Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X, Y, Z

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“laws or regulations”: see measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure (GATT XX(d)), “laws or regulations”

least-developed countries, special dispute settlement procedures (DSU 24)

see also developing countries (exemption from safeguard measures (SG 9.1)); Enabling Clause, least developed countries (para. 2(d))

particular consideration to be given to special situation of (DSU 24.1) L.0

legal basis of claim (AD 17)

GATT XXII and XXIII compared A.3.54.1 A.3.55.1

good faith view of Member (“considers”) that benefits are being impaired or nullified (AD 17.3) A.3.55.4 L.1.7 L.1.17 P.3.1.12–13 R.5.5

legislation as such: see legislation as such, right to challenge

specific measures referable to DSB (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2) and claims/legal basis relating to the measures distinguished A.3.56.2

legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel) R.2.2

claims and arguments distinguished C.1.1–11 R.2.1.14 R.2.2.1–8 T.6.1.18 T.6.2.13 W.3.1

DSU 21.5 compliance proceedings requirements R.2.5.3

due process D.2.2.32 R.2.2.8 R.2.2.27 T.6.2.7–9

evidence to support claim distinguished C.1.6

legislation “as such” claims L.1.13 R.2.3.12 T.6.3.7

nexus between challenged measure and provisions allegedly breached R.2.1.10

rectification at subsequent stages

arguments in written or other submission or statement C.1.3–4 R.2.2.3 R.2.2.15 T.6.1.22–23 T.6.2.2–4 W.3.1

fact-finding by panel C.7.1 T.6.1.4

summary, sufficiency R.2.1.3 R.2.1.5–6 R.2.1.13 R.2.2.26–28 T.6.1.7

listing of articles of agreement allegedly breached R.2.2.6–7 R.2.2.16 T.6.2.1 T.6.2.5 T.6.2.7–8

reference to AD 2 R.2.2.10 T.6.2.10

reference to AD 6.2 and 6.4 A.3.31.8 A.3.32.11

reference to AD 3.1 R.2.2.9

reference to AD 5 R.2.2.10

reference to AG 3 and 6 as incorporating Schedule of Commitments and AG Annex 3 R.2.2.11 T.6.2.11

reference to DSU 23 as including reference to DSU 23.1 and 23.2 R.2.2.12 T.6.2.12–15

reference to Enabling Clause including specific provisions R.2.2.18–19 T.6.2.19

reference to GATT I:1 as including reference to Enabling Clause R.2.2.17

reference to GATT II R.2.2.13–14 T.6.2.16–17

legal basis of claim (GATT XXII (consultation) and XXIII (nullification or impairment)) A.3.55.1

legal representation in government delegation, importance P.4.2

legislation as such, right to challenge A.3.54.1 A.3.55.2–3 A.3.56.4 A.3.56.6–8 J.2.1.9–11 L.1

administrative instrument A.3.55.3 A.3.62.2

burden of proof B.3.1.13 B.3.2.18 C.4.32–33 M.5.8–9

challenge to programme as such L.1.23–25

challenge to system as a whole distinguished L.1.21

characterization by domestic authorities, relevance L.1.13 M.5.10 M.5.11 R.2.3.12 T.6.3.7

evidence of, whether limited to the text M.5.14–15

GATT 1947, XXIII:1(a) J.2.1.9 L.1.1

good faith and L.1.13 R.2.3.12 T.6.3.7

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability J.2.1.9 L.1.1 L.1.9–10 M.1

discretionary elements under separate law, effect M.1.8

executive discretion M.1.4–5

panel’s obligation to examine status M.1.7–9 S.7.3.31

normative instrument L.1.5 L.1.15–16

in absence of written instrument L.1.18–19 S.7.2.13

serious implications of such a challenge C.4.34 L.1.12

“as such”/“as applied”, relevance of distinction L.1.24–25

legitimate expectations I.3.5

see also interpretation of covered agreements, legitimate expectations, relevance

less favourable treatment: see MFN treatment (GATS II); MFN treatment (GATS II), “treatment no less favourable” (GATS II:1); national treatment (TRIPS 3), “less favourable treatment”; regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4); regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “less favourable treatment”; regulatory discrimination (TBT 2.1) (“treatment no less favourable”)

lex specialis

AD 2.4.2 A.3.12.4

GATT VI/AD Agreement A.3.66A.2–3

Licensing Agreement L.2.4

Licensing Agreement (LA) L.2

as lex specialis L.2.4

licensing procedures, limitation to (LA, title, preamble and Art. 1.1) L.2.1–2

“neutral in application and administered in a fair and equitable manner” (LA 1.3)/“administer in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner” (GATT X:3(a)), equivalence L.2.4

trade distortion in part of trade not subject to procedures L.2.3

“like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c)) S.1.3

“domestic industry” as sole determinant (SG 4.1(c)) S.1.25.1–4

specific product, need for S.1.3.1 S.1.25.2

“like product” (GATT III:2)

see also directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2, Ad Note to second sentence); “like product” (GATT III:4), criteria

criteria N.1.3.2

competitive relationship N. N.–7

consumer preferences N.

end-uses N.

physical properties N. N.–7

tariff classification/Harmonized System H.1.1 N. N.

determination on case-by-case basis N.–2 N. N.–3 S.3.3.1

determination as legal issue S.3.3.1

directly competitive or substitutable products distinguished D.1.3 N.–4 N.1.5

discretionary element N.

GATT III:4 distinguished N. N. N.–2 N.

narrow interpretation, need for D.1.3 N. N.1.5.3 S.3.3.1

“like product” (GATT III:4)

see also directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2, Ad Note to second sentence); “like product” (GATT III:2), criteria

competitive relationship, need for N. N. N.

evidence of health risks, relevance G.3.2.2 N.1.12.1

criteria N.1.9.4

see also directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2, Ad Note to second sentence), criteria

consumer preferences N. N. N. N. N.

end-uses N.–8

interchangeability N.–6

physical properties N.–4

tariff classification N.


on basis of all the available evidence N.–2

on case-by-case basis N.

evidence N.1.9.5

GATT III:2 distinguished N. N.

“similar”/“produits similaires”/“productos similaresN.

“like product” (TBT 2.1) T.4.2A.4

competitive relationship, need for T.4.2A.4.1–3 T.4.2A.4.10 T.4.2A.4.12

substitutability T.4.2A.4.12

context/object and purpose of TBT as determining factor T.4.2A.4.6


consumer tastes and habits T.4.2A.4.8 T.4.2A.4.13

end-uses T.4.2A.4.7–9

specificity requirement T.4.2A.4.9

GATT III:1 compared T.4.2A.4.12

GATT III:4 compared T.4.2A.4.2 T.4.2A.4.5 T.4.2A.4.6 T.4.2A.4.12

panel’s right to analyse products other than those identified by parties T.4.2A.4.14

technical regulations as aid to interpretation T.4.2A.4.1 T.4.2A.4.3 T.4.2A.4.10

Lomé Convention, panel’s right to refer to L.3

Abbreviations used on this page