SUBJECT INDEX

M

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

mandate of DSU 21.3(c) arbitrator ARB.1 ARB.1.20 ARB.1.21 ARB.5.3.3 ARB.5.6.7 ARB.5.6.15–17 ARB.5.6.25 ARB.5.6.31 ARB.6.4
 

mandatory/discretionary legislation: see legislation as such, right to challenge, mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability
 

margin of dumping: see dumping/margin of dumping, definition/constituent elements (AD 2.1/GATT VI:1); imposition and collection of AD duties (AD 9), margin of dumping (AD 2) as ceiling (AD 9.3)
 

market access commitments (GATS XVI) G.1.3

inclusion of commitment to allow market access (GATS XVI chapeau) G.1.3.3

measures not to be maintained unless otherwise specified in Schedule (GATS XVI:2) G.1.3.1.1

exhaustive list of restrictions covered by GATS XVI:1 G.1.3.2

limitations on number of service suppliers (GATS XVI:2(a)) G.1.3.4

article to be read as a whole G.1.3.4.5

at or above zero G.1.3.3.1 G.1.3.4.6 T.1.2.8

exclusive service suppliers (GATS VIII:5) G.1.3.4.1

“form” G.1.3.4.2–6

“monopoly supplier of a service” (GATS XXVIII(h)) G.1.3.4.1

object and purpose of GATS G.1.3.4.6

as quantitative limitation G.1.3.4.1–6

limitations on total number of service operations (GATS XVI:2(c)) G.1.3.5

grammatical structure G.1.3.5.1

as quantitative limitation G.1.3.5.2–5

text/plain language G.1.3.5.2

limitations on total value of service transactions (GATS XVI:2(b)) G.1.3.3.1

bound rates at or above zero G.1.3.3.1

measures directed at consumers G.1.3.6.1

modes of supply as defined in GATS I G.1.3.1.1–2

“no less favourable treatment” obligation (GATS XVI:1), under terms provided for in Schedule G.1.3.1.1

variety of permissible forms G.1.3.5.3
 

market access concessions and commitments (AG 4.1)

see also non-discriminatory administration of quantitative restrictions (GATT XIII)

consistency with GATT XIII A.1.8.2–3 A.1.37.2 A.1.38.9

dispute settlement A.1.37.2

fundamental nature A.1.8.1

“market access” A.1.7
 

market benchmark: see goods and services/adequacy of remuneration as benefit (SCM 14(d)); subsidy, definition (SCM 1), conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)), market benchmark
 

marketing costs: see costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d))
 

material injury: see determination of injury (AD 3/SCM 15); transitional safeguards (ATC 6)
 

“matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1) A.3.56 R.2.1.4 T.6.1.5–6

see also legal basis of claim (AD 17); legislation as such, right to challenge; request for establishment of panel (requirements) (DSU 6.2); “specific measure at issue” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2), identification as part of the matter referred to the DSB, need for (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1)

equivalence of meaning in AD 17.4 and DSU 7.1 R.2.1.4 T.6.1.4–6

identification of specific issues and legal basis of claim/complaint as dual requirements (DSU 6.2) R.2.1.3 R.2.1.6 R.2.1.13 R.2.1.16–18 S.7.2A.1–2 T.6.1.1–2 T.6.1.5–6 T.6.1.9 T.6.1.22 T.6.1.29 W.2.7.5.5

“specific measure at issue” and legal basis of claim distinguished A.3.56.2 R.2.1.3 R.2.1.13 R.2.3.22 T.6.1.6 T.6.1.9 T.6.1.17 T.6.1.22 T.6.3.13

“measure at issue” (DSU 6.2) as C.1.1 J.2.1.2 R.2.1.1 T.6.1.2 W.2.7.5.5

terms of reference (DSU 7) as determining factor C.1.4 I.0.11 R.2.2.3 T.6.2.3
 

“measure” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2 and DSU 3.3) as any act or omission attributable to WTO Member L.1.4 R.2.3.23 S.6.23A.1
 

measure at issue: see “specific measure at issue” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2)
 

measures essential to the acquisition or distribution of products in short supply (GATT XX(j)) G.3.10A.1

GATT XI:2(a) (temporary measures to relieve critical shortages) distinguished G.3.10A.1 Q.1.2.4 Q.1.2.9–10
 

measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health (GATT XX(b))

GATT III:4 (regulatory discrimination), interrelationship G.3.2 N.1.12

justification

see also necessity test (GATT XX(a) and GATT XX(b))

evidence of health risks, relevance G.3.2.2 N.1.12.1

good faith reliance on G.3.3.1

“preponderant” evidence G.3.3.1

scientific sources representing divergent opinion G.3.3.1
 

measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure (GATT XX(d))

action under other relevant provisions of the GATT 1994 (AD 18.1, Footnote 24) A.3.66A.3 G.3.6.12

burden of proof G.3.5.1

coercion/certainty of success, relevance G.3.5B.4

finding of inconsistency with GATT III:4, conclusiveness G.3.2.1 G.3.2.3 R.2.3.8

“laws or regulations” G.3.5A

“international agreements” (GATT XX(h)) distinguished G.3.5A.2

international obligations of another WTO Member, exclusion G.3.5B.2–4

“necessary”: see necessity test (GATT XX(d))

obligations under GATT XII:2 and DSU 22 and 23/exclusion of unilateral determination of breach under GATT XX(d) G.3.5B.3

required elements including GATT XX chapeau G.3.5.1

“to secure compliance” G.3.5B S.7.3.30

“necessary” distinguished G.3.5B.2 G.3.6.8
 

measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources (GATT XX(g)) G.3.7

changes of meaning over time G.3.7.2

GATT III:4 (regulatory discrimination) G.3.2

GATT XI:2(a) (temporary measures to relieve critical shortages) distinguished G.3.7.4 G.3.10A

jurisdictional limitation G.3.10

nexus, need for G.3.10.3

“made effective in conjunction with”

as balance between conservation and domestic production/consumption G.3.8

“in conjunction with” G.3.8.1 G.3.8.3–5

“made effective” G.3.8.3

non-living resources, applicability to G.3.7.1–2

“relating to” G.3.9

“primarily aimed at”

distinguished G.3.9.3–4

as non-treaty language G.3.9.3

sustainable development objective (WTO preamble) G.3.7.3
 

measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2)

“any measures of the kind” (AG 4.2 and Footnote 1) A.1.10

“converted into” A.1.10.3 A.1.10.5

“include” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.10.2

customs duties as preferred form of border protection A.1.7.1

failure to convert by due date, effect A.1.9.1

minimum import price (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.11

lower band threshold, relevance A.1.11.1–4

variable import levies distinguished A.1.11.1 A.1.11.4

“ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2) A.1.10.4 A.1.13.1

similar border measures other than ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) A.1.12

“other than ordinary customs duties” A.1.12.3–5

separate analysis, relevance A.1.12.5

“similar” A.1.12.1–4 A.1.12.6

special safeguard provisions (AG 5) and: see special safeguards (AG 5)

tariff binding, relevance A.1.13.3

time-limit for conversion A.1.9.1

variable import levy” (AG 4.2, Footnote 1) (including distinguishability from “ordinary customs duty”) A.1.10.3 A.1.11.1 A.1.13

“which have been required to be” (AG 4.2) A.1.9.1 A.1.10.5
 

measures undertaken under any international government commodity agreement (GATT XX(h)), “laws or regulations” (GATT XX(d)) distinguished G.3.5A.2
 

MFN treatment (GATS II) M.2.2

determination of violation, requirements

aims and effects test, GATT III:1 distinguished M.2.2.2

comparison with like services M.2.2.3

measure covered by GATS M.2.2.3

“treatment no less favourable” (GATS II:1) M.2.2.1

de facto discrimination M.2.2.1

GATS XVII (national treatment) distinguished M.2.2.1
 

MFN treatment (GATT I) M.2.1

“advantage” (GATT I:1) M.2.1.1–3

de facto discrimination M.2.1.1–3

as finding of fact S.3.3.2

determination of compliance of AD duty with GATT VI as preliminary A.3.64.4–5 M.2.1.6 M.3.14

absence of claim under GATT VI, relevance A.3.64.5

object and purpose M.2.1.4–5
 

MFN treatment (TRIPS 4), differential treatment as discrimination M.2.3.1
 

minimum import price (AG 4.2, Footnote 1): see measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2), minimum import price (AG 4.2, Footnote 1)
 

Modalities Paper, as preparatory work (VCLT 32) A.1.37.2 A.1.37A T.1.2.13
 

modification of Schedules (GATT XXVIII) T.1.5
 

mootness of panel findings M.3 N.1.11A.1.12 S.2.3.6

findings dependent on error of law S.2.3.9 S.2.3B.4 S.2.7.1

judicial economy C.4.33 M.3.1 M.3.3 M.3.4–6 M.3.11

reversal of findings S.2.9A.4

ultra vires statements M.3.2
 

multiple appeals (WP 23)

joinder S.3.1.1 W.2.8

Notice of Other Appeal requirements W.2.7.3.7 W.2.7.3.8 W.2.7.3.9 W.2.8.4

brief statement of nature of other appeal (WP 23(2)(c)) W.2.7.3.7 W.2.7.3.8 W.2.8.4

indicative [and accurate] list of paragraph numbers related to allegation of error (WP 23(2)(c)) W.2.7.3.9 W.2.8.7
 

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33): see interpretation of covered agreements, multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33)
 

multiple complainants (DSU 9) M.4

harmonization of panels and timetables (DSU 9.3)

“harmonized” M.4.4

joint meeting with experts M.4.1–2

prompt settlement of disputes (DSU 3.3) P.4A.2 P.4A.7

“to the greatest extent possible” M.4.4

participation in panel proceedings initiated by another complainant M.4.3

procedure, panel’s discretion P.1.3.2

separate panel reports, right to (DSU 9.2) P.1.3

prompt settlement (DSU 3.3) P.1.3.1 P.4A.7
 

municipal law M.5

see also burden of proof, presumption of consistency of measure with WTO obligations

as applicable law, determination of serious injury or threat (SG 4) M.5.6 S.1.4.1 S.1.20.1–2

compliance with WTO/international obligations M.5.1 M.5.16–17 M.5.19

Certain German Interests in Polish Upper Silesia M.5.1

classification of measure/transaction under municipal law, relevance M.5.24 M.5.25–27 S.7.2A.10 S.7.3.60

determination of compliance and interpretation of legislation distinguished M.5.1 M.5.3–4 M.5.11 M.5.19

panel’s assessment as legal characterization/as matter for appellate review M.5.5 M.5.17 M.5.19–20 M.5.22–23 S.3.3.28–29

AB’s right to examine provisions/structure of the law not considered by panel M.5.20

contractual obligations under, relevance to compliance with WTO obligations S.2.19.3

defence to breach of international law, whether M.5.2

as evidence of

characterization of technical regulation objectives (TBT 2) T.4.2B.4.1 T.4.2B.4.4

compliance with WTO/international obligations M.5.1 S.3.3.8 S.3.3.28

facts S.3.3.8

State practice M.5.1

incorporation of international SPS standard S.6.7.2

interpretation M.5.11–14

authority of Member State/burden of proof M.5.21

classification as issue of law or fact M.5.17 S.3.3.28

text of legislation, sufficiency M.5.14–15
 

mutually agreed solutions (DSU 3.7) M.6

requirements (including “fruitfulness”) M.6.1 R.5.9

temporary suspension of concessions (DSU 22.8) M.6.1 R.5.9

waiver of right to Article 21.5 compliance proceedings, whether M.6.1 R.5.9
 

Abbreviations used on this page