.14, C.7.18, R.2.1.11

SCM 4.3 C.7.2, R.2.4.1, S.2.17.1

confidentiality (DSU 4.6) C.7.16

see also confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2)

due process, disclosure obligation C.7.1, D.2.2.4, T.6.1.3

establishment of panel, as prerequisite C.7.4, C.7.6, O.1.2, R.2.4.1-2, T.6.1.7

exceptions R.2.4.2

agreement within 60 day period that consultations have failed to settle dispute (DSU 4.7) C.7.7

party’s failure to respond to request for or enter into consultations (DSU 4.3) C.7.6, C.7.7, C.7.9

recognition of possibility (DSU 6.2) C.7.8-9

panel’s obligation to address absence of consultations C.7.10, T.6.1.4

scope of request for establishment of panel and request for consultations distinguished C.7.18

fruitfulness of resort to dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.7) L.1.10, M.1.7, P.3.1.13

good faith requirement (DSU 3.10) L.1.10, M.1.7, P.3.1.17

measure at issue (DSU 4.4)

expired measure C.7.12-15, R.2.3.13-14, T.6.3.9-10

as identified in request for establishment of panel (DSU 6.2), need for identity with C.7.2, C.7.18, R.2.1.11, R.2.2.21-2, R.2.3.8, S.2.17.1, T.6.1.19, T.6.1.21

measure affecting the operation of covered agreement (DSU 4.2) C.7.12, R.2.3.13, T.6.3.9 “affecting” C.7.11-13

measure subsequent to request for consultations C.7.4

request for (DS 4.4)

as determinant of scope C.7.16, R.2.1.11

identification of measures at issue C.7.17

degree of precision C.7.24, T.6.1.21

notification to DSB C.7.16

writing, need for C.7.16

SCM 4.2, relationship with S.2.18.2

consultations (SCM 4.1-4.4)

DSU 4.4, relationship with S.2.18.2

measure at issue (DSU 4.4), as identified in request for establishment of panel (DSU 6.2), need for identity with C.7.2, R.2.3.8, S.2.17.1

need for S.2.17.1

object and purpose, clarification and development of facts/agreed solution C.7.2, R.2.4.1, S.2.17.1

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2) E.3.1.11, E.3.2.8, S.2.18

“contingent”: see subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement

see also determination of dumping (AD 2), calculation of administrative, selling and general costs and profits (AD 2.2.2); payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

average actual cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.8-9

disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market A.1.27.4-5

of products for both domestic and export markets A.1.20.9

burden of proof A.1.22.4

depreciation and A.1.22.4

equity investment A.1.22.4

GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) and A.1.22.4

imputed costs A.1.22.1-4

marginal cost A.1.20.8

non-monetary costs A.1.22.4

opportunity costs A.1.22.2, A.1.22.3

profits as A.1.20.8, A.1.22.2

quota costs A.1.23

“reasonable” objective methodology A.1.22.4

selling costs A.1.23

costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d))

general business costs distinguished A.1.29.1

income tax, whether A.1.29.1

countervailing duties (SCM, Part V)

aggregate investigation, sufficiency (SCM 19.3) S.2.27.1-2

applicable law, entry into force of WTO Agreement, relevance S.2.41.2

balance between rights and obligations relating to, need for S.2.1.1, S.2.1.5

calculation of subsidy in terms of benefit to recipient, method (SCM 14)

see also subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

“benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) and S.2.9.6

broad interpretation, need for S.2.1.3

debt to equity swaps / dilution of ownership S.2.22.4-5

goods and services / adequacy of remuneration (SCM 14(d)) S.2.23

“adequate” S.2.23.1

“in relation to” S.2.23.3

“market conditions” S.2.22.3, S.2.23.2

private prices / government role in market, relevance S.2.23.3-5, S.2.24

“remuneration” S.2.23.1

government loan (SCM 14(b)) S.2.22.3

government provision of equity capital (SCM 14(a)) S.2.22.3

loan guarantee (SCM 14(c)) S.2.22.3

market vs. inside investor test S.2.22.3, S.2.23.2

right to choose (SCM 14, chapeau) S.2.22

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) S.2.29.1, S.2.41

permissible responses to countervailable subsidy S.2.36.10

continued imposition: see duration and review of anti-dumping duties and price undertakings/countervailing measures (AD 11/SCM 21); sunset review (SCM 21.3)

duration (SCM 21.1) S.2.29.1, S.2.30.1


amount of existing subsidy, limitation to S.2.29.1, S.2.30

calculation on per unit basis (SCM 19.4) S.2.28

“to the extent necessary” (SCM 21.1) S.2.29.1, S.2.30

mandatory nature of SCM 14 guidelines S.2.22.6

obligation to include method in implementing regulations S.2.22.6

non-discriminatory basis (SCM 19.3) S.2.27

expedited review, right to S.2.27.3

preconditions (SCM 19.1)

benefit S.2.26.1-2, S.2.29.1, S.2.30.1

injury to domestic industry S.2.1.4

standard of proof (SCM 22.1) S.2.33.1

privatization, relevance S.2.31.6-7

public notice and explanation of determinations (SCM 22): see public notice and explanation of determinations on anti-dumping investigation / countervailing duties (AD 12/SCM 22)

as remedy to offset benefits of subsidies S.2.1.1, S.2.1.4

termination, automaticity (SCM 21.3) I.3.10.11, S.2.31.5, S.2.32

cross-subsidization: see payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)), cross-subsidization and

customs duties

conversion of measures to: see measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2)

as preferred form of border protection A.1.7.1

transparency/predictability as distinguishing factor A.1.7.1, A.1.13.2, A.1.13.5, A.1.13.8-10

customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV) R.1

“duties …not on the whole higher …than the general incidence …prior to the formation of [customs] union” R.1.3

bound/applied rates distinguished R.1.3.1

“other regulations of commerce” R.1.3.1

Understanding on Article XXIV of GATT 1994 R.1.3.1

“shall not be more restrictive” R.1.3.1

elimination of duties and other trade restrictions on “substantially all” internal trade (GATT XXIV:8(a)(1)) R.1.4.1

flexibility R.1.4.1

“substantially” R.1.4.1

as exception to GATT provisions (GATT XXIV:5, chapeau) R.1.2.1-2


conformity with GATT XXIV: 5(a) and 8(a) R.1.2.2

necessity of measure to establishment of customs union R.1.2.2, R.1.6.1

object and purpose (GATT XXIV:4)

GATT XXIV as a whole, applicability to R.1.1.1

Understanding on Article XXIV of GATT 1994 and R.1.1.1

regional trade agreements and covered trade agreements, interrelationship R.1.6


Safeguards Agreement (SG) and: see safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV) exception, applicability

“substantially the same” duties and other regulations on external trade R.1.5

flexibility R.1.5.2

“substantially” R.1.5.1-2


Abbreviations used on this page