SUBJECT INDEX

E

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

EEC–US Agreement on the application of the GATT Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft (1992)

effect on subsequent multilateral agreement B.2.2 I.3.12.3–4 S.2.19A.3

relevant rules of international law (VCLT 31(3)(c)), whether I.3.9B.3–6 S.2.9A.11

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c)) S.2.19A.3

status I.3.12.3–4 S.2.9A.9–11
 

ejusdem generis principle I.3.13 S.2.3B.3
 

Enabling Clause E.1

see also developing countries (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (“particular attention should be paid … ”) (DSU 21.2)); developing countries (special and differential treatment (SCM 27))

burden of proof B.3.3.8–14 E.1.1

inconsistency with GATT I:1, sufficiency as basis of complaint B.3.3.13–14 E.1.1.4

party’s two-stage obligation to raise and prove B.3.3.12 B.3.3.16

differential and more favourable treatment in accordance with the GSP (Enabling Clause para 2(a))/“generalized, non-reciprocal and non-discriminatory” (Footnote 3 to para. 2(a)) E.1.2

“in accordance” E.1.2.1 E.1.2.2–6

authentic texts compared I.3.11.4

“generalized” E.1.2.4

“non-discriminatory” E.1.2.2–3

absence of clear qualifying criteria or standards E.1.2.7

identity of tariff preferences, relevance E.1.2.3–7

as exception to GATT 1:1 MFN obligation B.3.3.9–10 E.1.1.1–4

determination of consistency with GATT I:1 as preliminary step E.1.1.2

primacy of Enabling Clause E.1.1.2

provision governing trade measures as opposed to non-trade measures, relevance to classification as B.3.3.10

as integral part of WTO Agreement W.4.1.1

least-developed countries (para. 2(d))

differential treatment between developing and least-developed countries E.1.3.1

independence of para. 2(a) E.1.3.1

object and purpose

elimination of fragmented system of preferences E.1.2.4

facilitation and promotion of trade without raising of barriers/undue difficulties (para. 3(a)) E.1.4.1

improvement of developing countries’ share of growth in international trade (WTO preamble) E.1.2.5 E.1.5.1

least-developed countries E.1.5.1 W.4.1.1

preparatory work E.1.1.3 E.1.2.4

1971 Waiver Decision E.1.1.1 E.1.1.3

treatment designed and … modified to respond to needs of developing countries (Enabling Clause para. 3(c)) E.1.5

differential treatment, scope for E.1.5.1–2

limitation to development, financial and trade needs E.1.5.2

objective standard, need for E.1.5.2

“positive” response E.1.5.2
 

enforcement: see implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21); municipal law; review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5)
 

environmental multilateral agreements E.2

arbitrary and unjustifiable discrimination, need to avoid E.2.1–4 G.3.12.5–7

Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles (1996) as basis for comparison/benchmark E.2.4 G.3.12.7

multilateral agreement, preference/obligation distinguished E.2.2–3

obligation to offer similar/comparable opportunities to negotiate E.2.1–4 G.3.12.5

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Principle 12 E.2.3 G.3.12.6
 

environmental protection: see measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources (GATT XX(g))
 

estoppel P.3.7

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10) P.3.1.16 P.3.1.19 P.3.7

prevention of recourse to dispute settlement mechanism P.3.8

relevance in WTO dispute settlement P.3.7.1–3
 

evidence: see amicus curiae briefs; burden of proof; determination of injury (AD 3/SCM 15), “positive evidence”/“objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1); evidence (admissibility and evaluation in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3); information and technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13); information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (SPS 11.2); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)
 

evidence (admissibility and evaluation in appellate proceedings) (DSU 17.6), new evidence/evidence not before panel E.3.3 S.3.1.8–9
 

evidence (admissibility and evaluation in panel proceedings) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3) E.3.1

see also consultations (SCM 4.1-4.4), “statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2); information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13); standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), alleged disregard or distortion of evidence by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”), “likelihood” test, “positive evidence”/“objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

administrative process for implementing legal instrument E.3.2.17

admissions adverse to the interests of the party making them E.3.2.24

authenticated vs. unauthenticated document E.3.1.13

conflicting statements where text is clear E.3.2.35

domestic court decisions B.3.1.13 M.5.8

evidence post-dating establishment of panel E.3.1.9 E.3.1.11 E.3.2.18 E.3.2.30 P.5.3.1.4 S.7.6.3–4

evidence pre-dating establishment of panel (TBT 2.1) T.4.2A.5.9

evidence submitted in previous proceedings C.4.36 E.3.1.12

opinions of legal experts B.3.1.13 M.5.8

panel’s authority to control process for informing itself of facts and legal norms B.3.2.21 E.3.2.1 S.7.2.15

see also inferences from party’s refusal to provide information under DSU 13

panel’s obligation to weigh and balance all the relevant evidence E.3.2.39 S.7.8.14

party’s statements about requirements for determination of dumping in absence of applicable laws or regulations E.3.2.25 L.1.22

practice in application of laws A.3.52.0–1 B.3.1.13 M.5.8

refusal of party to provide information, burden of proof (effect) B.3.2.4

statements to domestic courts E.3.2.6 S.7.3.20

statements to other international tribunals E.3.2.6 S.7.3.20

teachings of publicists B.3.1.13 M.5.8

text of legislation B.3.1.13 M.5.8

time-limits for submission

absence of provision (DSU 12.1/Appendix 3) E.3.1.1–2 W.3.6

first substantive meeting of panel with parties, relevance D.2.2.39 E.3.1.1 W.3.12

mistaken allegation of “lateness” B.3.2.23 E.3.2.28

new supporting evidence and new issue distinguished D.2.2.38 E.3.2.42

panel’s right to admit “late” evidence D.2.2.35 E.3.1.1–2 E.3.2.40 W.3.10

absence of objection by other party E.3.1.2

time-limit for rebuttal E.3.1.2

responding parties B.3.3.15 D.2.2.22 O.1.13–16

as two-stage process E.3.1.1

presentation of case including facts D.2.2.35 E.3.1.1 E.3.2.40 W.3.10

rebuttal of arguments and evidence B.3.3.16 C.2.6 D.2.2.35 E.3.1.1 S.7.2.6 W.3.10
 

evidence (GATT XX: justification), scientific sources representing divergent opinion G.3.3.1
 

evidentiary rules (AD 6/SCM 12)

see also sunset review (AD 11.3), “likelihood” test, “positive evidence”/“objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

“ample opportunity to present in writing all evidence” (AD 6.1/SCM/12.1)

see also due process below

“ample opportunity” A.3.29.2

applicability to all exporters and foreign producers receiving questionnaire A.3.30.1.6–7 S.2.21B.1–2

entitlement of “known” producers to receive text of application (AD 6.1.3) A.3.30.2

extension “upon cause shown … whenever practicable” A.3.30.1 A.3.30.2 A.3.30.1.1 A.3.30.1.2 A.3.34.3

“questionnaire” A.3.30.1.9–12

“reasonable period” (AD 6.8)/“reasonable time” (Annex II(1)) A.3.35.3

right to impose time-limits (AD 6.1.1/SCM 12.1.1) A.3.30.1

dies a quo (Art. 6.1.1, Footnote 15/SCM 12.1.1, Footnote 40) A.3.30.1.5

time-limits for investigation (AD 5.10/SCM 11.11) A.3.28B S.2.21A.1

applicability

AD as whole A.3.29.1

sunset reviews (AD 11.4) A.3.51A.2 A.3.53

circumstantial evidence S.7.5.5

confidential information (AD 6.5): see confidential information (AD 6.5)

cooperation obligation (AD 6.8/AD Annex II)

allowance for/assistance with difficulties (AD 6.13) A.3.38.1 P.3.1.5

“best of its ability” (Annex II(5)) A.3.36.2

good faith P.3.1.5

disclosure of essential facts prior to determination (AD 6.9/SCM 12.8) A.3.36A

“before a final determination”/“which form the basis” A.3.36A.2 S.2.21D.2–4

determination of injury (AD 3.2/SCM 15.2) requirements A.3.36A.3–4

disclosure/notification to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4/SCM 12.9) distinguished A.3.32.6 A.3.36A.1

“essential” A.3.36A.2–3 S.2.21D.2–4

public notice of conclusion or suspension of investigation (AD 12.2.2/SCM 22.5) distinguished A.3.36A.2 A.3.53A.2–5 S.2.21D.2 S.2.34.5

disclosure/notification to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4/SCM 12.9) A.3.31

“allowing” S.2.21D.1

continuing nature of obligation A.3.31.8

“interested parties” S.2.21D.1

“presentations” A.3.31.7

reasoning or deliberations of investigating authority, exclusion A.3.32.8

“relevant” A.3.32.1–8

right to see all non-confidential information A.3.32.4–6

sufficiency of reference to AD 6.2 and 6.4 for “brief summary” requirement (DSU 6.2) A.3.31.8 A.3.32.11 M.3.15

use in an AD investigation “required step” A.3.32.8–9

“used” A.3.32.4

“used by the authorities” A.3.32.1–7

due process A.3.29.1

failure to respond to notice of initiation A.3.31.3–6

incomplete response to notice of initiation A.3.30.1.3–4

facts available to investigating authority, right to use (AD 6.8/AD Annex II/SCM 12.7) A.3.33

in case of partial lack of necessary information A.3.36.3 A.3.42.1

“facts available” S.2.21C.1

failure to submit necessary information “in timely fashion” (Annex II(3)) A.3.34

interpretation in light of AD 6.1.1, 6.8/Annex II(1) A.3.34.2–3 A.3.35.3

as “reasonable period”/“reasonable time” A.3.34.3

failure to submit necessary information “within reasonable period” (AD 6.8)/“reasonable time” (Annex II(1)) A.3.33.1–4

investigation authorities’ obligation to use information provided within reasonable period A.3.34.2–3

“less favourable result” as possible consequence of failure to cooperate (AD Annex II(7)) A.3.33 A.3.43.1

standard of cooperation expected A.3.36.1–2

“reasonable period”

balance between rights of investigating authorities and legitimate interests of parties A.3.35.2–3

flexibility A.3.35.1–2

relevant factors A.3.35.2

time-limits A.3.35.3

full opportunity for defence of interests, right to (AD 6.2) A.3.29.2 A.3.30.1

disclosure obligation (AD 6.4/SCM 12.9) A.3.31.1

notification of interest, right to set time-limits/deemed waiver A.3.31.5–6

individual margins of dumping: see individual margins of dumping “as a rule” (AD 6.10)

“margin of dumping” (AD 9.3) A.3.40A.3

standard of evidence, absence of provision E.3.2.9–10

“sufficient evidence” (SCM 11.2) S.2.25A.4
 

exceptions: see General Exceptions (GATS XIV); General Exceptions (GATT XX) (chapeau); General Exceptions (GATT XX) (general); government procurement exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(a)); quantitative restrictions, general elimination (GATT XI:1), exclusions (GATT XI:2); regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4); subsidies to domestic producers exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(b)); tax discrimination (GATT III:2)
 

expert evidence/experts

see also information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13); information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (SPS 11.2)

appointment D.2.2.26–30 S.4.15–16

confidentiality obligation (Rules of Conduct, para. VII:1) D.2.2.27 R.6

divergence of views G.3.3.1 S.6.9.10 S.6.14.4 S.6.20.3 S.6.20.4 S.7.8.1

due process requirements D.2.2.26–30 E.3.2.38 S.4.15–18 S.7.3.49

consultation with parties D.2.2.29 S.7.3.49

independence and impartiality obligation D.2.2.26–30 S.4.15–18 S.7.2.20

multiple complainants (DSU 9.2) M.4.1–2

role/panel’s relationship with S.4.17 S.4.21
 

expired measure, relevance in case of

AB/panel recommendations (DSU 19.1) I.0.1 I.0.5 I.0.14 P.5.3.1.3 R.2.3.24 T.6.3.15–16 T.6.3.17

consultations (DSU 4) C.7.12–15 R.2.3.13–14 T.6.3.9–10

impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3) C.7.15 P.4A.10 P.4A.18

SCM 7.8 obligation to remove adverse effects/withdraw subsidy I.0.1 S.2.19C.1

“specific measure at issue” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2) A.3.56.1–5 C.7.12–15 J.2.1.2 L.1.6 R.2.1.3–6 R.2.3 R.2.3.13–14 R.2.3.24–25 T.6.1.18–21 T.6.3 T.6.3.9–10 T.6.3.15–16 T.6.3.18
 

export credit guarantees: see export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)), export credit guarantees (AG 10.2); export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)), “export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”, export credit guarantees; Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j))
 

export credits: see Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)); subsidy, definition (SCM 1), Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k))
 

“export subsidy” (AG 1(e))

see also subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

measures falling within AG 9.1 as A.1.3.4 A.1.14C.1 A.1.17.4 A.1.33
 

export subsidy commitments (AG 9)

see also export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)); subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

“contingent on export performance” (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.16A.1 see subsidies, prohibited (SCM Part II), “contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a))

“export subsidy commitments” (AG 3.1) A.1.4A.1

“commitments limiting subsidization” A.1.4B

levels (AG 9.2), “budgetary outlays … and the quantities benefiting from such subsidies”, as linked requirements (AG 9.2(b)(iv)) A.1.5A.1 A.1.14D.1 A.1.29A.1

“reduction commitments”

budgetary outlay commitments (AG 9.2(a)(i)) A.1.14D.1

quantity commitments (AG 9.2(a)(ii)) A.1.14D.1

“subject to reduction commitments” (AG 9.1), applicability to AG 9.1 subsidies A.1.14D.1
 

export subsidy commitments (prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1))

“circumvention” A.1.32

actual circumvention

obligation of panel to analyze a claim in respect of all relevant products A.1.32.6

sufficiency of undisputed facts requirement A.1.32.7–8

scheduled and unscheduled products, distinguishability A.1.32.3

tax exemption A.1.32.2 A.1.32.4

threat of circumvention A.1.32A

obligation to take precautionary steps, whether A.1.32A.4 A.1.32A.7

relevance where actual circumvention already established A.1.32A.8

“commitments” A.1.30

export credit guarantees A.1.32.5 A.1.33A.9

export credit guarantees (AG 10.2)

analysis of claims relating to as preliminary to consideration of compliance with AG 10.1 A.1.33A.9–10

conformity after international agreement on disciplines A.1.33A.1

obligations prior to agreement A.1.33A.5 A.1.33A.7

preparatory work A.1.33A.7

development of internationally agreed disciplines A.1.33A.1

“except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture” (SCM 3.1(a)), applicability S.2.11.2

exception to AG 10.1, whether A.1.33A.2–9 A.1.38.13

“export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”

export credit guarantees A.1.4.4 A.1.32.5 A.1.33.2 A.1.33A.2–9

mutual exclusion A.1.31A.1.33

residual nature A.1.31

export subsidy, AG 3.3 prohibition A.1.6

food aid transactions (AG 10.4) A.1.29B.1 A.1.32B.1 A.1.33A.6 A.1.34A.1

exception to AG 10.1, whether A.1.34B.1–2

legal entitlement/discretionary element, relevance A.1.32A.1 A.1.32A.5–6 M.1.10

“non-commercial transactions”, food aid A.1.32B.1

reversal of burden of proof A.1.29B.1 A.1.34 A.1.34.9–11 B.3.4

AG 10.3 as special procedural provision A.1.34.3

budgetary outlay and quantity commitments distinguished A.1.34.4 A.1.34.5–7 B.3.4.2

claim as defensive action (AG 10.3) A.1.34.2

DSU 6.2 requirements distinguished A.1.34A.1

“establish” A.1.34.6 A.1.34.9

SCM claims, applicability to A.1.34.10 A.1.38.14–15 B.3.1.20–21 B.3.4.3 B.3.4.4 S.2.39.2–8 S.2.39.10

unscheduled products, applicability to A.1.34.11 B.3.4.4
 

export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3)

see also Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) (AG 1(a)/Annex 3); domestic support commitments (AG 6); subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

in excess of budgetary outlay and quantity commitment level (AG 3.3) A.1.4B A.1.6.1 A.1.20.2

budgetary outlay and quantity commitment levels A.1.5A.1–4 A.1.5A.1–4

“commitments limiting subsidization” (AG 3.1) A.1.4B

quantitative and export subsidization commitments distinguished A.1.34.4–7

export subsidy commitments (AG 10.1) A.1.6

provision of export subsidies under AG 9.1, dependence on A.1.5.1

scheduled products A.1.6.1

conversion to prohibition A.1.5.2

unscheduled products A.1.6.2
 

expropriation

non-nationals P.3.3.1

simultaneous confiscation of same trademarks in expropriating State P.3.3.2
 

Abbreviations used on this page