Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

Enabling Clause

see also burden of proof, defences and exceptions, Enabling Clause

conformity with GSP (generalized, non-reciprocal and non-discriminatory treatment), need for (Enabling Clause, para 2(a)) E.1.1

“discriminate” / “non-discriminatory” E.1.2.2-6

absence of clear qualifying criteria or standards E.1.2.7

identity of tariff preferences, need for E.1.2.3-7

least developed countries (para. 2(d)) and E.1.3.1

“generalized” E.1.2.4

“in accordance” E.1.2.1

as exception to GATT 1:1 B.3.3.9-10, E.1.1.1

provision governing trade measures as opposed to non-trade measures, relevance to classification as B.3.3.10

inconsistency with GATT I:1 as preliminary step E.1.1.2

as integral part of WTO Agreement W.4.1.1

least developed countries (para. 2(d))

differential treatment under E.1.3.1

para. 2(a), independence of E.1.3.1

object and purpose

elimination of fragmented system of preferences E.1.2.4

facilitation and promotion of trade without raising of barriers / undue difficulties (para. 3(a)) E.1.4.1

improvement of developing countries’ share of growth in international trade (WTO, preamble) E.1.2.5, E.1.5.1

least developed countries E.1.5.1, W.4.1.1

preparatory work E.1.1.3, E.1.2.4

1971 Waiver Decision E.1.1.1, E.1.1.3

treatment designed and … modified to respond to needs of developing countries (para. 3(c)) E.1.5

development, financial and trade needs, limitation to E.1.5.2

differential treatment, scope for E.1.5.1-2

objective standard, need for E.1.5.2

“positive” response E.1.5.2

enforcement: see implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21); municipal law; review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5)

environmental multilateral agreements E.2

arbitrary and unjustifiable discrimination, need to avoid E.2.1-4, G.3.12.5-7

Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles (1996), as basis for comparison / benchmark E.2.4, G.3.12.7

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Principle 12 and E.2.3, G.3.12.6

similar/comparable opportunities to negotiate, need for E.2.1-4, G.3.12.5 multilateral agreement, preference for E.2.2

estoppel P.3.7

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10) and P.3.1.16, P.3.1.19, P.3.7

prevention of recourse to dispute settlement mechanism P.3.8

relevance in WTO dispute settlement P.3.7.1-3

evidence: see amicus curiae briefs; burden of proof; determination of injury (AD 3/SCM 15), “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1); evidence, acceptability/value as; evidence (admissibility in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3); information and technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13); information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (SPS 11.2); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

evidence (admissibility and evaluation in appellate proceedings) (DSU 17.6), new evidence / evidence not before panel E.3.3.1, S.3.1.8-9


evidence (admissibility and evaluation in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3)

see also information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), evidence, alleged disregard or distortion by panel; sunset review (AD 11.3), “likelihood” test, “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

admissions adverse to the interests of the party making them E.3.2.24

authenticated vs. unauthenticated document E.3.1.13

conflicting statements where text is clear E.3.2.35

decisions of domestic courts B.3.1.13, M.5.8

evidence post-dating establishment of panel E.3.1.9, E.3.1.11, E.3.2.18, E.3.2.30, P., S.7.6.3-4

evidence submitted in previous proceedings C.4.36, E.3.1.12

opinions of legal experts B.3.1.13, M.5.8

panel’s authority to control process for informing itself of facts and legal norms E.3.2.1, S.7.2.13

see also inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw

party’s statements about requirements for determination of dumping in absence of applicable laws or regulations E.3.2.25, L.1.22

practice in application of laws A.3.52.0-1, B.3.1.13, M.5.8

refusal of party to provide information, effect, burden of proof and B.3.2.4

statements to domestic courts E.3.2.6, S.7.3.20

statements to other international tribunals E.3.2.6, S.7.3.20

teachings of publicists B.3.1.13, M.5.8

text of legislation B.3.1.13, M.5.8

time-limits for submission

absence of provision (DSU 11) E.3.1.1-2, W.3.6

absence of provision (Working Procedures (Appendix 3)) E.3.1.1-2

first substantive meeting of panel with parties, relevance E.3.1.1

mistaken allegation of “lateness” B.3.2.23, E.3.2.28

panel’s right to admit “late” evidence E.3.1.1-2

absence of objection by other party E.3.1.2

time-limit for rebuttal E.3.1.2

responding parties B.3.3.15, D.2.2.22, O.1.13-16

as two-stage process E.3.1.1

presentation of case including facts E.3.1.1

rebuttal of arguments and evidence B.3.3.16, C.2.6, E.3.1.1, S.7.2.6

evidence (GATT XX: justification), scientific sources representing divergent opinion G.3.3.1

evidentiary rules (AD 6/SCM 12)

see also sunset review (AD 11.3), “likelihood” test, “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

“allowing” S.2.21D.1

“ample opportunity to present in writing all evidence” (AD 6.1/SCM/12.1)

see also due process below

applicability to all exporters and foreign producers receiving questionnaire A., S.2.21B.1-2

entitlement of “known” producers to receive text of application (AD 6.1.3) A.3.30.2

extension “upon cause shown … whenever practicable” A., A., A.3.34.3

“reasonable period” (AD 6.8) / “reasonable time” (Annex II, para. 1) and A.3.35.3

right to impose time-limits (AD 6.1.1/SCM 12.1.1) A.3.30.1

dies a quo (Art. 6.1.1, footnote 15/SCM 12.1.1, footnote 40) A.

time-limits for investigation (AD 5.10/SCM 11.11) and A.3.28B, A.3.28B.1, S.2.21A.1 applicability

AD as whole A.3.29.1

sunset reviews (AD 11.4) A.3.51A.2, A.3.53, A.3.53.1-3

circumstantial evidence S.7.5.5

cooperation, standard

allowance for / assistance with difficulties (AD 6.13) A.3.38.1, P.3.1.5

“best of its ability” (AD Annex II, para. 5) A.3.36.2

good faith and P.3.1.5

disclosure/notification to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4/SCM 12.9) A.3.31

“interested parties” S.2.21D.1

“relevant” A.3.32.1-3

“used by the authorities” A.3.32.1-3

due process A.3.29.1

in case of failure to respond to notice of initiation A.3.31.3-6

in case of incomplete response to notice of initiation A.

facts available to investigating authority, right to use (AD 6.8/AD Annex II/SCM 12.7) A.3.33

in case of partial lack of necessary information A.3.36.3, A.3.42.1

“facts available” S.2.21C.1

failure to submit necessary information “in timely fashion” (Annex II, para. 3) and A.3.34

interpretation in light of AD 6.1.1, 6.8/Annex II, para. 1 A.3.34.2-3, A.3.35.3

as “reasonable period” / “reasonable time” A.3.34.3

failure to submit necessary information “within reasonable period” (AD 6.8) / “reasonable time” (Annex II, para. 1) and A.3.33.1-4

information provided within reasonable period, investigating authorities’ obligation to use A.3.34.2-3

“less favourable result” as possible consequence of failure to cooperate (AD Annex II, para. 7) A.3.33, A.3.43.1

standard of cooperation expected A.3.36.1-2

“reasonable period”

balance between rights of investigating authorities and legitimate interests of parties A.3.35.2-3

flexibility A.3.35.1-2

relevant factors A.3.35.2

time-limits and A.3.35.3

full opportunity for defence of interests, right to (AD 6.2) A.3.30.1, A.

disclosure obligation (AD 6.4) and A.3.31.1

notification of interest, right to set time-limits / deemed waiver A.3.31.5-6

individual examination of all producers, alternatives in case of impracticability (AD 6.10) A.3.37.2

“known exporter or producer” (AD 6.10) A.3.37.1

“margin of dumping” (AD 9.3) and A.3.40A.3

standard of evidence, absence of provision E.3.2.9-10

“sufficient evidence” (SCM 11.2) S.2.25A.3

 expert evidence/experts

see also information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13); information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (SPS 11.2)

appointment, panel’s obligations D.2.2.26-30, S.4.15-16

divergence of views, relevance G.3.3.1, S.6.9.10, S.6.14.4, S.6.20.3, S.6.20.4, S.7.8.1

due process requirements, applicability D.2.2.26-30, S.4.15-18

consultation with parties and D.2.2.29

independence and impartiality obligation D.2.2.26-30, S.4.15-18, S.7.2.20

multiple complainants and (DSU 9.2) M.4.1-2

role/panel’s relationship with S.4.17

Rules of Conduct, applicability D.2.2.27, R.6

export credit guarantees: see export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1), export credit guarantees (AG 10.2); export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1), “export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”, export credit guarantees; subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II), Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j))

export credits: see subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II), Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)) 

“export subsidy” (AG 1(e)) A.1.14C.1

see also subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

export subsidy commitments (AG 9)

see also export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1); subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

“contingent on export performance” (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.16A.1

see also subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II), “contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a))

“export subsidy commitments” (AG 3.1) A.1.4A.1

“commitments limiting subsidization” A.1.4B

levels (AG 9.2), “budgetary outlays … and the quantities benefiting from such subsidies”, as linked requirements (AG 9.2(b)(iv)) A.1.5A.1, A.1.14D.1, A.1.29A.1

“reduction commitments”

budgetary outlay commitments (AG 9.2(a)(i)) A.1.14D.1

quantity commitments (AG 9.2(a)(ii)) A.1.14D.1

“subject to reduction commitments”, applicability to AG 9.1 subsidies A.1.14D.1

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)

“applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to, circumvention …”

export credit guarantees A.1.32.5, A.1.33A.9

legal entitlement / discretionary element, relevance A.1.32A.1, A.1.32A.5, M.1.10

burden of proof (AG 10.3): see burden of proof, reversal in respect of circumvention of export

subsidy commitments (AG 10.3); export subsidy commitments (AG 9)

“circumvention” A.1.32

actual circumvention

insufficiency of undisputed facts A.1.32.7

obligation of Panel to analyse a claim in respect of all relevant products A.1.32.6

scheduled and unscheduled products, distinction, whether A.1.32.3

tax exemption A.1.32.2, A.1.32.4

threat of circumvention A.1.32A

obligation to take precautionary steps, whether A.1.32A.4, A.1.32A.8
relevance where actual circumvention already established A.1.32A.8

“commitments” A.1.30

export credit guarantees (AG 10.2)

analysis of claims relating to as preliminary to consideration of compliance with AG 10.1 A.1.33A.10

conformity after international agreement on disciplines A.1.33A.1

obligations prior to agreement A.1.33A.5, A.1.33A.7

preparatory work A.1.33A.7

development of internationally agreed disciplines A.1.33A.1

“except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture” (SCM 3.1(a)), applicability S.2.11.2

exception to AG 10.1, whether A.1.33A.2-9, A.1.38.13

“export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”

export credit guarantees A.1.4.4, A.1.32.5, A.1.33.2, A.1.33A.2-9, A.1.33A.3

mutual exclusion A.1.31, A.1.33

residual nature A.1.31

export subsidy, AG 3.3 prohibition and A.1.6

food aid transactions (AG 10.4) A.1.29B.1, A.1.32B.1, A.1.33A.6, A.1.34A.1

exception to AG 10.1, whether A.1.34B.1-2

“non-commercial transactions”, food aid A.1.32B.1

export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3) A.1.20.2

see also Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) (AG 1(a)/Annex 3); domestic support commitments (AG 6); subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

in excess of budgetary outlay and quantity commitment level (AG 3.3) A.1.4B, A.1.6.1, A.1.20.2

budgetary outlay and quantity commitment levels A.1.5A.1-4

“commitments limiting subsidization” (AG 3.1) and A.1.4B

quantitative and export subsidization commitments distinguished A.1.34.4-7

export subsidy commitments (AG 10.1) and A.1.6

provision of export subsidies under AG 9.1, dependence on A.1.5.1

scheduled products A.1.6.1

conversion to prohibition A.1.5.2

unscheduled products A.1.6.2

expropriation, non-recognition

non-nationals, applicability to P.3.3.1

trademarks, simultaneous confiscation of same trademarks in expropriating State P.3.3.2


Abbreviations used on this page