Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

ILC Articles on State Responsibility

continuing acts T.5.1.7

customary international law status I.3.9B.1 S.2.3A.6

as relevant rules of international law (VCLT 31(3)(c)) I.3.9B.1–2 S.2.3A.6

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j)) S.2.39

access to government funds as test of profitability S.2.39.13

analysis of risk, relevance S.2.39.12

burden of proof B.3.1.20–21 S.2.39.10

as contextual guidance for analysis of AG 10.3 claims A.1.34.10 A.1.38.14 B.3.4.3

failure to cover long-term operating costs and losses A.1.20.7 S.2.9A.3

structure, design and operation of system, relevance B.3.1.21 S.2.19B.6.5 S.2.19B.4.5–7 S.2.39.9–10 S.2.39.12–13

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)) A.1.20.7 S.2.40

“used to secure a material advantage” S.2.40.1–4

remission or deferral of direct taxes (item (e)) S.2.37

burden of proof S.2.38.2

deferral not amounting to export subsidy (Footnote 59) S.2.37.1

double taxation measures S.2.38

see also double taxation measures, justification (Illustrative List, SCM Annex I(item (e)), Footnote 59)

IMF/WTO relationship I.2

consultations, requirement for (GATT XV:2) I.2.2

obligation on part of WTO to accept IMF’s determinations, whether I.2.3

exchange measures outside IMF’s jurisdiction, provision of information on request I.2.2

panel’s obligation to make independent assessment I.2.3

exchange measures within IMF’s jurisdiction, Fund’s duty to inform of consistency in cases involving (IMF–WTO Agreement, para. 8) I.2.2 S.4.3

GATT VIII obligations I.2.1

panel’s obligation to examine views critically S.7.3.10

impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member, prompt settlement (DSU 3.3) R.5.7–8 S.3.4.4

attributability of measure to responding Member, need for C.7.19 G.1.1.8 L.1.4 P.4A.11 R.2.3.23–24 T.6.3.11

executive agency determinations L.1.4

completion of legal analysis by AB (DSU 17.6) C.4.45 P.4A

DSU 21.5 proceedings to determine compliance R.2.5.6 R.4.0.1 R.5.11 T.6.3.20

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.8) S.9.7

measure as source of alleged impairment requirement C.7.19 G.1.1.8 P.4A.11 R.2.3.15 T.6.3.11

expired measure C.7.15 P.4A.10 P.4A.18

“a Member considers” P.4A.10 P.4A.12 P.4A.17

Member’s entitlement to a ruling P.4A.12

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21)

choice of means at Member’s discretion G.3.3A.17 R.4.1.25 R.4.1.33 ARB.1.1–3 ARB.1.11–13 ARB.1.15–19 ARB.3.1.4–7 ARB.3.2.1 ARB.5.6

collection of information post-DSB ruling on original sunset review determination (AD 11.3) R.4.1.25

consistency with DSB recommendations and rulings/covered agreements ARB.5.3.4 ARB.5.6.28 ARB.5.16.2 ARB.5.16.4

judicial action ARB.5.6.26

legislative/administrative action R.4.1.26–30 ARB.5.6.15–17 ARB.5.6.23–24 ARB.5.13.4–5

notification of intentions R.4.1.33

withdrawal or modification options ARB.1.18–19 ARB.3.1.3 ARB.3.1.6

withdrawal of WTO-inconsistent measure as first objective ARB.1.19 ARB.3.1.1–2 ARB.3.1.5–7

consistency with WTO obligations, responsibility for determining ARB.1.1–19

developing countries and: see developing countries (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (“particular attention should be paid … ”) (DSU 21.2))

good faith obligation ARB.5.4.9 ARB.5.6.18

presumption of compliance B.3.5.1 P.3.1.17 R.4.6.2

impracticality of immediate compliance/reasonable period of time (DSU 21.3, chapeau) ARB.2.8–9 ARB.3.1.1 ARB.4

compensation as temporary measure (DSU 3.7/DSU 22.4) ARB.3.1.2

mandate of arbitrator, limitation to determination of reasonable period of time for implementation (DSU 21.3(c)) ARB.1 ARB.1.20 ARB.1.21 ARB.5.3.3 ARB.5.6.7 ARB.5.6.15–17 ARB.5.6.25 ARB.5.6.31 ARB.6.4

prompt compliance (DSU 21.1): see prompt compliance with DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.1)

“reasonable period of time” (DSU 21.3): see “reasonable period of time” (DSU 21.3)

review of implementation (DSU 21.5): see review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5)

statements made at DSB meetings, legal status R.0.6–7 R.4.1.31

subsequent measure superseding measure at issue in original proceedings, applicability of compliance obligation R.4.3.21

sunset review (AD 11.3), effect of breach A.3.45.3 A.3.45.5–6

surveillance obligation (DSU 21.6/DSU 22.8)

potential impediments R.0.6

substantive compliance requirement (DSU 22.8) S.9.4

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.8) R.0.6 S.9.4 S.9.9

implementation recommendations (DSU 19.1): see AB/panel recommendations for bringing inconsistent measure into conformity (DSU 19.1); AB/panel’s right to make suggestions for implementation of recommendations (DSU 19.1)

Import Licensing Agreement: see Licensing Agreement

imposition and collection of AD duties (AD 9)

assessment of AD duty (AD 9.3)

determination of liability of specific importer on basis of transactions from relevant exporter A.3.40B.7 A.3.40B.9

fair comparison (AD 2.4), applicability A.3.12

calculation of “all other” AD duty rate (AD 9.4) A.3.41

avoidance of prejudice to non-investigated exporters A.3.43.2–3

calculation of volume of dumped imports (AD 3), relevance A.3.44

comparison of all comparable transactions (AD 2.4), need for A.3.42.1

as exception to AD 9.3 A.3.44.2

margins established under circumstances referred to in AD 6.8, exclusion A.3.41.1 A.3.42

method, absence of provision/neutrality A.3.41.1 A.3.41A.3

prospective normal value system (AD 9.4(ii)) A.3.41A

definition A.3.41A.1

sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to A.3.40.1

weighted average margin of dumping established with respect to investigated exporters as ceiling (AD 9.4(i)) A.3.41.1

zero/de minimis margins, exclusion A.3.28A.5 A.3.40A.10 A.3.40A.12 A.3.41.1 A.3.49.4 A.3.65.18 A.3.65.20

collection “in appropriate amounts” (AD 9.2/SCM 19.3) A.3.40.2–5 A.3.40.8

“appropriate amount” A.3.40.2

“in each case” S.2.27.5

“from all sources” A.3.40.4

individual dumping margins obligation (AD 6.10) A.3.40.4–10

impracticality of obligation A.3.40.7

“shall name the supplier” A.3.40.5–8

injury, relevance/continuation of injury requirement S.2.27.7

non-discrimination obligation A.3.40.5 S.2.27.5

SCM 19.4, relevance S.2.27.6 S.2.27.10

SCM as a whole S.2.27.10

“shall”/mandatory obligation A.3.40.4

double remedies: see double remedies (concurrent imposition of AD and CV duties)

“duty” (AD 9/SCM 10), bond, whether A.3.39.4 S.2.26.2

margin of dumping (AD 2) as ceiling (AD 9.3) A.3.40A A.3.40B A.3.65.13–15

methodology, freedom of choice A.3.40A.5–6 A.3.65.14

nature and purpose of proceedings test A.3.40A.4 A.3.65.14

“product as a whole” A.3.40A.2

“may levy” (GATT VI:2)

critical date A.3.16.4

as limitation to Member’s choice whether or not to impose AD duty A.3.65.2

new shipper reviews (AD 9.5) A.3.44A

individual margins of dumping rule (AD 6.10) compared A.

zeroing A.3.44A.3

prior determination of dumping margins, injury and causal link (AD 2 and 3), need for (AD 9.1) A.3.39

“in respect of any product” (AD 9.2) A.3.40.1

specification of AD duties by supplier, consistency with A.3.40.3

sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to A.3.40.1

retrospective/prospective assessment (AD 9.3.1 and AD 9.3.2) A.3.40B

prospective assessment (AD 9.3.2) A.3.40A.1 A.3.40B.2–4

retrospective assessment (AD 9.3.1) A.3.40A.1 A.3.40A.10 A.3.40B.4–5 A.3.40B.7

Footnote 20 to AD 9.3.1 (observance of time-limits) A.3.40C

security (bond or cash deposit) (GATT VI:2 and VI:3: Ad Note) A.3.66.1–2

totality of transactions over period of investigation as basis A.3.40B.6

security (bond or cash deposit) (GATT VI:2 and VI:3: Ad Note)

as ancillary to principal obligation A.3.61.15

“pending final determination of the facts” A.3.66

retrospective duty assessment A.3.66.1–2

“reasonable security” A.3.66A

likelihood vs. possibility test A.3.66A.2

two-step approach A.3.66A.2–3

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1), whether A.3.61.15 A.3.66A.1–3

WTO-consistency, criteria J.30.39.3

supplementary means of interpretation, relevance I.3.10.34

treatment of several suppliers as “supplying country” (AD 9.2) A.–8 A.3.40.9

income tax as marketing cost A.1.29.1

individual margins of dumping “as a rule” (AD 6.10)

accession protocol (China), relevance A.1.6

collection “in appropriate amounts” (AD 9.2/SCM 19.3) A.3.40.4–10

see also imposition and collection of AD duties (AD 9), collection “in appropriate amounts” (AD 9.2/SCM 19.3)

derogations from the rule/alternatives

derogation limited to NMEs A.

derogation in respect of new exporters (AD 9.5) compared A.

derogations not provided for in the covered agreements A.–5

determination for exporter or producer not originally included who submits necessary information (AD 6.10.2) A.3.1A.3 A.

extrapolation of examined producer/exporter findings to non-examined producers/exporters (AD 6.10) A.3.19.3–6 S.2.27.1 n. 189

impracticality of examination of all producers/exporters as justification A. A. A.3.40.7

sampling A.–4

“known exporter or producer” A.3.37.1

determination as responsibility of investigating authority A.–8 A.3.40.9

ordinary meaning A.

“as a rule” A.3.1A.1 A.3.1A.3 A.3.1A.5 A. A. A.–6

“shall” A.

treatment of several exporters as single entity A.–8 A.3.40.9

burden of proof A.

economic structure of WTO Member as evidence of A.

individual dumping margin based on average export prices of individuals/imposition of single AD duty A.

NME exporters or producers as A.–8 A.3.40.9

relevant factors A.

zeroing, applicability (AD 6.10) A.

inferences from party’s refusal to provide information under DSU 13 I.1

obligation to respond promptly to panel’s requests for information (DSU 13.1) I.1.1 S.4.9–10

panel’s discretion (DSU 11) I.1.1 I.1.4 I.1.6

panel’s obligation to make objective assessment of facts (DSU 11) I.1.3

failure to draw inferences as error of law I.1.5–6

refusal to provide information as a “fact” I.1.5–6

party’s failure to cooperate in SCM Annex V procedures I.1.7–8 S.2.40A.3 S.2.40A.4 S.2.40A.6 S.2.40A.7 S.2.40A.8 S.2.40A.11

withdrawal of evidence considered “most sensitive” B.4.8

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13)

see also amicus curiae briefs; IMF/WTO relationship; standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

burden of proof B.3.1.6 B.3.1.22 B.3.2.3 B.3.2.4 B.3.2.21 B.3.2.24 S.4.7 S.7.2.30 S.7.2.31 S.7.3.8

expert evidence (DSU 13.2) S.7.3.7

“from any relevant source” S.4.3 S.4.7 S.4.12 S.4.13 S.4.20 S.7.3.7 S.7.3.15

individual advice, right to seek S.4.1–2

opinion based on data available at time of determination E.3.1.4

timing of request for in relation to establishment of prima facie case B.3.2.5

obligation to respond fully and promptly (DSU 13.1) I.1.1 S.4.8 S.4.9 S.4.11

panel’s rights

not to seek A.2.1.3 E.3.1.3 S.4.3–5 S.4.12–14 S.4.20 S.4.22 S.7.3.3 S.7.3.15

to accept or reject requested information or advice A.2.1.3 A.2.1.5 E.3.1.3 S.4.4–5

to accept or reject unrequested information or advice S.4.5

to establish group of experts S.4.1 W.3.2

to evaluate information or advice A.2.1.3 E.3.1.3 S.4.17

to evaluate source of information or advice A.2.1.3 E.3.1.3

to make ad hoc rules S.4.2 W.3.2

to select material from expert’s statements for inclusion in panel report E.3.2.39 S.7.8.14

parties’ comments on information provided S.4.19

rectification of failure to meet requirements for establishment of panel (DSU 6.2) C.7.1

refusal to provide, effect on prompt and satisfactory settlement of disputes (DSU 3) I.1.3–6

refusal to provide, panel’s right to draw inferences: see inferences from party’s refusal to provide information under DSU 13

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (SPS 11.2)

burden of proof B.3.1.6 B.3.2.3 S.4.7 S.7.3.8

panel’s obligation to seek (SPS 11.2) S.4.6 S.4.17

panel’s right to establish group of experts S.4.1

injury: see determination of injury (AD 3/SCM 15); determination of serious injury or threat thereof (SG 4) (requirements); safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), conditions (SG 2); sunset review (AD 11.3), “likelihood” test, continuance or recurrence of injury; transitional safeguards (ATC 6), serious damage or actual threat thereof (ATC 6(2)), Member’s determination of

interpretation of covered agreements

see also decision-making/exclusive authority of Ministerial Conference and General Council to adopt WTO/MTA interpretations (WTO IX:2)

AB role S.2.9A.6 W.2.3.4

absence of provision, relevance A.1.18.3 A.1.18.4 A.1.37.2 A.2.1.7 I.3.3.1–3 S.2.1.6 S.2.16.1 S.2.21.2 S.2.44.3

annex as aid S.6.24A.1

applicable law

customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in the VCLT] A.1.4A.1 G. G. I.3.1 I.3.5.2 I.3.7.1 P.3.4.5 W.4.1A.7

accession protocols A.0.1 A.1.8 A.1.9

AD 17.6(ii) A.3.40A.6 A.3.60.2 A.3.60.4–5 A.3.60.7 A.3.60.10–11 A.3.65.15

defences and exceptions B.3.3.11

DSU 3.2 A.3.60.2 B.3.1.15 B.3.3.11 C.3.1.1

GATT VI:2/AD 9.3 A.3.65.20

GATT XX G.3.2.2 N.1.12.1

SPS P.3.5.1

relevant rules of international law (VCLT 31(3)(c)): see relevant rules of international law (VCLT 31(3)(c)) below

Schedules of Concessions: see Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), interpretation and clarification, applicable law; Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX), interpretation, applicable law

balance between flexibility/certainty of the law (DSU 3.2) I.3.1.2

changes of meaning over time G.–17 G.3.7.2

circumstances of conclusion of treaty (VCLT 32)

constructive knowledge of event, act or instrument I.3.10.22

EC customs classification practice, whether I.3.10.24–25

relevance vs. direct link/direct influence requirement I.3.10.19–20

temporal correlation between “circumstance” and conclusion of treaty I.3.10.21

conformity with other articles A.1.14.3 C.2.4

consistent and harmonious approach to WTO law/systemic integration/coherence, balance with individual Member’s international obligations C.6.4 I.3.9B.4 S.2.27.10

context (VCLT 31(2)) I.3.1.4 I.3.2.4–6 I.3.3 N.1.4.1 S.2.42.1 T.4.2A.5

AD 3.1 and SCM 15.1/AD 3 and SCM as a whole S.3.1.13

AG 2/SCM Agreement Illustrative List A.1.34.10

any agreement made between the parties (VCLT 31(2)(a)) or accepted by parties (VCLT 31(2)(b)) G.–2

CPC/Services Sectoral Classification List (W/120), whether G.–2 I.3.3.4–5

Harmonized System H.1.1–4 H.1.8–11 I.3.3.6–8 N. T.1.2.2 T.1.2.14–15

pertinence of language being interpreted I.3.3.8

predecessor agreement distinguished I.3.3.11 I.3.10.33 S.2.27.13

article as a whole A.3.13 A.1.34D.2.6 A.3.40.6 G. P. S.2.3.5 S.2.3A.1 S.2.3A.3–5 S.2.10A.2.2 S.2.10A.2.10 S.2.19B.1.9 S.2.27.7 T.4.2A.4.1

different elements of “context” leading to different conclusions G.–3 I.3.3.9

DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2 C.6.4

DSU 21.2/DSU 21.3(c) ARB.5.10.1

DSU 21.3(c)/DSU as a whole ARB.4.3.13

GATT II:1(b)/GATT II:2(a) A.3.64.3 B.3.3.21 T.1.1.5 T.1.1.7–9

GATT II/GATT III, interrelationship N.1.1A T.1.1A

GATT III:1/GATT III as a whole N.1.1.2–4

GATT III:8/GATT III:2 and GATT III:4 N.1.11A.2.1–2 S.2.42.1

GATT III:8/TRIMs 2 I.3.7.13–15 T.8A.3.1–7

GATT III:8(a)/GATT XVII:1 and XVII:2 S.7A.1.5

GATT VI/AD, interrelationship A.3.64 A.3.65

GATT VI/SCM Agreement, interrelationship S.2.27.9 S.2.41

GATT X:3(b)/AD 13 P.

GATT X:3(b)/VAL 11.1 P.

instrument made by one or more parties in connexion with the conclusion of the treaty (VCLT 31(2)(b)), EC implementing regulation I.3.10.27

jurisprudence including WTO case law, relevance I.3.3.10

legislative act between conclusion of negotiations and formal adoption of treaty I.3.10.27

“other WTO agreements”/treaties included as “integral parts” of WTO (WTO II:2) A.2.3 A.1.38.10 P.

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM 14 S.2.9.3 S.2.9A.6–8 S.2.9A.13–14 S.2.9A.23–6 S.2.23.6–7 S.2.23.8–14

SCM 3.1(b)/GATT III:4/TRIMs, interrelationship S.2.41.6 S.2.45.1 S.2.45.2

SCM Part III as a whole S.2.40A.1 S.2.40A.4

SPS 2.2/SPS 5.1/SPS 5.6, interrelationship S.6.17A.1–7 S.6.18.3

surrounding language A.1.14.3 A.3.36.1 S.2.25A.5

treaty/treaties as a whole A.1.34C.5.1 I.3.7.7 S.2.2.5 S.2.9.4 S.2.27.9 S.2.41.3 S.6.14.2 S.6.17.1 S.6.17.2 S.6.20.1 T.4.2A.4.1 T.7.1.1 ARB.4.3.13 ARB.5.10.1

dictionaries A.1.16.1 A.1.17.1–2 A.3.40.7 E.1.2.1 G. G. I.3.2.7–8 I.3.2.9–10 N. S.1.48.1 S.2.3A.1 S.2.19B.1.3 S.2.27.5

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) A.1.14.4 A.3.60.9 G.3.2.2 G.3.10.1 I.3.7 N.1.1.2 N.1.12.1 S.6.1.4

meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase A.1.10.1 A.1.24.1 A.1.27.4 A.1.38.10 A.3.60.10 I.3.7.4–10 I.3.7.15 N.1.11A.2 P.2.3.1 Q.1.2.7 S.1.44.1 S.2.3A.1 T.1.3.5 T.4.2A.5.3 ARB.5.10.1

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33), presumption of same meaning (VCLT 33(3)) I.3.11.3

overlapping principles, need to address each I.3.7.12

ejusdem generis principle I.3.13 S.2.3B.3

Footnotes to treaty A.3.15A.1 A.3.61.14 I.3.10.8 S.2.25A.2 S.2.36.9 S.6.8.4

good faith (VCLT 31)/reliance on assumption of compliance I.3.2.14

see also good faith compliance with WTO obligations (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

grammar, respect for A.3.2 A.1.9.1 A.3.39.1 G. S.6.23A.2 S.6.23A.3 T.4.2B.1.1–2 T.4.2B.1.4–6

as holistic exercise A.3.1A.5 A.3.60.9–11 G.–3 I.3.1.6 I.3.7.15 M.3.19

in dubio mitius principle I.3.8 N.3.1 S.6.6.2

definition I.3.8.1

panel reports S.8.1 S.8.2

as supplementary means of interpretation I.3.8.1

tariff concessions in Member’s schedule I.3.5.4 T.1.2.1 T.1.2.6

unilateral nature of I.3.5.4 T.1.2.1

legislative history (domestic)/domestic law as aid I.3.4

ambiguity, relevance in absence of I.3.4.2

conclusiveness I.3.4.2

legitimate expectations, relevance T.1.2.6

specific language, need for I.3.5.2–4

tariff concessions in Member’s schedule I.3.5.4 T.1.2.1 T.1.2.6

Lomé Convention L.3

Members’ practice in notifying export credit guarantee programmes, relevance I.3.9.5

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) I.3.11 N.

see also interpretation of covered agreements; multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33)

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) I.3.11.3

“equally authoritative” (VCLT 33(1)) I.3.11.7

meaning which best reconciles texts (VCLT 33(4)) I.3.11.1

non-authentic text, relevance G. I.3.2.10

presumption of same meaning (VCLT 33(3)) I.3.11.2–3 I.3.11.5 I.3.11.6

“stronger” language in two of three authentic languages, preference for I.3.11.4

use as confirmation of interpretation G.3.8.3 S.2.8.3

multiple meanings G.–3 I.3.2.12–13 I.3.11.6

multiple permissible interpretations A.3.58.5 A.3.60 S.7.1.13

benefit of doubt to challenged measure A.3.60.1

compliance with one permissible interpretation, sufficiency A.3.60.2

limits W.2.3.4

“permissible” A.3.60.2 A.3.60.5–6

narrow/broad interpretation A.3.43.1 D.1.3 M.1.9 N. N.1.10.2 S.2.1.3 S.2.3A.5 S.6.3.6 S.6.19.1

waivers W.1.3

natural meaning: see ordinary meaning below; ordinary meaning of

object and purpose A.1.29B.1 D.1.4 D.1.6 E.1.2.4–6 G. G.3.7.3 I.3.1.4 I.3.2.5–6 I.3.6 M.2.1.4 N.1.6.2 N.1.6.4 N. N.1.11A.2.1–4 P.1.3.1 P.–5 P. R.1.1.1 R.2.3.6 S.2.1.1 S.2.42.1 T.4.2A.5 W.2.1.1–2

absence of provision/preamble A.3.0.1 S.2.1.1 S.2.1.6

consistency with object and purpose of article as a whole A.3.5 A.1.33A.4 ARB.5.10.7

consistency with object and purpose of treaty as a whole A.3.14 I.3.6.2 S.2.40A.8

preamble/chapeau of article under discussion as evidence of/guide to A.0.2.10 A.1.5A.2 A.1.34C.2.5–6 A.1.38.8 E.1.5.1 G.1.3.3 G.3.7.3 G.4.5.1–4 I.3.6 L.2.1–2 P.3.5.1 R.0.1 S.2.1.1 S.6.5.3 S.6.8.2 T.4.0.1–2 T.4.2A.2.2 T.4.3.13 W.4.1.1

ordinary meaning I.3.1.4 I.3.2.8 I.3.7.3

see also text/plain language below; ordinary meaning of

parties’ intentions (VCLT 31(1))

common intention I.3.5.4 I.3.6.2 I.3.9.8 I.3.10.4 I.3.10.5 I.3.10.32 P. T.1.2.1 T.1.2.4 T.1.2.10

Members’ Schedules, whether I.3.9.8 I.3.10.13

Ministerial Decision I.3.9A.4

preamble as evidence of G.3.7.3 I.3.6.1

as rule of customary international law T.1.2.12

supplementary means (VCLT 32) as aid I.3.10.18–19

plain and ordinary meaning: see ordinary meaning above; text/plain language below

preamble/chapeau as guide S.2.10A.2.1 S.2.10A.2.11

preparatory work (VCLT 32)

Accession Working Party Report (China) I.3.12.5

AG Agreement/Modalities Paper A.1.33A.7 A.1.37.2 I.3.10.12

BOP Understanding, Footnote 1 I.3.10.8

EC customs classification practice I.3.10.3–5 I.3.10.6 I.3.10.23–24 T.1.2.3–5

Enabling Clause E.1.2.4

evidence to support claim, need for I.3.10.11

GATS G.–12 G. G. I.3.10.14

GATT III:8(b) N.1.11A.2.2

Modalities Paper as A.1.37.2 A.1.37A T.1.2.13

negotiating proposals, relevance I.3.12.1 I.3.12.2

panel’s obligation to explain use of document as I.3.10.17

record of negotiations, need for I.3.10.8

SCM Agreement I.3.10.35 S.2.3.1 n. 35 S.2.40A.13

presumption of consistency (SPS 3.2) S.6.6.1 S.6.6.3

“for the purpose of this agreement” (AD 2.1)/applicability of AD 2.1 definition throughout Agreement A.3.1A.1 A.3.1A.5 A.3.8.1–4 A.3.39.2 A.3.40A.9–10 A.3.49 A.3.49.1

relevant rules of international law (VCLT 31(3)(c)) I.3.9B

“applicable in the relations between the parties” I.3.9B.3

“between the parties” I.3.9B.4–5

EEC–US Agreement on the application of the GATT Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft (1992), whether I.3.9B.3–6 S.2.9A.11

ILC Articles I.3.9B.1–2 S.2.3A.6

“relevant” I.3.9B.3 I.3.9B.5

“rules of international law” (ICJ 38(1)) I.3.9B.1 I.3.9B.3

treatment of same subject matter as treaty term being interpreted I.3.9B.1

same or closely related phrases in different agreements A.1.4.1 A.1.32A.2 B.3.1.11 G.3.1.1–2 I.3.3.1–2 L.2.4 M.2.2.1 N. N.1.10.2 N.1.14.1 S.2.16.1 S.2.32.2

AD 9.2/SCM 19.3 A.3.40.2

AD 11.3/SCM A.3.63.3

AG 1(e)/SCM 3.1(a): see subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II), “contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a))

context, relevance S.2.19B.5.3 S.6.23A.2

cross-referencing, role A.3.49.1 I.3.3.2 S.2.21.2 S.2.32.2



GATT III:4/TBT 2.1 T.4.2A.4.2 T.4.2A.4.5 T.4.2A.4.6

GATT VI:5/SCM 19.3 and 19.4 S.2.44.3

GATT IX/TBT 2.2 T.4.2B.4.10

GATT X:3(a)/LA L.2.4

GATT XI:2(a)/TBT 2.2 T.4.2B.3.1

GATT XI:2(d)/TBT 2.2 T.4.2B.4.10

SG 2.1/accession protocol (China), Art. 16.4 A.3.4

SPS Annex A(1)/GATT III:1 S.6.23A.2

same or closely related phrases in same agreement A.1.5A.1 A.1.8 A.1.34D.3.1–2 A.3.8 A.3.62.2 A.3.9A.1 S.–2 S.1.14.1 S.2.19B.6.3

AD 6.10/AD 9.2 A.3.40.4–10

AD 6.10/AD 9.5 A.

differences between provisions of same agreement leading to the same results I.3.7.11

GATS I:3(b)/GATS XXVIII(b) G.1.1.1




GATT XI:2(a)/GATT xx(j) G.3.10A.1 Q.1.2.4

SCM 1.1(a)(ii)/SCM 3.1(a) A.1.3.3

SCM 1.1(b)/TRIMs Illustrative List S.2.9.9 S.2.45.2

SCM 6.3/SCM 15.5 S.2.25A.5

SCM 6.3(c)/SCM Part V S.2.19B.5.3

SCM 14(b)/SCM 14(d) S.2.22B.4

SCM 1.1(b)/TRIMs Illustrative List S.2.9.9 S.2.45.2 T.8A.1.3 T.8A.3.7

SPS 5.1/SPS 5.6 S.7.9.1–5

structure of agreement G.1.1.9 G. G. S.2.3.5 S.2.3A.1 S.2.14.11 T.4.1.1

subsequent agreement between the parties regarding the interpretation or application of the treaty (VCLT 31(3)(a))

“agreement” I.3.9A.4 T.4.6.1

“application” I.3.9A.2

as authentic element of interpretation (ILC commentary) I.3.9A.2 I.3.9A.5

GATS Accountancy Disciplines I.3.9A.7

interpretation by Ministerial Conference and General Council (WTO IX.2) as I.3.9A T.4.6.1

amendment of covered agreement distinguished I.3.9A.1

waiver allowing temporary departure from WTO obligations distinguished I.3.9A.1–2 I.3.10.29 W.1.4

TBT Committee Decision I.3.9A.6 T.4.3.9

subsequent practice which establishes parties’ agreement on interpretation (VCLT 31(3)(b)) I.3.9

agreement, need for G. I.3.9.6

common practice, need for G. I.3.9.1 I.3.9.3–4 I.3.9.7–11 T.1.2.10–11

2001 GATS Guidelines, whether G. I.3.9.6

consistency of practice, need for G. I.3.9.1 I.3.9.3

EC customs classification practice, whether I.3.10.24–25

panel reports, whether I.3.9.2 S.8.1

supplementary means (VCLT 32) I.3.8.1 I.3.10

see also circumstances of conclusion of treaty (VCLT 32) and; preparatory work (VCLT 32) above

acquis (GATT/WTO) (WTO XVI:1) A.3.55.3 A.3.62.2 A.3.62.5 I.3.12 J.2.1.9 L.1.1 M.1.1–2

in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32(a)) G. I.3.10.2 I.3.10.9 I.3.10.12 I.3.10.14 I.3.10.28 I.3.10.30–32 W.2.3A.3

in case of manifestly absurd or unreasonable result (VCLT 32(b)) I.3.10.28

circumstances of conclusion of treaty (VCLT 32) I.3.10.3 I.3.10.7

predecessor agreement as I.3.3.11 I.3.10.33

common intention of parties, as aid in establishing I.3.10.19

as customary international law I.3.10.1

decisions of municipal courts I.3.10.26

in dubio mitius principle I.3.8.1

interpretative document issued by party I.3.10.17

need to identify as such I.3.10.10

panel’s use to confirm preliminary conclusion based on VCLT 31 I.3.10.31–32

“recourse may be had” I.3.10.18–19

“taken into account” (VCLT 31(3) chapeau) I.3.9B.2 I.3.9B.3

text/plain language A.2.3 A.1.14B.1–4 A.1.17.3 G. I.3.1.5 I.3.2 N.1.11A.2.1–4 S.2.19B.5.17 S.2.40A.14 S.2.42.1

title A.1.29B.1 I.3.3.12 L.2.1–2 Q.1.1.1 S.1.35.4 S.2.40A.1 S.2.40A.4 S.6.24A.1 T.9.3.1 ARB.5.10.8

World Customs Organization decisions T.1.2.2

interpretation of schedules: see Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX), interpretation

investigation of conditions for safeguard measures, requirements (SG 3.1/SG 4.2(c)) S.1.18

see also determination of serious injury or threat thereof (SG 4) (requirements)

detailed analysis S.1.18.1 S.7.5.3

dispute settlement proceedings distinguished S.1.19.4

evaluation of all factors S.1.19.3 S.1.26.1

obligation of competent authorities to seek information additional to that supplied by interested parties S.1.26.2 S.2.3A.8

findings and reasoned conclusions S.1.18.1 S.1.22 S.7.5.3–4

“conclusion” S.1.22.1

covering pertinent issues of fact and law S.1.18.1–2 S.1.33.1 S.1.46.1–3

applicability to unforeseen developments (GATT XIX:1(a)) S.1.47.1

demonstration of relevance of factors examined S.1.18.1 S.1.47.1

multiple explanations S.1.20.2

“reasoned” S.1.22.1

interested parties

notification to S.1.19.2

opportunity to respond to presentations of other parties S.1.19.2

opportunity to submit evidence and views S.1.19.2

published report C.2.4 S.1.18.1 S.1.21

form, freedom of choice S.1.21.4

key elements

conditions (SG 2.1/GATT XIX:1(a)) S.1.21.1–3

reasoned conclusions S.1.22

serious injury or threat of S.1.21.3

unforeseen developments S.1.21.2 S.1.46.1–3 S.1.47.1

“set forth” S.1.22.1

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

dispute settlement proceedings distinguished R.2.2.10

evidentiary rules (AD 6/SCM 12): see evidentiary rules (AD 6/SCM 12)

initiation (AD 5.4/SCM 11.4)

support of domestic industry, need for

25% benchmark, relevance to “major proportion” test (AD 4.1) A.3.27A.6

“expression of support” A.3.28.1 S.2.20.1

motives, relevance A.3.28.1 S.2.20.1

reference to as sufficient identification of legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) R.2.2.10

termination (AD 5.8/SCM 11.9) A.3.28A

de minimis standard, applicability S.2.21.1–3

individual de minimis margin, need for A.3.28A.1

sunset review (SCM 21.3) distinguished S.2.21.1–3

exporters excluded from definitive anti-dumping measure A.3.28A.4

issuance of order/decision not to issue as “terminating” step A.3.28A.3

limitation of provisions to investigation phase S.2.21.1

unified nature of investigation A.3.28A.2

zeroing, applicability A.3.28A.5

time-limits (AD 5.10/SCM 11.11) A.3.28B S.2.21A.1

Abbreviations used on this page