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The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

national treatment (GATS XVII), GATT III:1 distinguished M.2.2.2 N.1.13.1

national treatment (GATT III:1) (general principle) N.1.1

see also government procurement exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(a)); regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4); regulatory discrimination (TBT 2.1) (“treatment no less favourable”); subsidies to domestic producers exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(b)); tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

as fundamental principle N.1.11A.1

interpretation of the GATT III as a whole

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) N.1.1.2

GATT III:1 as context N.1.1.2–4 N.–3

GATT III:4 (“like” product) N.1.1.4 N.1.9.2

GATT III:5 as context N.1.1A.3

“so as to afford protection”

see also regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “so as to afford protection”; tax discrimination (GATT III:2), “so as to afford protection”

equality of competitive conditions N.1.1.1–2 N.1.6.1 N.1.6.2 N.1.6.4 N.1.6.11 N. N.1.11.3–4

protection of competitive relationship N.1.1.1–2 N.1.6.1 N.1.6.2 N.3.1

GATS II and XVII distinguished N.1.13.1

“less favourable treatment” N.1.11.7–8

national treatment (TRIMs 2)

see also government procurement exception to national treatment requirement (GATT III:8(a))

GATT III:4/GATT XI:1 (TRIMs 2.2/Illustrative List) T.8A.3.1–7

GATT III and XI and (TRIMs 2.1) T.8A.2.1–2

SCM 1.1(b) T.8A.3.7

national treatment (TRIPS 3)

applicability (TRIPS 3.1, Footnote 3) N.1.14.1

as fundamental principle N.1.14.1

“less favourable treatment” N.1.14.1

differentiation on the face of the statute N.1.14.2–6

formal differentiation in treatment, relevance N.1.14.2

GATT III:4 compared N.1.14

protection of trade-related property rights and N.1.14.1

natural resources, measures to protect: see measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources (GATT XX(g))

necessity test see “necessity” headings immediately followingsafeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), application of measures “to the extent necessary” (SG 5.1)

necessity of measure to establishment of customs union R.1.2.2 R.1.6.1

proportionality requirement P.3.6.1 S.1.34

“to the extent necessary” (SCM 21.1) S.2.29.1 S.2.30

necessity test (GATS XIV(a))

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure B.3.3.17–19 G.4.3.1–2

complainant party’s obligation to suggest G.4.4.4

consultations as G.4.4.4

“reasonably available”/“reasonably be expected” G.3.4A.1 G.4.4 T.4.2B.1.2

burden of proof B.3.3.17–19 G.4.3

“indispensable’ and “necessary’ distinguished B.3.3.17 G.4.3.2

as objective standard G.4.4.1

obligation to consult other party G.4.4.3–4

as weighing and balancing process B.3.3.17 B.3.3.19 G.4.3.1 G.4.3.3 G.4.4.2

necessity test (GATT XX(a) and GATT XX(b))

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure G.3.3A.15–17 G.3.4.1

burden of proof G.3.3A.15

complaining party’s obligation to suggest G.3.4A.1

contribution to realization of end pursued (objective-pursued test) G.3.4 G.3.4.2 G.3.4A.1–5 R.1.4.2

“reasonably available”/“reasonably be expected” G.3.3A.15–16 G.3.4A.1

comparison with alternative possibilities including risks G.3.3A.5–7

determination of necessary level of protection, Member’s right of (GATT XX(b)/XX(d)) G.3.3A.7 G.3.6.7

“indispensable” and “necessary” distinguished G.3.3A.2

methodology for determining

panel’s discretion G.3.3A.1

quantitative vs. qualitative test G.3.3A.1 G.3.3A.3

multi-pronged approach G.3.3A.4

order of analysis G.3.3A.5–7 G.3.3A.8–10 G.3.4A.1

as weighing and balancing process G.3.3A.5–7 G.3.3A.8–14 G.3.4A.4 G.4.3.1

necessity test (GATT XX(d)) G.3.6

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure, “reasonably available”/“reasonably be expected” G.3.6.5–7

burden of proof/prima facie case B.3.3.22

determination of necessary level of protection, Member’s right of (GATT XX(b)/XX(d)) G.3.3A.7 G.3.6.7

difficulty of demonstrating necessity G.3.5A.3

“indispensable” and “necessary” distinguished G.3.6.1–4

“reasonableness” test (AD 18.1, Footnote 24) distinguished A.3.66A.3 G.3.6.12

relevant factors

contribution to realization of end pursued (objective-pursued test) G.3.6.3–4

see also availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure above

importance of common interests protected by the law or regulation to be enforced G.3.6.2 G.3.6.4

restrictive effect on international commerce/imported goods G.3.6.3–4

“to secure compliance” requirement G.3.5B.2 G.3.6.10–11

as weighing and balancing process G.3.6.4–6 G.3.6.8–9

necessity test (TBT 2.2) T.4.2B.1

burden of proof T.4.2B.2.1–2

link with legitimate objective T.4.2B.1.1–8 T.4.2B.4.2

new shipper reviews (AD 9.5) A.3.44A

NGOs: see amicus curiae briefs, NGO/association/private individual briefs


China’s status A.1.6–7 A.2.2 S.2.27.12

double remedies S.2.27.3 S.2.27.14 S.2.27.15 S.2.27.16 S.2.27.17 S.2.36.13 S.2.44.1 S.2.44.2 S.2.44.4

“fair comparison” (AD 2.4) A.3.12.8–9

individual margins of dumping (AD 6.10)

possibility of derogation limited to A. I.3.10.34

single entity status of exporters and producers A.–8 A.3.40.9

surrogate values (GATT VI:1, second Ad Note) S.2.44.4

non-discriminatory administration of quantitative restrictions (GATT XIII) T.2

see also market access concessions and commitments (AG 4.1), consistency with GATT XIII

allocation to Members having a substantial interest (GATT XIII:2(d)) T.2.5 T.2.9

allocation to Members not having a substantial interest (GATT XIII:1) T.2.1

compensation negotiated under GATT XXVIII T.2.6

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions as aim (GATT XIII:2, chapeau) T.2.2 T.2.7–9

GATT I:1 (non-discriminatory application of tariffs) distinguished T.2.9

GATT XI:1 (prohibition of restrictions) T.2.8

GATT XI:2 (permitted prohibitions or restrictions) T.2.8

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X:3(a)) E.3.2.16–19 P.5.3.1 T.2.4

standard of proof E.3.2.16–17 P.

regulatory regimes established by Member, relevance T.2.3

“restriction” T.2.9

tariff quotas, applicability to (GATT XIII:5) T.2.8 T.2.9

Non-Market Economy: see NMEs

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) P.3.4 T.5.1

continuing measures P.3.4.2–3 P.3.4.8–9 T.5.1.3–10 T.5.2.1

as general principle of international law P.3.4.1–2 P.3.4.7

pre-existing rights

countervailing duties (SCM 32.3) S.2.41.2

TBT Agreement T.5.3.1–2

TRIPS T.9.9 T.9.12 T.9.13

relevant factors P.3.4.6–7

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))

see also nullification or impairment (GATT XXIII)

any measure” N.2.2.1

de minimis effects, relevance N.3.1

as exceptional remedy N.2.1.1

measure in “conflict” with GATT provisions, applicability to N.2.2.1

concurrent application to measures falling under other provisions of the GATT N.2.2.1

notice of appeal, requirements (WP 20(2)) W.2.7

see also AB procedure, withdrawal of appeal (WP 30(1)); multiple appeals (WP 23)

amendment W.2.7.4

see also AB procedure, withdrawal of appeal (WP 30(1)), re-filing of notice of appeal

WP 23bis W.2.8A

due process/right to defend interests as purpose/benchmark S.7.2A.1 W.2.7A.1 W.–2 W.–5 W. W.–2 W.–2 W. W.

failure to include claim under DSU on matter determined to concern a factual assessment, effect S.3.3.25 S.3.3.30 S.3.3.33 S.7.1.15 S.7.3.50 S.7.3.70

Notice of Other Appeal, brief statement of nature of (WP 23(2)(c)(ii)) W. W. W. W.2.8.4

objection to panel’s jurisdiction J.2.1.15 O.1.8 T.6.1.11 W.

statement of allegations of errors on issues of law/legal interpretations (WP 20(2)(d)), requirements I.1.6 W.–10 W.–2 W.2.7.3 W.

“brief” W.

explanation for allegation of error I.1.6

failure to meet requirements, effect W. W. W. W.2.8.5

identification of facts requiring panel to draw inferences I.1.6 W.

indication of appropriate factual or legal inferences I.1.6 W.

indicative [and accurate] list of paragraph numbers related to allegation of error (WP 23(2)(c)) W. W.2.8.7

legal argument in support of claim distinguished C.1.8 R.2.2.8 S.3.2.1 W.–2

specific reference to allegation of panel’s failure to make objective assessment (DSU 11) S.3.2 S.7.2.14 S.7.2A.1 W.2.7.5


illustrative list W.

inaccurate references W. W. W.2.8.7

reference to paragraph numbers in “Conclusions and Recommendations” of report W.

reference to relevant DSU provision W.

summary of contested conclusion and related findings and interpretations W.

translation, status W.2.7A.2

notice of determinations (AS 12/SCM 22): see public notice and explanation of determinations (AD 12/SCM 22)

nullification or impairment (GATT XXIII)

see also non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))

DSU, applicability (DSU 1.1), balance of payments restrictions (GATT XVIII:8) J.2.1.4–7

nullification or impairment, presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement (DSU 3.8) N.3

adverse impact as N.3.2–3

overlap of the GATT I:1 and GATT XIII obligations, relevance N.3.4

standing to bring complaint in absence of nullification or impairment N.3.5 R.5.10

Abbreviations used on this page