Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

pacta sunt servanda: see good faith compliance with WTO obligations (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

panel procedures (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

see also abuse of discretion (panel); composition of panels (DSU 8); due process (dispute settlement proceedings); evidence (admissibility and evaluation in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3); information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13); legal basis of claim (AD 17); legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel); request for establishment of panel (requirements) (DSU 6.2); Working Procedures (Appellate Review) (DSU 17.9)

applicable law

panel’s right to determine E.3.1.1

Working Procedures (DSU Appendix 3) E.3.1.1

agreement of parties to alternative procedure E.3.1.1

evidence: see evidence (admissibility and evaluation in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

high quality reports/avoidance of delay, flexibility in achieving balance (DSU 12.2) D.2.2.9 D.2.2.24–25 D.2.2.36 E.3.2.2

multiple appeals: see multiple appeals (WP 23)

objections, requirements

see also competence (panels), objections, requirements

good faith D.2.2.13 O.1.3 O.1.6 P.3.1.2 P.3.1.7

panel proceedings as two-stage process D.2.2.33 E.3.1.1 E.3.2.40 W.3.6 W.3.7 W.3.8 W.3.10

see also evidence (admissibility and evaluation in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), as two-stage process

panel’s discretion D.2.2.2–3 O.1.1 O.1.9 W.3.3

after consultation with the parties E.3.1.1–2

burden of proof W.3.3

due process and: see due process (dispute settlement proceedings), panel’s discretion on matters of procedure (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

limitations J.2.1.16–22 T.6.1.12–16 W.3.4

multiple complainants (DSU 9) P.1.3.2

preliminary rulings, desirability W.3.1

time-limits, submission of evidence: see evidence (admissibility and evaluation in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), time-limits for submission

panel reports

see also AB reports

adoption by DSB (DSU 16.4)

see also implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21)

as critical date for determining prompt compliance (DSU 21.3(c)) ARB.5.2.1–2 ARB.5.2.4

extension of 60-day period for W.2.0.4–5

as final resolution of dispute R.4.3.4 S.8.1

unappealed panel finding R.4.3.4–6 R.4.3.16 S.7.2A.8

findings unchallenged by parties P.4A.6 S.2.19A.2

parties’ obligation to accept P.4A.13 R.4.3.16 S.7.2A.8

clarity/consistency of language, importance S.3.1.10 T.4.2B.5

legal status

adopted reports R.4.3.17 S.8.1–2

unadopted reports S.8.1–2

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate panel reports, right to (DSU 9.2): see multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate panel reports, right to (DSU 9.2)

as part of the GATT/WTO acquis B.4.7 I.3.3.10 I.3.12.2 S.8.1

rationale, need for (DSU 12.7) G.1.1.5–7 L.1.19 M.2.2.4 P.1.1 S.2.19B.5.6 S.2.19B.5.10 S.2.19B.5.14 S.2.19B.5.15 S.2.19B.6.9 S.7.3.22 S.7.3.31 S.7.3.70

direct quotation from previous report, desirability P.1.1.5

elements for inclusion S.7.2.32

judicial economy P.1.1.7 P.1.1.8 P.1.1.10–11

party’s disagreement with rationale, relevance P.1.1.9

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), as aid to C.3.1.3–5 P.1.1.4 S.8.5

sufficiency to disclose essential or fundamental justification P.1.1.4

reference to previous panel report (DSU 21.5) P.1.1.4

Paris Convention (1967) (PC): see trade names, protection, Paris Convention (1967) (PC 8); trademarks (Paris Convention (1967)) (PC)

pass-through of indirect subsidies: see subsidy, definition (SCM 1), pass-through of indirect input subsidy to countervailed product (SCM 1.1/GATT VI:3)

patents: see TRIPS Agreement, patents, term of protection (TRIPS 33)

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.17

see also cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement; subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II), “contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)); subsidy, definition (SCM 1), “direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a))

average total cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.9–10 A.1.20.12–13

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

absence of express provision, relevance A.1.18.3 A.1.18.4

domestic market (AG 9.1(b) and (e)) A.1.18.3

domestic price fixed by government A.1.18.5 A.1.20.4

factual and regulatory setting, relevance A.1.18.4 A.1.24.2

independent enquiry into existence of benefit, relevance A.1.3.4 A.1.17.4

industry-wide cost of production A.1.21

market rate, relevance A.1.18.5

objective standard, need for A.1.18.2

world market price A.1.19

burden of proof (AG 10.3): see export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)), reversal of burden of proof

“by virtue of” A.1.24.1 A.1.26

government control, relevance A.1.26.5 A.1.26.10

governmental action as a whole A.1.26.1–2

motive of government, relevance A.1.28.1

nexus, need for A.1.26.3–4 A.1.26.9 A.1.27.2 A.1.27.4

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.18.4 A.1.26.2 A.1.26.8 A.1.26.10 A.1.27.2

cost of production, failure to recoup as A.1.20 A.1.36.1

see also cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement

SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies, items (j) and (k) A.1.20.7 S.2.39 S.2.40

cross-subsidization A.1.20.13 A.1.28

“on the export” A.1.28.3

“financed” A.1.24.1 A.1.27

disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market A.1.27.4–5

“whether or not a charge on the public account” A.1.27.1 A.1.27.4 A.1.27.7

“financed”/“a charge”, relevance A.1.17

“financing” as mechanism or process A.1.27.4

forgone income as A.1.18.1

government mandate or direction, relevance A.1.25.3 A.1.27.3 S.2.3A.2 S.2.8.1

AG 9.1(e), SCM 1.1 and SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies distinguished A.1.25.3 n. 113 S.2.8.1

“governmental action” A.1.24 A.1.25.2

act or omission as A.1.25.2

determination on case-by-case basis A.1.26.11

single or series of acts/omissions A.1.25.2

monetary payment, whether limited to: see “payments” below


transfer of economic resources, need for A.1.17.3

distinct entities, relevance A.1.17.3 A.1.28.2

payments by private parties as A.1.24.2 A.1.25 A.1.26.9 A.1.27.7

Member State responsibility A.1.25.1

rationale A.1.20.7 S.2.39.1

“payments”/“payment-in-kind”: see payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)); subsidy, definition (SCM 1), “direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a))

peace clause: see domestic support measures, exemption from GATT XVI and SCM Part III measures (AG 13) (“due restraint” (peace clause))

precautionary principle (general) P.3.5

customary international environmental law S.6.23.1

customary international law P.3.5.1 S.6.23.1

precautionary principle (SPS 5.7) S.6.23

consistency of measures with SPS agreement, need for S.6.23.1

measures which result in a higher level of protection than international standards (SPS 3.3) P.3.5.1

provisional adoption of measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7) P.3.5.1 S.6.23

SPS preamble P.3.5.1


see also acquis (GATT/WTO) (WTO XVI:1); interpretation of covered agreements, legitimate expectations, relevance

AB reports C.3.1.3 S.8.2–4 S.8.5

adopted reports C.3.1.3 S.8.1–2 S.8.5

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1): see acquis (GATT/WTO) (WTO XVI:1)

differentiation of previous disputes ARB.5.14

factual findings in previous dispute C.4.36 E.3.1.12

importance of compliance/cogent reasons for departure from C.3.1.3 C.3.1.4 S.7.2.19 S.8.5

judicial economy, mootness of panel findings, standard of review (panels) (DSU 11) S.7.2.18

panel reports

adopted reports C.3.1.3 S.8.1–2 S.8.5

“subsequent practice”, whether I.3.9.2 S.8.1

unadopted N.1.13.1

price suppression as effect of subsidy (SCM 6.3(c))

causation requirement (genuine and substantial relationship)/non-attribution A.3.13 A.3.23A.1 C.4.49 S.1.30.1 S.1.30.2 S.2.19B.5.22 S.2.19B.4.14 S.2.19B.5.10 S.2.19B.5.12 S.2.19B.5.13 S.2.19B.5.14 S.2.19B.5.16 S.2.19B.5.17 S.2.19B.5.19 S.2.19B.6.10 S.2.19B.11.2 S.2.19B.11.5 S.2.19B.11.6 S.2.19B.11.7 S.2.19B.11.8 S.2.19B.11.9 S.2.19B.11.11 S.2.19B.11.13 S.2.19B.11.14 S.2.19B.11.15 S.2.25A.1 S.3.3.33

“effect of subsidy” (causal link) S.2.19B.5

determination of injury provisions (SCM 15) distinguished S.2.19B.5.3 S.2.25A.5

“effect of” S.2.19B.5.2 S.2.19B.5.9

market insulation as a result of price-contingent subsidies S.2.19B.10.1–2

significant price suppression as suggestive of S.2.19B.5.4 S.2.19B.5.9

time limitation, whether S.2.19B.8

as evidence ipso facto of serious prejudice under SCM 5(c) S.2.19A.1–2

legal inferences drawn by panel (DSU 11) S.3.3.21–22

methodology for determining S.2.19B S.2.19B.4.2 S.2.19B.4.6 S.2.19B.5

“but for” test S.2.19B.5.8 S.2.19B.5.10 S.2.19B.5.13 S.2.19B.5.21

collective assessment S.2.19B.11

counterfactual analysis S.2.19B.3–4 S.2.19B.3.2 S.2.19B.3.4 S.2.19B.4.5 S.2.19B.4.6 S.2.19B.4.11 S.2.19B.4.14 S.2.19B.5.7 S.2.19B.5.8 S.2.19B.5.10 S.2.19B.5.14 S.2.19B.5.20 S.2.19B.5.21 S.3.3.35

magnitude of subsidy, relevance S.2.19B.6

panel’s discretion A.3.19 S.2.19B.1.1 S.2.19B.5.10 S.2.19B.5.16

relevant factors S.2.19B.4.4 S.2.19B.5 S.2.19B.5.17

unitary vs. two-step approach S.2.19B.3–4 S.2.19B.2.7–8 S.2.19B.2.12 S.2.19B.3.2 S.2.19B.3.4 S.2.19B.5.7

objective assessment requirement S.2.19B.5.22 S.2.19B.1.10 S.2.19B.5.6 S.2.19B.5.10 S.2.19B.5.14 S.2.19B.5.15 S.2.19B.5.18 S.2.19B.5.19 S.2.19B.5.20 S.2.19B.5.22 S.2.19B.11.5–17

order of analysis O.2.9 S.2.19A.1 S.2.19B.1 S.2.19B.4.4–5

price depression/suppression distinguished S.2.19B.4.2 S.2.19B.4.5

authentic texts compared I.3.11.5

relevant market S.2.19B.1

panel’s discretion to determine S.2.19B.1.1

SCM 6.3(b) and SCM 6.3(c) distinguished S.2.19B.1.16

relevant price S.2.19B.4.1

“in the same market” S.2.19B.1.4–6

displacement/impedance (SCM 6.3(a) and (b)) and significant lost sales (SCM 6.3(c)) distinguished S.2.19B.3.3–4

like product/substitutability test S.2.19B.1.7–10

significant lost sales S.2.19B.3

“lost sales” S.2.19B.3.1 S.2.19B.3.4 S.2.19B.3.5

relevant market S.2.19B.1 S.2.19B.3.6

“significant” S.2.19B.3.7 S.2.19B.4.2 S.2.19B.4.7–10

“suppression” O.2.9 S.2.19B.4.11

prima facie case: see burden of proof, prima facie case

principles of international law: see competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia); good faith compliance with WTO obligations (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)); non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28); precautionary principle; proportionality

private counsel, participation in DSU proceedings P.4


continuing need for countervailing duties S.2.9B.3 S.2.9B.5 S.2.31.6–7

extinction of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) S.2.9B.1–7 S.2.31.6–7

partial privatization S.2.9B.3–7

procedural objections: see competence (panels), objections, requirements; panel procedures (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), objections, requirements


see also AB procedure; Working Procedures (Appellate Review) (DSU 17.9); Working Procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

fair, prompt and effective resolution of disputes D.2.2.8 O.1.3–6 W.2.1.1–2

good faith P.3.1.2–4

prohibited subsidies: see export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3); subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II)

prompt compliance with DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.1) R.4.3.4 ARB.2

see also “reasonable period of time” (DSU 21.3)

dependence on “understandable” reports B.4.8

discretion ARB.2.5–6

“essential to … effective resolution of disputes” ARB.2.11 ARB.4.3.18 ARB.5.2.1 ARB.5.10.2

judicial economy considerations J.1.27

as key consideration ARB.4.3.13

obligation to start preparatory measures prior to adoption of report ARB.5.2.7 ARB.5.2A

obligation to start process promptly ARB.5.2.2 ARB.5.2.5

“reasonable interval” (TBT 2.12) ARB.–4

prompt and satisfactory settlement of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3)

see also impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member, prompt settlement (DSU 3.3)

AB/panel’s suggestions for implementation (DSU 19.1), relevance P.4A.19

completion of legal analysis considerations C.4.45 O.2.19 P.4A P.4A.25 S.3.1.11

due process considerations D.2.2.36 P.4A.26

as “essential to the effective functioning of the WTO…” P.4A.5 P.4A.6 P.4A.7 P.4A.8 P.4A.10 P.4A.17 P.4A.18 P.4A.26

procedure, role D.2.2.8 O.1.3–6 W.2.1.1–2

recommendations and rulings of DSB (DSU 3.4) R.2.3.20 S.3.4.1 S.3.4.4–7

refusal of party to provide information requested under DSU 13, effect I.1.3–6

review of implementation of DSB rulings R.4.3.1–2

separate panel reports in case of multiple complainants (DSU 9.2) P.1.3.1 P.4A.7

strict compliance with request for panel P.4A.28 R.2.1.19


countermeasures/suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) P.3.6.1–3 S.9.2

as customary international law P.3.6.3

safeguard measures (ATC 6.4) P.3.6.1

safeguard measures (SG 5.1) (“to the extent necessary”) S.1.34

State responsibility for breach of international obligation P.3.6.1 S.9.2

provisional measures (AD 7) A.3.38A

as basis for referral to the DSB (AD 17.4) A.3.38A.2 A.3.56.9–10 T.6.1.20

GATT VI:2 and VI:3: Ad Note overlap A.3.38A.1 A.3.66.3

as interim measure pending outcome of original investigation A.3.38A.2 A.3.56.9–10 T.6.1.21

preliminary determinations (AD 7.1(ii)), as pre-condition A.3.38A.2

“public body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)): see subsidy, definition (SCM 1), financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1)), by a “public body” (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

public notice of conclusion or suspension of investigation in case of affirmative determination (AD 12.2.2/SCM 22.5)

disclosure of essential facts prior to determination (AD 6.9/SCM 12.8) distinguished A.3.36A.2 A.3.53A.2–5

“matters of fact” leading to final measures A.3.53A.2 S.2.34.5–7

non-confidential summaries A.3.53A.5 S.2.34.8

reasons for acceptance or rejection of relevant arguments S.2.34.1–2

“relevant information”/elements demonstrating causality as required by AD 3/SCM 15 A.3.53A.3 A.3.53A.6–7 S.2.34.6

as basis for judicial review (AD 13/SCM 23) A.3.53A.4

method for providing/choice of form A.3.53A.5 S.2.34.8

selective approach, sufficiency E.3.1.6

public notice and explanation of determinations (AD 12/SCM 22) A.3.53A S.2.33.1 S.2.34

“interested parties known to the investigating authorities” (AD 12.1) A.3.53A

publication of analysis of case under investigation (SG 4(2)(c)) C.2.4 S.1.33

justification of application of safeguard measures (SG 5.1) S.1.36.1

publication of measures such as laws, decrees or ordinances (SPS Agreement, Transparency of SPS Regulations (Annex B(1), Footnote 5)) P.5.4 S.6.24

Abbreviations used on this page