Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

The texts reproduced here do not have the legal standing of the original documents which are entrusted and kept at the WTO Secretariat in Geneva.

national treatment, exceptions (GATT III:8), expenditure of revenue by government, limitation to (GATT III:8(b)) S.2.42.1

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1) N.1.1

interpretation of GATT III as a whole and

effectiveness principle N.1.1.2

GATT III:1 as context N.1.1.2-4, N.

GATT III:4 (“like” product) and N.1.1.4, N.1.9.2

“so as to afford protection”

see also national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “so as to afford protection”; national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2), “so as to afford protection”

equality of competitive conditions N.1.1.1-2, N.1.6.1, N.1.6.2, N.1.6.4, N., N.1.11.3-4

protection of competitive relationship N.1.1.1-2, N.1.6.1, N.1.6.2, N.3.1

GATS II and XVII distinguished N.1.13.1

“less favourable treatment” and N.1.11.7-8

omission from GATT III:2, first sentence, relevance N.1.1.3, N.1.11.2

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

see also “like product” (GATT III:4)

“affecting” G.1.1.1, N.1.10

50 per cent fair market rule N.1.10.3

GATS I:1 compared N.1.10.2

GATT XX and G.3.2, N.1.12

general principle (GATT III:1) and N.1.1.4, N.1.9.2

“less favourable treatment” N.1.11

detriment, need for N.1.11.10

differentiation on the face of the statute N.1.14.2-6

equality of competitive conditions as test N.1.11.3-4

formal differentiation in treatment, relevance N.1.11.3-5, N.1.14.2

market effect as test N.1.11.5-6

restrictions on traders as A.2.1

TRIPS 3.1 compared N.1.14.1

“so as to afford protection”

equality of competitive conditions N.

“less favourable treatment” and N.1.11.7-8

tax discrimination (GATT III:2) provisions distinguished N., N., N., N.

national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII), determination of violation, requirements, aims and effects test, GATT III:1 distinguished M.2.2.2, N.1.13.1

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

see also directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2); “like product” (GATT III:2)

determination of violation, requirements

inconsistency of measure with GATT III:1 principles (including non-like products) N.1.2.2

“like product” status N.1.2.2

determination on case-by-case basis N.

tax of imported product in excess of domestic product N.1.2.2

“in excess of” N.1.4

“directly or indirectly”

imported products N.1.2.1

like domestic products N.1.2.1

Members’ right to determine basis of taxation subject to compliance with WTO obligations T.3.1-4

“not similarly taxed” N.1.7

assessment of differential N.1.7.5-6

determination on case-by-case basis N.1.7.2

“in excess of” distinguished N.1.7.1

threshold/de minimis differential N.1.7.2-3, N.3.1

“so as to afford protection” N.1.1.3, N.1.8., N.1.11.2

design and structure of measure as evidence of protective application N.1.8.2

intention, relevance M.2.2.2, N.1.8.1, N.1.13.1

magnitude of differential as evidence of protective effect N.1.8.3

national treatment (TRIPS 3)

applicability (TRIPS 3.1, footnote 3) N.1.14.1

as fundamental principle N.1.14.1

“less favourable treatment” N.1.14.1

differentiation on the face of the statute N.1.14.2-6

formal differentiation in treatment, relevance N.1.14.2

GATT III:4 compared N.1.14

protection of trade-related property rights and N.1.14.1

necessity test, see also countervailing duties (SCM, Part V), level, “to the extent necessary” (SCM 21.1); customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV), as exception to GATT provisions (GATT XXIV:5, chapeau), requirements, necessity of measure to establishment of customs union; General Exceptions (GATT XX), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health (GATT XX(b)); General Exceptions (GATT XX), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure (GATT XX(d)), “necessary”, relevant factors; proportionality, safeguard measures (SG 5.1) (“to the extent necessary”) and; safeguard measures (SG/GATT XIX), application of measures (SG 5), proportionality (“to the extent necessary”) (SG 5.1)

necessity test (GATS XIV(a))

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and B.3.3.17-19, G.4.3.1-2

complainant party’s obligation to suggest G.4.4.4

consultations as G.4.4.4

“reasonably available” G.3.4A.1, G.4.4

burden of proof B.3.3.17-19, G.4.3

“indispensable” and “necessary” distinguished B.3.3.17, G.4.3.2

as objective standard G.4.4.1

obligation to consult other party G.4.4.3-4

as weighing and balancing process B.3.3.17, B.3.3.19, G.4.3.1, G.4.3.3, G.4.4.2

necessity test (GATT XX(a)) G.3.3A.8-17

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and G.3.3A.15-17

burden of proof G.3.3A.15

“reasonably available” G.3.3A.15-16

order of analysis G.3.3A.8-10

as weighing and balancing process G.3.3A.8-14

necessity test (GATT XX(b))

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and G.3.4.1, G.3.4A

complaining party’s obligation to suggest G.3.4A.1

contribution to realization of end pursued and (objective-pursued test) G.3.4, G.3.4.2, G.3.4A.1-5, R.1.4.2

“reasonably available” G.3.4A.1

comparison with alternative possibilities including risks G.3.3A.5-7

“indispensable” and “necessary” distinguished G.3.3A.2

methodology for determining

panel’s discretion G.3.3A.1

quantitative vs. qualitative test G.3.3A.1, G.3.3A.3

multi-pronged approach G.3.3A.4

order of analysis G.3.3A.5-7, G.3.4A.1

as weighing and balancing process G.3.3A.5-7, G.3.4A.4, G.4.3.1

necessity test (GATT XX(d)) G.3.6

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and G.3.6.5-6

enforcement of WTO-consistent laws and regulations, Members’ right to determine level G.3.5.1

“indispensable” and “necessary” distinguished G.3.6.1, G.3.6.3

“reasonableness” test (AD 18.1, footnote 24) distinguished A.3.66A.3, G.3.6.9

relevant factors

contribution to realization of end pursued and (objective-pursued test) G.3.6.3-4

see also availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and above

importance of common interests protected by the law or regulation to be enforced G.3.6.2, G.3.6.4

restrictive effect on international commerce / imported goods G.3.6.3-4

“to secure compliance” requirement G.3.5B.2, G.3.6.7-8

as weighing and balancing process G.3.6.4-6

“neutral in application and administered in a fair and equitable manner” (LA 1.3) / “administer in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner” (GATT X:3(a)), equivalence L.2.4

NGOs, amicus curiae briefs: see amicus curiae briefs, NGO/private individual briefs

non-discriminatory administration of quantitative restrictions (GATT XIII) T.2

see also market access concessions and commitments (AG 4.1), consistency with GATT XIII

allocation to Members having a substantial interest (GATT XIII:2(d)) T.2.5, T.20.9

allocation to Members not having a substantial interest (GATT XIII:1) T.2.1

compensation negotiated under GATT XXVIII and T.2.6

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions as aim (GATT XIII:2, chapeau) T.2.2, T.2.7-9

GATT I:1 (non-discriminatory application of tariffs) distinguished T.2.9

GATT XI:1 (prohibition of restrictions) and T.2.8

GATT XI:2 (permitted prohibitions or restrictions) and T.2.8

non-discriminatory administration of quantitative restrictions (GATT XIII), GATT I:1

(non-discriminatory application of tariffs) distinguished T.2.9

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X:3(a)) E.3.2.16-19, P.5.3.1, T.2.4

standard of proof E.3.2.16-17, P.

regulatory regimes established by Member, relevance T.2.3

“restriction” T.2.9

tariff quotas, applicability to (GATT XIII:5) T.2.8, T.2.9

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) P.3.4, T.5.1.1-2

continuing measures P.3.4.2-3, T.5.2.1

as general principle of international law P.3.4.1-2

pre-existing rights

countervailing duties (SCM 32.3) S.2.41.2

TBT Agreement T.5.3.1-2

TRIPS T.9.9, T.9.12, T.9.13

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))  

see also nullification or impairment (GATT XXIII)

“any measure” N.2.2.1

de minimis effects, relevance N.3.1

as exceptional remedy N.2.1.1

measure in “conflict” with GATT provisions, applicability to N.2.2.1

concurrent application to measures falling under other provisions of GATT N.2.2.1

notice of appeal, requirements (AB/WP 20(2))

amendment W.2.7.4

see also Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9), withdrawal of appeal (AB/WP 30)

objection to panel’s jurisdiction J.2.1.15, O.1.8, T.6.1.11, W.

right to defend interests and S.7.2A.1, W., W., W., W.

statement of allegations of errors on issues of law / legal interpretations (AB/WP 20(2)(d)) I.1.6, W.2.6.9-10, W., W.2.7.3, W.

allegation of panel’s failure to make objective assessment (DSU 11), need for specific reference S.3.2, S.7.2.14, S.7.2A.1, W.2.7.5

reference to relevant DSU provision, sufficiency W.

explanation for allegation of error I.1.6

identification of facts requiring panel to draw inferences I.1.6, W.

illustrative list, sufficiency W.

indication of appropriate factual or legal inferences I.1.6, W.

legal argument in support of claim distinguished C.1.8, R.2.2.8, S.3.2.1, W.

summary of contested conclusion and related findings and interpretations W.

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement N.3

adverse impact as N.3.2-3

overlap of GATT I:1 and GATT XIII obligations, relevance N.3.4

standing to bring complaint in absence of nullification or impairment N.3.5, R.5.10

nullification or impairment (GATT XXIII)

see also non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))

DSU, applicability (DSU 1.1), balance of payments restrictions (GATT XVIII:B) J.2.1.4-7


Abbreviations used on this page