Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

pacta sunt servanda: see good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

panel procedures (DSU 12): see composition of panels (DSU 8); Working Procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

panel reports

see also AB reports

adoption by DSB (DSU 16.4)

see also implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21)

as critical date for determining prompt compliance (DSU 21.3(c)) ARB.5.2.1-2, ARB.5.2.4

as final resolution of dispute R.4.3.4, S.8.1

unappealed panel finding and R.4.3.4-6, R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

findings unchallenged by parties and S.2.19A.2

parties’ obligation to accept R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

legal status

adopted reports R.4.3.17, S.8.1-2

unadopted reports S.8.1-2

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate panel reports, right to (DSU 9.2) P.1.3

prompt settlement (DSU 3.3) and P.1.3.1

rationale, need for (DSU 12.7) G.1.1.5-7, L.1.19, M.2.2.4, P.1.1, S.2.19B.5.6, S.7.3.22, S.7.3.31

direct quotation from previous report, desirability P.1.1.5

due process/transparency/fairness and P.1.1.4-5

party’s disagreement with rationale, relevance P.1.1.9

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), aid to C.3.1.3-5, P.1.1.4, S.8.5

sufficiency to disclose essential or fundamental justification P.1.1.4

reference to previous panel report (DSU 21.5) P.1.1.4

Paris Convention (1967) (PC): see trade names, protection, Paris Convention (1967) (PC 8); trademarks (Paris Convention (1967)) (PC)

pass-through of indirect subsidies: see subsidy, definition (SCM 1), pass-through of indirect input subsidy to countervailed product, need for (SCM 1.1/GATT VI:3)

patents: see TRIPS Agreement, patents, term of protection (TRIPS 33)

“payments” / “payment-in-kind”: see payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.17, A.1.24

see also cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement; subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II), “contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)); subsidy, definition (SCM 1), “direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a))

average total cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.9-10, A.1.20.12-13

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

absence of express provision, relevance A.1.18.3, A.1.18.4

domestic market (AG 9.1(b) and (e)) A.1.18.3

domestic price fixed by government A.1.18.5, A.1.20.4

factual and regulatory setting, relevance A.1.18.4, A.1.24.2

independent enquiry into existence of benefit, relevance A.1.3.4

industry-wide cost of production A.1.21

market rate, relevance A.1.18.5

objective standard, need for A.1.18.2

world market price A.1.19

burden of proof (AG 10.3): see burden of proof, reversal in respect of circumvention of export subsidy commitments (AG 10.3)

“by virtue of” A.1.24.1, A.1.26

government control, relevance A.1.26.5, A.1.26.10

governmental action as a whole A.1.26.1-2

motive of government, relevance A.1.28.1

nexus, need for A.1.26.3-4, A.1.26.9, A.1.27.2, A.1.27.4

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.18.4, A.1.26.2, A.1.26.8, A.1.26.10, A.1.27.2

cost of production, failure to recoup as A.1.20, A.1.36.1

see also cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement

SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies, items (j) and (k) and A.1.20.7, S.2.39, S.2.40

cross-subsidization and A.1.20.13, A.1.28

“financed” A.1.24.1, A.1.27

disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market and A.1.27.4-5

“whether or not a charge on the public account” A.1.27.1, A.1.27.4, A.1.27.7

“financed” / “a charge”, relevance A.1.17

“financing” as mechanism or process A.1.27.4

forgone income as A.1.18.1

government mandate or direction, relevance A.1.25.3, A.1.27.3, S.2.8.1

AG 9.1(e), SCM 1.1 and SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies distinguished A.1.25.3 n. 113, S.2.8.1

“governmental action” A.1.24, A.1.25.2

act or omission as A.1.25.2

determination on case-by-case basis A.1.26.11

single or series of acts/omissions A.1.25.2

monetary payment, whether limited to: see “payments” below

“on the export” A.1.28.3


transfer of economic resources, need for A.1.17.3

distinct entities, relevance A.1.17.3, A.1.28.2

payments by private parties as A.1.24.2, A.1.25, A.1.26.9, A.1.27.7

Member State responsibility and A.1.25.1

rationale A.1.20.7, S.2.39.1

precautionary principle (general) P.3.5

customary international environmental law and S.6.23.1

customary international law and P.3.5.1, S.6.23.1

precautionary principle (SPS 5.7) S.6.23

consistency of measures with SPS agreement, need for S.6.23.1

measures which result in a higher level of protection than international standards ( SPS 3.3) P.3.5.1

provisional adoption of measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7) P.3.5.1, S.6.23

SPS preamble P.3.5.1


see also interpretation of covered agreements, legitimate expectations, relevance

AB reports C.3.1.3, S.8.2-4, S.8.5, W.1.4

adopted reports C.3.1.3, S.8.1-2, S.8.5, W.1.4

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1): see GATT acquis

factual findings in previous dispute C.4.36, E.3.1.12

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), “reasonable period” ARB.5.14

judicial economy, mootness of panel findings, standard of review (panels) (DSU 11) S.7.2.18

 panel reports, “subsequent practice”, whether I.3.9.2, S.8.1

prima facie case: see burden of proof, prima facie case 

principles of international law: see competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia); expropriation, non-recognition; good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)); non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28); precautionary principle; proportionality

private counsel, participation in DSU proceedings P.4


conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) and S.2.9.5, S.2.9.9, S.2.31.6-7

continuing need for countervailing duties and S.2.31.6-7

procedural objections: see competence (panels), objections, requirements; Working Procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), objections, requirements


see also Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9); Working Procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

fair, prompt and effective resolution of disputes and D.2.2.8, O.1.3-6, W.2.1.1-2 

good faith and P.3.1.2-4

prohibited subsidies: see export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3); subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

prompt compliance: see implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), prompt compliance (DSU 21.1)

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3)

impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3) R.5.7-8, S.3.4.4

attributability of measure to responding Member, need for C.7.19, G.1.1.8, I.0.1, I.0.5, L.1.4, R.2.3.23-4, T.6.3.11

executive agency determinations L.1.4

expired measure C.7.15

DSU 21.5 proceedings to determine compliance and R.2.5.6, R.4.0.1, R.5.11, T.5.11, T.6.3.20

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.8) and S.9.7

measure as source of alleged impairment, need for C.7.19, G.1.1.8, R.2.3.15, T.6.3.11

procedure, role D.2.2.8, O.1.3-6, W.2.1.1-2

recommendations and rulings of DSB (DSU 3.4) R.2.3.20, S.3.4.1, S.3.4.4-7

refusal of party to provide information, effect I.1

review of implementation of DSB rulings and R.4.3.1-2

separate panel reports in case of multiple complainants (DSU 9.2) and P.1.3.1

“proper”: see standard/powers of review (AB) (AD 17.6)


countermeasures / suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) and P.3.6.1-3, S.9.2

as customary international law P.3.6.3

safeguard measures (ATC 6.4) and P.3.6.1

safeguard measures (SG 5.1) (“to the extent necessary”) and S.1.34

State responsibility for breach of international obligation and P.3.6.1, S.9.2

provisional measures (AD 7) A.3.38A

as basis for referral to the DSB (AD 17.4) A.3.38A.2, A.3.56.9-10, T.6.1.20

GATT VI:2 and VI:3: Ad Note, overlap with A.3.38A.1, A.3.66.3

as interim measure pending outcome of original investigation A.3.38A.2, A.3.56.9-10, T.6.1.21

preliminary determinations (AD 7.1(ii)), as pre-condition A.3.38A.2

public notice and explanation of determinations on anti-dumping investigation / countervailing duties (AD 12/SCM 22) S.2.33.1

conclusion or suspension of investigation, required information (SCM 22.5) E.3.1.6

reasons for acceptance or rejection of relevant arguments, need for S.2.34.1-2

“interested parties known to the investigating authorities” (AD 12.1) A.3.53A

publication of analysis of case under investigation (SG 4(2)(c)) C.2.4, S.1.33

justification of application of safeguard measures (SG 5.1) and S.1.35.1, S.1.36.1

publication of measures such as laws, decrees or ordinances (SPS Agreement, Transparency of SPS Regulations (Annex B) (para. 1, footnote 5)) P.5.4, S.6.24


Abbreviations used on this page